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Bones and Cartilage - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780124166783, 9780124166851

Bones and Cartilage

2nd Edition

Developmental and Evolutionary Skeletal Biology

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Author: Brian K. Hall
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124166783
eBook ISBN: 9780124166851
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 5th January 2015
Page Count: 920
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Bones and Cartilage provides the most in-depth review and synthesis assembled on the topic, across all vertebrates. It examines the function, development and evolution of bone and cartilage as tissues, organs and skeletal systems. It describes how bone and cartilage develop in embryos and are maintained in adults, how bone is repaired when we break a leg, or regenerates when a newt grows a new limb, or a lizard a new tail.

The second edition of Bones and Cartilage includes the most recent knowledge of molecular, cellular, developmental and evolutionary processes, which are integrated to outline a unified discipline of developmental and evolutionary skeletal biology. Additionally, coverage includes how the molecular and cellular aspects of bones and cartilage differ in different skeletal systems and across species, along with the latest studies and hypotheses of relationships between skeletal cells and the most recent information on coupling between osteocytes and osteoclasts All chapters have been revised and updated to include the latest research.

Key Features

  • Offers complete coverage of every aspect of bone and cartilage, with updated references and extensive illustrations
  • Integrates development and evolution of the skeleton, as well a synthesis of differentiation, growth and patterning
  • Treats all levels from molecular to clinical, embryos to evolution, and covers all vertebrates as well as invertebrate cartilages
  • Includes new chapters on evolutionary skeletal biology that highlight normal variation and variability, and variation outside the norm (neomorphs, atavisms)
  • Updates hypotheses on the origination of cartilage using new phylogenetic, cellular and genetic data
  • Covers stem cells in embryos and adults, including mesenchymal stem cells and their use in genetic engineering of cartilage, and the concept of the stem cell niche


Biologists, medical researchers, evolutionary biologists, paleontologists, skeletal biologists, and endocrinologists as well as graduate students and clinicians in all of these areas

