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Brewing Materials and Processes - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780127999548, 9780128004685

Brewing Materials and Processes

1st Edition

A Practical Approach to Beer Excellence

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Editor: Charles Bamforth
Hardcover ISBN: 9780127999548
eBook ISBN: 9780128004685
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 13th June 2016
Page Count: 366
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Brewing Materials and Processes: A Practical Approach to Beer Excellence presents a novel methodology on what goes into beer and the results of the process. From adjuncts to yeast, and from foam to chemometrics, this unique approach puts quality at its foundation, revealing how the right combination builds to a great beer. Based on years of both academic and industrial research and application, the book includes contributions from around the world with a shared focus on quality assurance and control.

Each chapter addresses the measurement tools and approaches available, along with the nature and significance of the specifications applied. In its entirety, the book represents a comprehensive description on how to address quality performance in brewing operations.

Understanding how the grain, hops, water, gases, worts, and other contributing elements establish the framework for quality is the core of ultimate quality achievement. The book is ideal for users in corporate R&D, researchers, students, highly-skilled small-scale brewers, and those seeking an understanding on how the parts impact the whole in beer production, providing them with an ideal companion to complement Beer: A Quality Perspective.

Key Features

  • Focuses on the practical approach to delivering beer quality, beginning with raw ingredients
  • Includes an analytical perspective for each element, giving the reader insights into its role and impact on overall quality
  • Provides a hands-on reference work for daily use
  • Presents an essential volume in brewing education that addresses areas only lightly covered elsewhere


Brewers and R&D professionals in industry, researchers and students in brewing and fermentation sciences

