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Building Legislation and Historic Buildings - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780851397900, 9781483141497

Building Legislation and Historic Buildings

1st Edition

A Guide to the Application of the Building Regulations, the Public Health Acts, the Fire Precautions Act, the Housing Act and Other Legislation Relevant to Historic Buildings

Author: Alan C. Parnell
Paperback ISBN: 9780851397900
eBook ISBN: 9781483141497
Imprint: Architectural Press
Published Date: 1st July 1987
Page Count: 160
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Building Legislation and Historic Buildings offers a guide to the application of the Building Regulations, the Public Health Acts, the Fire Precautions Act, the Housing Act and other legislation relevant to historic buildings. The purpose is to aid the architect in tackling his own design problems and support him in his negotiations with the various controlling authorities. This book reviews the statutory controls exercised in England and Wales, including London, by local authorities over historic buildings in use, and when alterations or a change of use are proposed. It indicates the impact of such controls on the character and environment of historic buildings, outlining the main problems that result, and showing how far and in what ways they can be resolved. It considers the case for relaxing some buildings from control in the interests of conservation of historic character. It examines the possibility of improving the application of the various administrative procedures to historic buildings. It also attempts to increase understanding of the problems of the continuing use of historic buildings and the current standards for safety and amenity and recommending ways in which this understanding can best be promoted.

Table of Contents



General Introduction

1 The Legislation before the Building Regulations 1985

1.1 Introduction

1.2 The Public Health Acts

1.2.1 Dangerous structures

1.2.2 Sanitary fittings

1.2.3 Means of escape

1.2.3 Means of escape

1.3 The Building Regulations 1976

1.3.1 Scope

1.3.2 Application to historic buildings

1.3.3 Determination, relaxation and dispensation

1.3.4 Administration and powers

1.3.5 Deemed to satisfy and British Standards

1.4 The London Building Acts and Constructional By-laws

1.4.1 Scope

1.4.2 Application to historic buildings

1.4.3 Modification and waivers

1.4.4 Administration

1.4.5 Codes and Standards

1.5 The Fire Precautions Act

1.5.1 Scope

1.5.2 The contents of a fire certificate

1.5.3 Procedure and administration

1.5.4 Relationship to other legislation

1.5.5 Consultation

1.5.6 The maintenance of certificate conditions

1.5.7 Appeals

1.5.8 Guidance to the Act

1.6 The Housing Acts

1.6.1 Houses in multiple occupation

1.6.2 Housing fitness standards

1.6.3 Improvement grants

1.7 Other Legislation

1.7.1 The Education Act 1944 and Amendments

1.7.2 The Health and Safety at Work Etc Act 1974

1.7.3 The Licensing Act 1964

1.7.4 Entertainment and theater licensing

1.7.5 Personal social services care establishment legislation

1.7.6 The Highways Act 1980

Case Study 1

Shops with Mixed Uses and Tenancies

A. Nos. 5-10 Kingsmead Square, Bath

B. No. 76 Low Petergate, York

C. Marshal Wade's House, Bath

Case Study 2

Warehouses and Mills

A. No. 35 King Street, Bristol

B. The Great Warehouse, Coalbrookdale, Shropshire

C. The No. 2 Mill, Shardlow, Derbyshire

2 Problems and Conflicts

2.1 Introduction

2.2 The Building Regulations 1976

2.2.1 Part A: Interpretation and administration

2.2.2 Part B: Fitness of material

2.2.3 Part C: Preparation of site and resistance to moisture

2.2.4 Part D: Structural stability

2.2.5 Part E: Fire

2.2.6 The fire protection of structural elements

2.2.7 Timber structures

2.2.8 Metal structures

2.2.9 Compartmentation

2.2.10 Ceilings and floors

2.2.11 External walls

2.2.12 Internal walls and partitions

2.2.13 Internal doors

2.2.14 Roofs (thatch and wood shingles)

2.2.15 Staircases

2.2.16 Means of escape

2.2.17 Stairways and ramps

2.2.18 Part G: Sound insulation

2.2.19 Part K: Ventilation

2.2.20 Part M: Heat-producing appliances and chimneys

2.3 The Public Health Acts

2.3.1 Dangerous structures

2.3.2 Section 33 of the 1961 Act

2.3.3 Means of escape

2.4 The Fire Precautions Act

2.4.1 Alternative means of escape

2.4.2 Protecting escape routes

2.4.3 Detection, alarms, etc

2.4.4 Housekeeping and management

2.4.5 Restricted use

2.5 The Housing Acts

2.5.1 Houses in multiple occupation - means of escape from fire

2.5.2 Housing fitness and improvement grants

2.6 Other Legislation

2.6.1 The Town and Country Planning Acts

2.6.2 The Health and Safety at Work Etc Act 1974

2.6.3 The Food and Drugs Act

2.6.4 The Highways Act

2.7 Summary

Case Study 3

Victorian Villas

A. No. 57 The Close, Norwich

Case Study 4

Civic Buildings

A. The Town Hall, Manchester

B. The Guildhall, Thaxted, Essex

3 Administration and Enforcement

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Problems Common to most Legislation