Table of Contents

  • Preface
    • Organisational Changes
    • Conceptual Changes
  • Epigraphs
  • Part I: Vertebrate Skeletal Tissues
    • Part I. Vertebrate Skeletal Tissues
    • Chapter 1. Vertebrate Skeletal Tissues
      • Bone
      • Cartilage
      • Dentine
      • Enamel
      • Intermediate Tissues
      • Cartilage into Bone: Direct and Indirect Ossification
      • Notes
    • Chapter 2. Bone
      • Discovery of the Basic Structure of Bone
      • Cellular Bone
      • Osteocytes
      • Intramembranous and Endochondral Bone
      • Osteones
      • Growth
      • Regional Remodelling
      • Ageing
      • Acellular Bone
      • Bone in Sharks and Rays (Cartilaginous Fishes)
      • Notes
    • Chapter 3. Vertebrate Cartilages
      • Types
      • Chondrones
      • Cartilage Growth
      • Cartilage Canals
      • Secondary Centres of Ossification
      • Elastic Cartilage
      • Shark Cartilage
      • Lampreys
      • Hagfish
      • Acellular Cartilage in a Freshwater Stingray
      • Notes
  • Part II: Origins and Types of Skeletal Tissues
    • Part II. Origins and Types of Skeletal Tissues
    • Chapter 4. Invertebrate Cartilages, Notochordal Cartilage and Cartilage Origins
      • Chondroid and Cartilage
      • Odontophore Cartilage in Caenogastropods
      • Branchial (Gill Book) Cartilage in the Horseshoe Crab, Limulus polyphemus
      • Cranial Cartilages in Squid, Cuttlefish and Octopuses
      • Tentacular Cartilage in Polychaete Annelids
      • Lophophore Cartilage in an Articulate Brachiopod, Terebratalia transversa
      • Mineralisation of Invertebrate Cartilages
      • Cartilage Origins
      • Notochordal Cartilage
      • Notes
    • Chapter 5. Intermediate Tissues
      • Scleroblasts
      • Modulation and Intermediate Tissues
      • Cartilage from Fibrous Tissue and Metaplasia
      • Metaplasia of Epithelial Cells to Chondroblasts or Osteoblasts
      • Chondroid
      • Chondroid Bone
      • Tissues Intermediate Between Bone and Dentine
      • Enameloid: a Tissue Intermediate Between Dentine and Enamel
      • Notes
    • Chapter 6. Lessons from Fossils
      • Fossilised Skeletal Tissues
      • All Four Skeletal Tissues are Ancient
      • A Family of Skeletal Tissues in Fossil Agnatha
      • Dinosaur Bone, Dinosaur Growth and Life History
      • Developing Skeletons in Fossils
      • Palaeopathology
      • Conodonts
      • Notes
  • Part III: Unusual Modes of Skeletogenesis
    • Part III. Unusual Modes of Skeletogenesis
    • Chapter 7. Horns and Ossicones
      • Horns
      • Distribution of Horns as Organs
      • Horn as a Tissue
      • Development and Growth of Horns
      • Notes
    • Chapter 8. Antlers
      • Antlers
      • Initiation of Antler Formation
      • Hormonal Control of Pedicle Development and Growth
      • Antler Replacement
      • Histogenesis of Antlers
      • Hormones, Photoperiod and Antler Growth
      • Notes
    • Chapter 9. Tendon Skeletogenesis and Sesamoids
      • Tendons and Skeletogenesis
      • Sesamoids
      • Notes
  • Part IV: Stem and Progenitor Cells
    • Part IV. Stem and Progenitor Cells
    • Chapter 10. Embryonic Stem and Progenitor Cells
      • Stem Cells
      • Set-Aside Cells
      • Periosteal Progenitor Cell for Periosteal Osteogenesis in Long Bones
      • Modulation of Synthetic Activity and Differentiative Pathways of Cell Populations
      • Modulation of Synthetic Activity and Differentiative Pathways in Single Cells
      • Notes
    • Chapter 11. Stem and Progenitor Cells in Adults
      • Fibroblast Colony-Forming Cells
      • Osteogenic Precursor Cells
      • Epithelial Induction of Ectopic Bone
      • Chondrogenic Precursor Cells
      • Mesenchymal Stem Cells
      • Neural Crest–Derived Stem Cells
      • Notes
  • Part V: Skeletogenic Cells
    • Part V. Skeletogenic Cells
    • Chapter 12. Bipotential Osteochondroprogenitor Cells
      • Identifying Osteochondroprogenitor Cells
      • Bipotential Progenitor Cells for Osteogenesis and Chondrogenesis
      • Condylar Cartilage on the Condylar Process of the Mammalian Dentary
      • Secondary Cartilage on Avian Membrane Bones
      • Notes
    • Chapter 13. Dedifferentiation of Chondrocytes and Endochondral Ossification
      • The Fate of Hypertrophic Chondrocytes of the Condylar Cartilage
      • Meckel’s Cartilage
      • Middle Ear Ossicles
      • Homeobox Gene Control of Mandibular Skeletal Development
      • Dedifferentiation During Endochondral Bone Formation
      • Notes
    • Chapter 14. Dedifferentiation and Stem Cells: Regeneration of Urodele Limbs and Mammalian Fingertips
      • Urodele Limb Regeneration
      • Blastema Formation
      • Why Frogs Cannot Regenerate Their Limbs
      • Fingertips of Mice, Monkeys and Humans
      • Demineralised Bone Matrix and Skeletal Repair
      • Notes
    • Chapter 15. Cells to Make and Cells to Break
      • Clasts and Blasts
      • Resorption of Bone
      • Coupling Bone Resorption to Bone Formation
      • Coupling Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts
      • When Coupling Goes Awry
      • Trap-Staining for Osteoclasts
      • Nitric Oxide: It’s a Gas
      • Progenitor Cells for Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts
      • Osteopetrosis and Osteoclast Origins
      • Is the Lineage Macrophage →Phagocyte→ Osteoclast or is it Monocyte→ Osteoclast?
      • Chondroclasts and Osteoclasts
