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Breadmaking - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780857090607, 9780857095695


2nd Edition

Improving Quality

Editor: Stanley Cauvain
Hardcover ISBN: 9780857090607
Paperback ISBN: 9780081016312
eBook ISBN: 9780857095695
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 25th April 2012
Page Count: 832
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Table of Contents

Contributor contact details

Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition

Chapter 1: Introduction to breadmaking


1.1 Introduction

1.2 Wheat and its special properties

1.3 Converting wheat to flour

1.4 Food safety and nutrition

1.5 Making bread

1.6 Functional ingredients

1.7 Bread in the future

Chapter 2: Breadmaking: an overview


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Bread dough development

2.3 Breadmaking processes

2.4 What determines bread quality?

2.5 Dough mixing and processing

2.6 Cell creation during mixing

2.7 Dough processing

2.8 Gas bubble control during dough processing

2.9 Proving and baking

2.10 Future trends

Part I: Wheat and flour quality

Chapter 3: The chemistry and biochemistry of wheat


3.1 The structure and composition of the wheat kernel

3.2 Wheat carbohydrates

3.3 Wheat proteins

3.4 Wheat lipids

3.5 Wheat enzymes and their roles

3.6 Pigments and their structures

3.7 Recent developments in wheat utilisation

3.8 Future trends

Chapter 4: Techniques for analysing wheat proteins


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Separation methods

4.3 Analysing molecular properties

4.4 Rheological measurements

4.5 Infrared spectroscopy

4.6 NMR spectroscopy

4.7 Electron spin resonance spectroscopy

4.8 Future trends

4.9 Acknowledgements

Chapter 5: Wheat proteins and bread quality


5.1 Introduction: cereal protein classification

5.2 Cereal proteins and breadmaking quality

5.3 Prolamin structure and bread quality

5.4 Soluble proteins, xylanase inhibitors and bread quality

5.5 Detergent-solubilised proteins and bread quality

5.6 Genomics and the wheat grain proteome

5.7 Conclusion and future trends

5.8 Acknowledgements

Chapter 6: Wheat starch structure and bread quality


6.1 Introduction: the importance of starch structure to bread quality

6.2 Starch properties and baking performance

6.3 Physico-chemical properties of starch in relation to the baking process

6.4 Starch structure and chemical composition

6.5 Future trends

Chapter 7: Assessing grain quality


7.1 Introduction

7.2 The importance of quality assessment at harvest

7.3 The grain chain

7.4 Analysis during breeding to achieve quality targets

7.5 Analysis on-farm to achieve quality targets

7.6 Sampling aims and methods

7.7 Analysis at grain receival to achieve quality targets

7.8 Analysis during storage and transport to achievequality targets

7.9 Analysis in buying and blending to achieve flour-quality targets

7.10 Future trends

Chapter 8: Milling and flour quality


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Flour milling

8.3 Recent developments in flour milling

8.4 Flour milling and flour quality

8.5 Milling research

8.6 The future of flour milling

8.7 Conclusion

8.8 Acknowledgments

Chapter 9: Wheat breeding and quality evaluation in the US


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Wheat classification

9.3 Selection of wheat varieties with desired characteristics

9.4 Future trends

Chapter 10: Improving wheat protein quality for breadmaking: the role of biotechnology


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Wheat gluten proteins and dough strength

10.3 High molecular weight (HMW) subunits and bread quality

10.4 The genetic transformation of wheat

10.5 Manipulating HMW subunit composition and dough properties

10.6 Prospects for using genetic modification (GM) to improve wheat processing quality

10.7 Sources of further information and advice

10.8 Acknowledgements

Chapter 11: Novel approaches to modifying wheat flour processing characteristics and health attributes: from genetics to food technology


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Exploiting natural variation in gluten proteins to modify wheat quality

11.3 The genetic modification of wheat

11.4 Use of non-wheat flours to modify bread quality attributes

11.5 Modifications to reduce wheat allergy and intolerance

11.6 Conclusions

Part II: Dough development and particular bread ingredients

Chapter 12: Bread aeration and dough rheology: an introduction


12.1 Introduction: the appeal of raised bread and the unique rheology of wheat flour doughs

12.2 The history of bread aeration studies

12.3 The history of dough rheology studies

12.4 Methods for studying bread aeration and dough rheology

12.5 Breadmaking – a series of aeration/rheology interactions

12.6 The future of bread aeration and rheology research

12.7 Conclusions

12.8 Acknowledgements

Chapter 13: The molecular basis of dough rheology


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Factors affecting dough rheology