3.2.1 Knowing the legislation

3.2.2 Statutory 'requirements' and 'recommendations'

3.2.3 Delays

3.3 Building Control Authorities

3.3.1 Attitudes

3.3.2 Interpretation and comprehension

3.3.3 Building control officers

3.3.4 Central government

3.4 Fire Authorities

3.4.1 Introduction

3.4.2 Attitudes

3.4.3 Inconsistency and additional requirements

3.4.4 Documentation

3.4.5 The time factor

3.4.6 Approach to historic buildings

3.4.7 Changed role of fire officers

3.4.8 Restricting and prohibiting use

3.5 Improvement Grant Administration

3.6 Environmental Health and Housing Authorities

3.6.1 Introduction

3.6.2 Attitudes

3.6.3 Appeals

3.6.4 Housing in multiple occupation

3.7 The Health and Safety at Work Act

3.8 Residential Care Establishments

3.9 The Licensing Act

3.10 Conservation Officers

3.11 Highway Authorities

3.12 Statutory Undertakings

Case Study 5

Town Houses

A. Clarence House, Thaxted, Essex

B. Nos. 12/13 and 42/43 Bedford Row, London WCl

C. Nos. 5, 7, 10 and 12 Great Ormond Street, London WCl

Case Study 6


A. St James', Pockthorpe, Norwich

B. St Leonard's, Foscote, Buckinghamshire

C. St Peter and St Paul, Shellow Bowells, Essex

4 Recent Changes in Legislation

4.1 The Building Regulations 1985

4.1.1 Introduction

4.1.2 Comprehension

4.1.3 Flexibility

4.1.4 Exemptions

4.1.5 Work to existing buildings

4.1.6 Alterations

4.1.7 Material changes of use

4.1.8 Repair work

4.1.9. Materials and workmanship

4.1.10 Structure

4.1.11 Fire safety

4.1.12 Stairways and ramps

4.1.13 Sound insulation

4.1.14 Means of ventilation

4.1.15 Facilities for the disabled

4.1.16 Future developments

4.2 Supervision of the Regulations

4.2.1 Introduction

4.2.2 Local authority control

4.2.3 Control by an approved inspector

4.2.4 Relaxations and dispensation

4.2.5 Determinations

4.3 Building Regulations in Inner London

4.3.1 Introduction

4.3.2 Remaining legislation

4.3.3 Organization

4.4 The Fire Precautions Act 1971

4.5 The Housing Acts

Case Study 7

Hotels and Public Houses

A. The Lady in Grey and Broughton House, Shardlow, Derbyshire

B. The Wig and Mitre, Lincoln

Case Study 8


A. John O'Port's House, Salisbury

B. No. 12 Newgate, York

C. The Central Market Building, Covent Garden, London WC2

5 Historic Buildings as a Special Case

5.1 Establishing Standards for Historic Buildings

5.1.1 The creation and aims of standards

5.1.2 Subjectivity

5.1.3 Recognition for historic buildings

5.1.4 The realization of standards

5.2 The Need for Further Research

5.2.1 Fire resistance

5.2.2 Means of escape

5.2.3 Heat and smoke generation calculations

5.2.4 Future developments in fire safety

5.2.5 Accidents

5.2.6 Environmental health

5.3 Relaxations

5.4 Exemptions

Case Study 9

Country Houses

A. Brocket Hall, Hertfordshire

B. Kenwood House, London NW3

C. Hardwick Hall, Derbyshire

D. Cliveden Manor, Buckinghamshire

Case Study 10

Country Cottages and Barns

A. Nos. 5 and 8 St John's Square, Wilton, Wiltshire

B. Old Manor Farm House, Torquay

C. The Derbyshire Field Barns

D. Barns at Buckden and Sedbergh, North Yorkshire

6 Conclusions and Recommendations

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Performance Standards

6.2.1 The Department of the Environment

6.2.2 The Home Office

6.3 Research and Codes of Practice

6.4 Relaxation and Exemptions

6.5 Education

6.6 A New Coordinating Role for Conservation Officers

6.7 Recommendations

Case Study 11


A. Leadenhall School, Salisbury

B. Bootham School, York

Case Study 12

University Buildings

A. Worcester College, Oxford



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© Architectural Press 1987
1st July 1987
Architectural Press
Paperback ISBN:
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About the Author

Alan C. Parnell

Alan C. Parnell

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