      • Synovial Cells and Reportion of Articular Cartilage
      • Notes
  • Part VI: Embryonic Origins
    • Part VI. Embryonic Origins
    • Chapter 16. Skeletal Origins: Somitic Mesoderm, Vertebrae, Pectoral and Pelvic Girdles
      • Somitic Mesoderm and the Origin of the Vertebral Column
      • Somites Provide the Muscles for Limb Buds
      • Pectoral and Pelvic Girdles
      • The Clavicle: Even More Surprising
      • Notes
    • Chapter 17. Skeletal Origins: Neural Crest Cells
      • Different Mesenchymes, Same Tissues
      • Neural Crest as a Source of Skeletal Cells
      • Evidence of Skeletogenic Potential
      • Mutants and the Neural Crest
      • Regionalisation of the Cranial Neural Crest
      • Chondrogenesis from Trunk Neural Crest Cells
      • From Skeletal Origins to Skeletal Initiation
      • Notes
    • Chapter 18. Epithelial–Mesenchymal Interactions Initiate Skeletogenesis
      • Urodele Amphibians: Chondrogenesis
      • Avian Mandibles: Chondrogenesis and Osteogenesis
      • Mammalian Mandibular Skeleton
      • Teleost Mandibular Arch Skeleton
      • Lateral Line, Neuromasts and Dermal Bone
      • Notes
  • Part VII: Getting Started
    • Part VII. Getting Started
    • Chapter 19. The Membranous Skeleton: Condensations
      • The Membranous Skeleton
      • Characterising and Visualising Condensations
      • How Condensations Arise
      • Establishing Boundaries of condensations
      • Notes
    • Chapter 20. From Condensation to Differentiation
      • Condensation Growth
      • Condensation Position and Shape
      • Establishing Condensation Size
      • Persistence of Condensations
      • From Condensation to Overt Differentiation
      • ‘Chondrogenic’ Genes and Early Intramembranous Ossification?
      • Notes
    • Chapter 21. Skulls, Eyes and Ears: Condensations and Tissue Interactions
      • The Skull
      • The Cartilaginous Skull
      • Otic, Optic and Nasal Capsules
      • Tympanic Cartilages
      • Scleral Cartilage
      • Scleral Ossicles
      • Notes
  • Part VIII: Similarity and Diversity
    • Part VIII. Similarity and Diversity
    • Chapter 22. Chondrocyte Diversity
      • Chondrocytes Segregate from Precursors
      • Formation of Perichondria
      • Morphogenetic Specificity of Cartilages
      • Cartilages of Different Embryological Origins
      • Chondrocyte Hypertrophy
      • Matrix Vesicles
      • Hypertrophic Chondrocytes and Subperiosteal Ossification
      • Notes
    • Chapter 23. Cartilage Diversity
      • Sternal Chondrocytes
      • Tumour Invasion
      • Vascularity
      • Resisting Vascular Invasion
      • Inhibitors of Angiogenesis and Vascular Invasion
      • Interpubic Joints and the Transformation of Cartilage to Ligament
      • Modulation
      • Notes
    • Chapter 24. Osteoblast and Osteocyte Diversity and Osteogenesis In Vitro
      • Bone Proteins
      • Osteocytic Osteolysis
      • Initiating Osteogenesis In Vitro from Embryonic Mesenchyme
      • Osteogenic Cells In Vitro
      • Notes
    • Chapter 25. Diversity of Bone as a Tissue and as an Organ
      • Heterogeneity of Response to Sodium Fluoride
      • Alveolar Bone of Mammalian Teeth
      • Penile and Clitoral Cartilages and Bones
      • HOXD12, HOXD13 and Polyphalangy
      • Oestrogen-Stimulated Deposition of Medullary Bone in Laying Hens
      • Oestrogen-Stimulated Resorption of Pelvic Bones in Mice
      • Notes
  • Part IX: Maintaining Cartilage in Good Times and in Bad
    • Part IX. Maintaining Cartilage in Good Times and in Bad
    • Chapter 26. Maintaining Differentiated Chondrocytes Through Cell–Matrix Interactions
      • Differentiated Chondrocytes
      • Synthesis and Deposition of Cartilaginous ECM
      • Synthesis of Collagen and CS by the Same Chondrocyte
      • Feedback Control of the Synthesis of Glycosaminoglycans
      • Interactions Between Glycosaminoglycans and Collagens Within the ECM
      • The Interactive ECM
      • Notes
    • Chapter 27. Maintenance Awry – Chondrodysplasias and Achondroplasia
      • Achondroplasia
      • Ageing of Cartilage In Vivo
      • Genetic Disorders of Collagen Metabolism
      • Cartilage Anomaly (Can) Mice
      • Achondroplasia (ac/ac) in Rabbits
      • Achondroplasia (cn/cn) in Mice
      • Achondroplasia in Humans: FGFR3
      • Chondrodysplasia (Cho) in Mice
      • Sprouty Mice
      • Brachymorphic (bm) Mice
      • Nanomelia (nm) Domestic Fowl
      • Induced Micromelia
      • Metabolic Regulation and Stability of Differentiation
      • Notes
    • Chapter 28. Restarting Mammalian Articular Chondrocytes
      • Mammalian Articular Chondrocytes In Vitro
      • Mechanisms of Articular Cartilage Repair
      • Notes
    • Chapter 29. Repair of Fractured Long Bones and Regeneration of Growth Plates
      • A Brief History of Fracture Repair
      • Standardising the Fracture
      • Motion
      • Growth Factors and Fracture Repair
      • Jump-Starting Repair
      • Regeneration of Growth Plates in Rats, Opossums and Humans
      • Notes
  • Part X: Growing Together and Growing Apart
    • Part X. Growing Together and Growing Apart
    • Chapter 30. Initiating Skeletal Growth
      • What Is Growth?
      • Numbers of Stem Cells
      • Cell Movement and Cell Viability
      • Metabolic Regulation
      • Mechanical Stimulation and Chondroblast Differentiation and Growth
      • Mechanical Stimuli and Metabolic Activity