13.3 Polymer networks in doughs

13.4 The molecular mechanism of energy storage in dough

13.5 How much dough rheology can we explain?

13.6 Future trends

Chapter 14: The role of water in dough formation and bread quality


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Dough as a dispersed system

14.3 Water displacements and time-dependent properties of the dough

14.4 Future trends

Chapter 15: Foam formation in dough and bread quality


15.1 Introduction

15.2 Principles of foam formation and stability

15.3 Surface-active dough components

15.4 The role of the aqueous phase of dough

15.5 Analytical techniques

15.6 Future trends

Chapter 16: Controlling bread dough development


16.1 Introduction

16.2 Dough rheology during mixing

16.3 Dough Development

16.4 Oxidising and reducing agents

16.5 The effects of mixer type

16.6 The Radical Bread Process

16.7 Controlling dough development

16.8 Emerging methods for controlling dough development

16.9 Future trends

Chapter 17: Molecular mobility in dough and bread quality


17.1 Introduction

17.2 Molecular mobility in dough

17.3 Dough properties in baking

17.4 Controlling molecular mobility to improve bread quality

17.5 Future trends

Chapter 18: The use of redox agents in breadmaking


18.1 Introduction

18.2 The redox state in flour

18.3 Redox reactions during processing

18.4 Redox agents: oxidants and reductants

18.5 Future trends

Chapter 19: Applications of enzymes in breadmaking


19.1 Introduction

19.2 The nature of enzymes

19.3 The commercial production of enzymes

19.4 Genetically modified organism (GMO)

19.5 Applications in breadmaking

19.6 Baking examples

19.7 Future trends

19.9 Acknowledgements

Chapter 20: Water control in breadmaking


20.1 Introduction: water composition and properties

20.2 Water in breadmaking

20.3 Dough formation

20.4 Proving and baking

20.5 Water activity after baking

20.6 Future trends

Part III: Bread sensory quality, shelf life and safety

Chapter 21: Bread aroma


21.1 Introduction

21.2 The formation of volatile compounds during breadmaking

21.3 Extraction and analysis of bread volatile compounds

21.4 Volatile composition of bread

21.5 How can bread aroma be improved?

21.6 Conclusion

21.7 Acknowledgements

Chapter 22: Applications of texture analysis to dough and bread


22.1 Introduction

22.2 Principles and types of instrumental analysis as applied to dough

22.3 Principles and types of instrumental analysis as applied to bread

22.4 Future trends

Chapter 23: Bread staling


23.1 Introduction

23.2 Breadcrumb structure

23.3 Bread stability

23.4 Anti-staling agents

23.5 Future trends

Chapter 24: Mould prevention in bread


24.1 Introduction: the problem of moulds in bread

24.2 Current techniques for mould control and their limitations

24.3 Developing new methods for mould control

24.4 Future trends

Chapter 25: Mycotoxin contamination of wheat, flour and bread


25.1 Introduction: mycotoxin contamination of foods

25.2 Some persistent problems associated with the presence of mycotoxins in the food chain

25.3 Parent mycotoxins in cereals occurring in bread and bakery products

25.4 Legislation

25.5 Developments in analytical techniques

25.6 The development of non-invasive and rapid (screening) techniques

25.7 Future trends

Part IV: Particular bread products

Chapter 26: Improving the quality of bread made from partially baked, refrigerated and frozen dough


26.1 Introduction

26.2 Frozen part-baked technology

26.3 Non-fermented frozen dough technology

26.4 Pre-fermented frozen dough technology

26.5 Energy demand for the bake-off technologies

26.6 Conclusions

Chapter 27: Nutritionally enhanced wheat flours and breads


27.1 Introduction

27.2 The nutritional value of wheat

27.3 The effect of processing on the nutritional value of wheat

27.4 Different approaches to increase the nutritional value of wheat flour

27.5 Nutritional improvement of wheat flours during breadmaking

27.6 Ingredients for enriching wheat-baked goods

27.7 Conclusions

Chapter 28: Formulating breads for specific dietary requirements


28.1 Introduction

28.2 Wheat allergy and coeliac disease

28.3 Glycaemic index and glycaemic load

28.4 Bread high in dietary fibre

28.5 Future trends

Chapter 29: Improving the quality of high-fibre breads


29.1 Introduction

29.2 Sources of fibre

29.3 Challenges in high-fibre baking

29.4 Improving the quality of fibre-enriched foods

29.5 Future trends

Chapter 30: The quality of breads made with non-wheat flours


30.1 Introduction

30.2 Non-wheat pan breads

30.3 Traditional non-wheat bread products

30.4 Quality issues

30.5 Future trends



The first edition of Breadmaking: Improving quality quickly established itself as an essential purchase for baking professionals and researchers in this area. With comprehensively updated and revised coverage, including six new chapters, the second edition helps readers to understand the latest developments in bread making science and practice.

The book opens with two introductory chapters providing an overview of the breadmaking process. Part one focuses on the impacts of wheat and flour quality on bread, covering topics such as wheat chemistry, wheat starch structure, grain quality assessment, milling and wheat breeding. Part two covers dough development and bread ingredients, with chapters on dough aeration and rheology, the use of redox agents and enzymes in breadmaking and water control, among other topics. In part three, the focus shifts to bread sensory quality, shelf life and safety. Topics covered include bread aroma, staling and contamination. Finally, part four looks at particular bread products such as high fibre breads, those made from partially baked and frozen dough and those made from non-wheat flours.

With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, the second edition of Breadmaking: Improving quality is a standard reference for researchers and professionals in the bread industry and all those involved in academic research on breadmaking science and practice.

Key Features

  • With comprehensively updated and revised coverage, this second edition outlines the latest developments in breadmaking science and practice
  • Covers topics such as wheat chemistry, wheat starch structure, grain quality assessment, milling and wheat breeding
  • Discusses dough development and bread ingredients, with chapters on dough aeration and rheology


Researchers and professionals in the bread industry


No. of pages:
© Woodhead Publishing 2012
25th April 2012
Woodhead Publishing
Hardcover ISBN:
Paperback ISBN:
eBook ISBN:


"This very readable and informative book is destined to become a staple reference work for technologists, researchers and students." --Food Science and Technology

Review of the first edition:
"Altogether this is a comprehensive treatise on the science of bread-making …it brings together the views and expertise of thirty scientists from all over the world in a truly eclectic presentation." --Food Technology (New Zealand)

Ratings and Reviews

About the Editor

Stanley Cauvain

Prof. Cauvain is owner of BakeTran, a renowned independent Baking Industry Consultancy in Witney, UK. He was a director of Cereals & Cereal Processing Division at CCFRA until December 2004. A leading authority in the bread and baking industry, Stanley was also President of the International Association for Cereal Science and Technology between 2004 and 2006. He is a frequent Woodhead Publishing Limited author having written or edited six titles previously.

Affiliations and Expertise

Visiting Professor, International Institute for Agri-Food Security, Curtin University, UK