Improving Quality

2nd Edition - April 25, 2012

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  • Editor: Stanley Cauvain
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857095695

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The first edition of Breadmaking: Improving quality quickly established itself as an essential purchase for baking professionals and researchers in this area. With comprehensively updated and revised coverage, including six new chapters, the second edition helps readers to understand the latest developments in bread making science and practice. The book opens with two introductory chapters providing an overview of the breadmaking process. Part one focuses on the impacts of wheat and flour quality on bread, covering topics such as wheat chemistry, wheat starch structure, grain quality assessment, milling and wheat breeding. Part two covers dough development and bread ingredients, with chapters on dough aeration and rheology, the use of redox agents and enzymes in breadmaking and water control, among other topics. In part three, the focus shifts to bread sensory quality, shelf life and safety. Topics covered include bread aroma, staling and contamination. Finally, part four looks at particular bread products such as high fibre breads, those made from partially baked and frozen dough and those made from non-wheat flours. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, the second edition of Breadmaking: Improving quality is a standard reference for researchers and professionals in the bread industry and all those involved in academic research on breadmaking science and practice.

Key Features

  • With comprehensively updated and revised coverage, this second edition outlines the latest developments in breadmaking science and practice
  • Covers topics such as wheat chemistry, wheat starch structure, grain quality assessment, milling and wheat breeding
  • Discusses dough development and bread ingredients, with chapters on dough aeration and rheology


Researchers and professionals in the bread industry

Table of Contents

  • Contributor contact details

    Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition

    Chapter 1: Introduction to breadmaking


    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Wheat and its special properties

    1.3 Converting wheat to flour

    1.4 Food safety and nutrition

    1.5 Making bread

    1.6 Functional ingredients

    1.7 Bread in the future

    Chapter 2: Breadmaking: an overview


    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Bread dough development

    2.3 Breadmaking processes

    2.4 What determines bread quality?

    2.5 Dough mixing and processing

    2.6 Cell creation during mixing

    2.7 Dough processing

    2.8 Gas bubble control during dough processing

    2.9 Proving and baking

    2.10 Future trends

    Part I: Wheat and flour quality

    Chapter 3: The chemistry and biochemistry of wheat


    3.1 The structure and composition of the wheat kernel

    3.2 Wheat carbohydrates

    3.3 Wheat proteins

    3.4 Wheat lipids

    3.5 Wheat enzymes and their roles

    3.6 Pigments and their structures

    3.7 Recent developments in wheat utilisation

    3.8 Future trends

    Chapter 4: Techniques for analysing wheat proteins


    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Separation methods

    4.3 Analysing molecular properties

    4.4 Rheological measurements

    4.5 Infrared spectroscopy

    4.6 NMR spectroscopy

    4.7 Electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    4.8 Future trends

    4.9 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 5: Wheat proteins and bread quality


    5.1 Introduction: cereal protein classification

    5.2 Cereal proteins and breadmaking quality

    5.3 Prolamin structure and bread quality

    5.4 Soluble proteins, xylanase inhibitors and bread quality

    5.5 Detergent-solubilised proteins and bread quality

    5.6 Genomics and the wheat grain proteome

    5.7 Conclusion and future trends

    5.8 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 6: Wheat starch structure and bread quality


    6.1 Introduction: the importance of starch structure to bread quality

    6.2 Starch properties and baking performance

    6.3 Physico-chemical properties of starch in relation to the baking process

    6.4 Starch structure and chemical composition

    6.5 Future trends

    Chapter 7: Assessing grain quality


    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 The importance of quality assessment at harvest

    7.3 The grain chain

    7.4 Analysis during breeding to achieve quality targets

    7.5 Analysis on-farm to achieve quality targets

    7.6 Sampling aims and methods

    7.7 Analysis at grain receival to achieve quality targets

    7.8 Analysis during storage and transport to achievequality targets

    7.9 Analysis in buying and blending to achieve flour-quality targets

    7.10 Future trends

    Chapter 8: Milling and flour quality


    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Flour milling

    8.3 Recent developments in flour milling

    8.4 Flour milling and flour quality

    8.5 Milling research

    8.6 The future of flour milling

    8.7 Conclusion

    8.8 Acknowledgments

    Chapter 9: Wheat breeding and quality evaluation in the US


    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Wheat classification

    9.3 Selection of wheat varieties with desired characteristics

    9.4 Future trends

    Chapter 10: Improving wheat protein quality for breadmaking: the role of biotechnology


    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Wheat gluten proteins and dough strength

    10.3 High molecular weight (HMW) subunits and bread quality

    10.4 The genetic transformation of wheat

    10.5 Manipulating HMW subunit composition and dough properties

    10.6 Prospects for using genetic modification (GM) to improve wheat processing quality

    10.7 Sources of further information and advice

    10.8 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 11: Novel approaches to modifying wheat flour processing characteristics and health attributes: from genetics to food technology


    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Exploiting natural variation in gluten proteins to modify wheat quality

    11.3 The genetic modification of wheat

    11.4 Use of non-wheat flours to modify bread quality attributes

    11.5 Modifications to reduce wheat allergy and intolerance

    11.6 Conclusions

    Part II: Dough development and particular bread ingredients

    Chapter 12: Bread aeration and dough rheology: an introduction


    12.1 Introduction: the appeal of raised bread and the unique rheology of wheat flour doughs

    12.2 The history of bread aeration studies

    12.3 The history of dough rheology studies

    12.4 Methods for studying bread aeration and dough rheology

    12.5 Breadmaking – a series of aeration/rheology interactions

    12.6 The future of bread aeration and rheology research

    12.7 Conclusions

    12.8 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 13: The molecular basis of dough rheology