      • Skeletal Responses Mediated by camp
      • cAMP and Prechondroblast Proliferation
      • Notes
    • Chapter 31. Growth and Morphogenesis of Long Bones
      • Fundamental Form
      • Long-Bone Growth
      • Growth Plates
      • Growth at Opposite Ends of Long Bones
      • Diurnal and Circadian Rhythms
      • The Periosteum and Regulation of the Growth Plate
      • Feedback Control
      • Notes
    • Chapter 32. Long Bone Growth: A Case of Crying Wolff?
      • Wolff, Von Meyer or Roux
      • Response to Pressure
      • Continuous or Intermittent Mechanical Stimuli
      • Scaling and Variation: When Wolff Meets the Dwarfs
      • Gravity
      • Transduction of Mechanical Stimuli
      • Notes
  • Part XI: Staying Apart
    • Part XI. Staying Apart
    • Chapter 33. The Temporomandibular Joint and Cranial Synchondroses
      • Mammalian Temporomandibular Joints
      • Cranial Synchondroses
      • Notes
    • Chapter 34. Sutures and Craniosynostosis
      • Sutural Growth as Secondary and Adaptive
      • Sutural Cartilage
      • The Dura
      • Craniosynostosis
      • Notes
  • Part XII: Limb Buds
    • Part XII. Limb Buds
    • Chapter 35. The Mesodermal Limb Field and the Apical Epithelial Ridge
      • Introduction
      • The Mesodermal Limb Field and Limb Bud Mesenchyme
      • Regulation
      • Ectodermal/Epithelial Responsiveness
      • Limb Field Mesoderm/Limb Bud Mesenchyme Specifies Limb Identity as Fore- or Hind Limb
      • Molecular Specification of Fore- and Hind Limbs
      • Roles for the Epithelium Associated with the Limb Field
      • Limb Bud Mesenchyme Maintains the AER
      • Specificity of Limb-Bud Epithelium
      • Notes
    • Chapter 36. Adding or Deleting an Apical Epithelial Ridge
      • Regeneration of the Apical Epithelial Ridge
      • Experimental Removal of the Apical Epithelial Ridge
      • Failure to Maintain an AER: Wingless (wl) Mutants
      • Experimental Addition of an AER
      • Mutants with Duplicated Limbs
      • Polyphalangy and Extra Joints
      • Notes
    • Chapter 37. Limb Buds in Limbed and Limbless Tetrapods
      • Apical Epithelial Ridges Across the Tetrapods
      • Limbless Tetrapods
      • Gaining Limbs Back: ReEvolution of Limbs
      • Ecological Correlates of Limblessness
      • The Developmental Basis of Limblessness in Snakes and Legless Lizards
      • Notes
  • Part XIII: Limbs and Limb Skeletons
    • Part XIII. Limbs and Limb Skeletons
    • Chapter 38. Axes and Polarity of Limb Buds and Limbs
      • Establishing Axes and Polarity
      • The A–P Axis and the ZPA
      • D–V Polarity
      • P–D Polarity and the Progress Zone
      • Connecting D–V and P–D Polarity
      • Thalidomide and Limb Defects
      • Notes
    • Chapter 39. Patterning and Shaping Limb Buds and Limb Skeletons
      • Morphogenesis and Growth
      • Apoptosis
      • Cell Adhesion, Morphogenesis and Growth: talpid (ta) Mutant Fowl
      • Notes
    • Chapter 40. Before Limbs There Were Fins
      • Fins as Paired and Unpaired Appendages
      • Median Unpaired Fins in Teleost Fish
      • Paired Fins
      • Retinoic Acid and Regeneration
      • More on Fin Regeneration
      • Pelvic Fin Loss
      • Fins into Limbs
      • From Many to Fewer Digits
      • Notes
  • Part XIV: Backbones and Tails
    • Part XIV. Backbones and Tails
    • Chapter 41. Vertebral Chondrogenesis: Cell Differentiation and Morphogenesis
      • Self-Differentiation or Induction?
      • Morphogenesis
      • Chondrogenesis In Vitro
      • Spontaneous Chondrogenesis?
      • Notes
    • Chapter 42. Relationships Between Notochord and Vertebral Cartilage
      • Integrity of Notochord/Spinal Cord and Vertebral Morphogenesis
      • For How Long Do Notochord and Spinal Cord Interact with Sclerotomal Mesenchyme?
      • Can Cartilage Form from Dermomyotome or from Lateral-Plate Mesoderm?
      • The Search for the Magic Bullet
      • Functions of Notochord and Spinal Cord Matrix Products
      • The Magic Bullets
      • Conclusions on Initiation of Vertebral Chondrogenesis
      • Notochord as a Type of Cartilage
      • Notes
    • Chapter 43. Tail Buds, Tails and Taillessness
      • What Is a Tail?
      • Tail Buds
      • Tail Growth
      • Temperature-Induced Change in Vertebral Number: Meristic Variation
      • Taillessness
      • And Thereby Hangs a Tail
      • Lizards’ Tails: Autotomy
      • Notes
  • Part XV: Evolutionary Skeletal Biology
    • Part XV. Evolutionary Skeletal Biology
    • Chapter 44. Variation and Variability
      • Variation and Variability
      • Variation in a Single Character
      • Variability and Constraint
      • Hypotheses Tested by the Study of Variation and Variability
      • Pattern Variation in Limbs, Caudal Fins, Beaks and Jaws
      • Metamorphosis
      • Miniaturisation as a Source of Variation
      • Heterochrony
      • Notes
    • Chapter 45. Variation Outside the Norm: Neomorphs and Atavisms
      • Neomorphs
      • Neomorphs or Vestiges
      • Levels of Analysis and Identification of Neomorphic Features
      • Novel Modes of Ossification: Osteoderms
      • Atavisms
      • Homeotic Genes/Transformation and Variation Outside the Norm
      • Notes
  • References
    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • H
    • I
    • J
    • K
    • L
    • M
    • N
    • O
    • P
    • Q
    • R
    • S
    • T
    • U
    • V
    • W
    • X
    • Y
    • Z
  • Index