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1. Malts
    • Introduction
    • What Should a Malt Analysis Tell You?
    • Analytical Variance
    • Laboratory Analysis and Brewery Performance
    • Prevalence of Food Safety Tests—Does It Really Reduce Risk?
    • Sustainability as a Metric for Malt Supply
    • Flavor Specification—Useful, a Distraction, or Measure of the Future?
    • Malt Sensory Analysis Can Improve Selection and Specification of Specialty Malt
    • Malt Color—Surely One of the Easiest Parameters to Specify?
    • Is Not Color Much Easier to Determine by Eye?
    • Summary
  • Chapter 2. Adjuncts
    • Introduction
    • Functions in Brewing
    • Use of Liquid Adjuncts
    • Malted Cereals
    • Wheat Malts
    • Rye
    • Sorghum
    • Summary
  • Chapter 3. Hops
    • Introduction
    • Impact of Hops on Beer Quality
    • Variability
    • How Best to Manage Hops to Achieve Beer Excellence
    • Product Shelf Life
  • Chapter 4. Yeast
    • Introduction
    • Yeast Life Span
    • Wort Carbohydrates and Yeast
    • High-Gravity Brewing
    • Oxygen Demand and Quality Checks
    • Wort Nitrogen and Yeast
    • Wort Minerals and Yeast
    • Final Beer pH
    • Washing the Yeast
    • Differentiating Between Plant Ale and Lager Yeast Strains (and Wild Yeast)
    • Detection of Wild Yeast
    • Brettanomyces and Specialty Beers
    • Killer Yeast Strains
    • Phenolic Off-Flavor
    • Flocculation and Yeast Cropping
    • Yeast Cropping From A Vertical Fermentor
    • Glycogen
    • Trehalose
    • Pitching Rate and Consistency
    • The Master Culture—Cryogenic Storage
    • Yeast Propagation From Slope (Laboratory Stage)
    • Knowing Your Yeast Strain's Background
    • Purchasing Yeast
    • Yeast Shipping From Central Facilities
    • Viability and Vitality
    • Yeast Autolysis
    • Tracking the History of the Yeast
    • Summary
  • Chapter 5. Water
    • Introduction
    • Practical Requirements for Water Treatment
    • Maintenance
  • Chapter 6. Wort and Wort Quality Parameters
    • Extract
    • Final Attenuation
    • Nitrogen
    • Thiobarbituric Acid Index
    • High Molecular Weight β-Glucan
    • Turbidity
    • Dimethyl Sulfide/S-Methyl Methionine
    • pH
    • Color
    • Bitter Units
    • Viscosity
    • Zinc
  • Chapter 7. Alcohol and Its Measurement
    • On Alcohol, Alcoholic Strength, and Measurements
    • The Properties of Alcohol and Their Measurement
    • Precision and Accuracy
    • Outline of Methods to Measure Alcohol
    • Coupled Oscillating Density Meters and NIR Alcohol Meters
    • Fermentation and Alcohol Production: The Mass Balance of Fermentation, Carl Balling, and the Theoretical Basis for Brewing Parametrics
    • Density Meter/NIR Analyzer Calculations and the Tabarie Relationship—An Important Interlude
    • Measuring Alcohol Content in the Modern Brewery and Brewery Laboratory: Tables, Algorithms, and Software
    • Introduction to an Online Calculator and Brewers' Calculations Software
    • Summary
  • Chapter 8. Flavorsome Components of Beer
    • Approaches to Measuring Substances Impacting Beer Flavor
    • Bitterness
    • Sweetness
    • Sourness
    • Saltiness
    • Other Inorganic Ions
    • Vicinal Diketones (VDKs)
    • Dimethyl Sulfide
    • Methods for Measuring Other Volatile Materials in Beer
    • Flavor Stability Assessment
  • Chapter 9. Dissolved Gases
    • Theory: Laws Governing Gases Dissolved in Liquids
    • Units: Dissolved Gas Nomenclature
    • Why Measure Dissolved Gases?
    • Measurement Technologies—O2, CO2, and N2
    • Measuring Dissolved Gases: Challenges
  • Chapter 10. Controlling Beer Foam and Gushing
    • Introduction
    • Quality Assurance Methods and Troubleshooting
    • Good Manufacturing Practices and Brewing Process Optimization
    • Ingredients
    • Process Variables and Challenges
    • Gushing and Overfoaming
  • Chapter 11. Color
    • Introduction
    • Human Color Perception—Three-Dimensional Color Space
    • Path
    • Obtaining Visible Beer Color (tristimulus) Data
    • Beer–Bouguer–Lambert Law
    • Details of ASTM E−308 Prescription
    • Beer Color as Part of Quality Control
    • Summary and Conclusion
  • Chapter 12. Haze Measurement
    • The Nature of the Physical Instability of Beer
    • The Measurement of Haze
    • Measurement of Bits
    • Prediction of the “Haze Stability” of Beer
    • The Investigation of Beer Hazes
    • A QA Approach to Minimizing Colloidal Problems in Beer
  • Chapter 13. Sensory Analysis in the Brewery
    • Introduction
    • Information Required by the Brewery From Sensory Analysis of Beer
    • Evaluation of Raw Materials and Process Aids
    • Evaluation of In-process Samples
    • Evaluation of Packaging Materials
    • Evaluation of Packaged Beer
    • Product Management
    • Tasters
    • Practical Aspects of Beer Tasting
  • Chapter 14. Microbiology
    • Introduction
    • Brewing Process
    • Product
    • Summary
  • Appendix. Practicalities of Achieving Quality
  • Index


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© Academic Press 2016
13th June 2016
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
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About the Editor

Charles Bamforth

Charles W. Bamfforth, PhD, DSc, FIBD,FIBiol, FIAFoST is the Anheuser-Busch Endowed Professor of Malting and Brewing Sciences at the University of California, Davis. He has held positions as director of research for Brewing Research International and as research and quality assurance manager for Bass Breweries in the UK. He is the author of numerous books and papers as well as being the editor-in-chief of the Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists.

Dr. Bamforth specializes in the science of malting and brewing. His current research program focuses primarily on the wholesomeness of beer, including studies on the psychophysics of beer perception, on polyphenols and on the residues from non-starchy polysaccharide digestion that constitute soluble fiber and potential prebiotics in beer. Research in the laboratory also embraces the enzymology of the brewing process, foam stability, preventing oxidation in wort and beer and alternative paradigms for beer production. He has received the Award of Distinction, American Society of Brewing Chemists, 2011, and the Cambridge Prize, Institute of Brewing, 1984

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, USA

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