    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Factors affecting dough rheology

    13.3 Polymer networks in doughs

    13.4 The molecular mechanism of energy storage in dough

    13.5 How much dough rheology can we explain?

    13.6 Future trends

    Chapter 14: The role of water in dough formation and bread quality


    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Dough as a dispersed system

    14.3 Water displacements and time-dependent properties of the dough

    14.4 Future trends

    Chapter 15: Foam formation in dough and bread quality


    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Principles of foam formation and stability

    15.3 Surface-active dough components

    15.4 The role of the aqueous phase of dough

    15.5 Analytical techniques

    15.6 Future trends

    Chapter 16: Controlling bread dough development


    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Dough rheology during mixing

    16.3 Dough Development

    16.4 Oxidising and reducing agents

    16.5 The effects of mixer type

    16.6 The Radical Bread Process

    16.7 Controlling dough development

    16.8 Emerging methods for controlling dough development

    16.9 Future trends

    Chapter 17: Molecular mobility in dough and bread quality


    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Molecular mobility in dough

    17.3 Dough properties in baking

    17.4 Controlling molecular mobility to improve bread quality

    17.5 Future trends

    Chapter 18: The use of redox agents in breadmaking


    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 The redox state in flour

    18.3 Redox reactions during processing

    18.4 Redox agents: oxidants and reductants

    18.5 Future trends

    Chapter 19: Applications of enzymes in breadmaking


    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 The nature of enzymes

    19.3 The commercial production of enzymes

    19.4 Genetically modified organism (GMO)

    19.5 Applications in breadmaking

    19.6 Baking examples

    19.7 Future trends

    19.9 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 20: Water control in breadmaking


    20.1 Introduction: water composition and properties

    20.2 Water in breadmaking

    20.3 Dough formation

    20.4 Proving and baking

    20.5 Water activity after baking

    20.6 Future trends

    Part III: Bread sensory quality, shelf life and safety

    Chapter 21: Bread aroma


    21.1 Introduction

    21.2 The formation of volatile compounds during breadmaking

    21.3 Extraction and analysis of bread volatile compounds

    21.4 Volatile composition of bread

    21.5 How can bread aroma be improved?

    21.6 Conclusion

    21.7 Acknowledgements

    Chapter 22: Applications of texture analysis to dough and bread


    22.1 Introduction

    22.2 Principles and types of instrumental analysis as applied to dough

    22.3 Principles and types of instrumental analysis as applied to bread

    22.4 Future trends

    Chapter 23: Bread staling


    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 Breadcrumb structure

    23.3 Bread stability

    23.4 Anti-staling agents

    23.5 Future trends

    Chapter 24: Mould prevention in bread


    24.1 Introduction: the problem of moulds in bread

    24.2 Current techniques for mould control and their limitations

    24.3 Developing new methods for mould control

    24.4 Future trends

    Chapter 25: Mycotoxin contamination of wheat, flour and bread


    25.1 Introduction: mycotoxin contamination of foods

    25.2 Some persistent problems associated with the presence of mycotoxins in the food chain

    25.3 Parent mycotoxins in cereals occurring in bread and bakery products

    25.4 Legislation

    25.5 Developments in analytical techniques

    25.6 The development of non-invasive and rapid (screening) techniques

    25.7 Future trends

    Part IV: Particular bread products

    Chapter 26: Improving the quality of bread made from partially baked, refrigerated and frozen dough


    26.1 Introduction

    26.2 Frozen part-baked technology

    26.3 Non-fermented frozen dough technology

    26.4 Pre-fermented frozen dough technology

    26.5 Energy demand for the bake-off technologies

    26.6 Conclusions

    Chapter 27: Nutritionally enhanced wheat flours and breads


    27.1 Introduction

    27.2 The nutritional value of wheat

    27.3 The effect of processing on the nutritional value of wheat

    27.4 Different approaches to increase the nutritional value of wheat flour

    27.5 Nutritional improvement of wheat flours during breadmaking

    27.6 Ingredients for enriching wheat-baked goods

    27.7 Conclusions

    Chapter 28: Formulating breads for specific dietary requirements


    28.1 Introduction

    28.2 Wheat allergy and coeliac disease

    28.3 Glycaemic index and glycaemic load

    28.4 Bread high in dietary fibre

    28.5 Future trends

    Chapter 29: Improving the quality of high-fibre breads


    29.1 Introduction

    29.2 Sources of fibre

    29.3 Challenges in high-fibre baking

    29.4 Improving the quality of fibre-enriched foods

    29.5 Future trends

    Chapter 30: The quality of breads made with non-wheat flours


    30.1 Introduction

    30.2 Non-wheat pan breads

    30.3 Traditional non-wheat bread products

    30.4 Quality issues

    30.5 Future trends


Product details

  • No. of pages: 832
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2012
  • Published: April 25, 2012
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857095695

About the Editor

Stanley Cauvain

Prof. Cauvain is owner of BakeTran, a renowned independent Baking Industry Consultancy in Witney, UK. He was a director of Cereals & Cereal Processing Division at CCFRA until December 2004. A leading authority in the bread and baking industry, Stanley was also President of the International Association for Cereal Science and Technology between 2004 and 2006. He is a frequent Woodhead Publishing Limited author having written or edited six titles previously.

Affiliations and Expertise

Visiting Professor, International Institute for Agri-Food Security, Curtin University, UK

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