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© Academic Press 2015
5th January 2015
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
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About the Author

Brian K. Hall

Brian K. Hall

I have been interested in and studying skeletal tissues since my undergraduate days in Australia in the 1960s. Those early studies on the development of secondary cartilage in embryonic birds, first published in 1967, have come full circle with the discovery of secondary cartilage in dinosaurs12. Bird watching really is flying reptile watching. Skeletal tissue development and evolution, the embryonic origins of skeletal tissues (especially those that arise from neural crest cells), and integrating development and evolution in what is now known as evo-devo have been my primary preoccupations over the past 50+ years.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax NS Canada


BMA Medical Book Awards 2015: Highly Commended, Basic and Clinical Sciences, British Medical Association


" an updated impressive overview that integrates development and evolution of the skeleton and covers of a tremendous wealth of various topics...An impressive achievement that sets standards." --Bulletin of Fish Biology

"I would recommend this book for all graduate students in the health sciences, and as a dentist I would specifically recommend it to the dental specialties: orthodontists, endodontists, oral surgeons, periodontists, and oral pathologists. The information is presented in a clear concise manner with ample figures and extensive references. As a practicing periodontist with over 30 years of experience, I have found this book both useful and engaging. It now has a prominent position among my desk reference books. It is one that I will visit on a regular and frequent basis." --William Stenberg, DDS, MS, MPH, Diplomate of the American Board of Periodontology Rockmore-King Clinic Kodiak, AK, USA

"This is the book that will set the standard for the field for decades to come. It covers everything from the elementary to the highly sophisticated and the obscure detail. This is a great resource!" –Gunter Wagner, Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University

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