Biscuit Baking Technology

Biscuit Baking Technology

Processing and Engineering Manual

2nd Edition - January 22, 2016
This is the Latest Edition
  • Author: Iain Davidson
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128042113
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128042120

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Description

Biscuit Baking Technology, Second Edition, is a reference book for senior managers and staff involved in industrial scale biscuit baking. It covers the biscuit industry process, ingredients, formulations, besides design, manufacture, installation, operation and maintenance of the baking ovens. Written by an expert on the biscuit baking industry, the book is a complete manual guide that will help engineering, production and purchasing managers and staff in the biscuit industry to make the best decisions on oven efficiency purchasing.

Key Features

  • Thoroughly explores the engineering of baking, details biscuit baking equipments, oven specifications, installation, operation and maintenance
  • The second edition expands chapters 1 to 3, detailing basic biscuit process, product range, ingredients and process changes during baking. All the chapters have been reorganized and updated
  • Provides details of best industry practice for safety, hygiene and maintenance of ovens
  • Contains explanations of heat transfer and all the types of biscuit oven design with clear pictures and drawings
  • Gathers all the information on how to select and specify an oven to be purchased for a particular range of biscuits

Readership

Senior managers and staff in industrial biscuit manufacturers (production, engineering and purchasing departments). Baking industry and institutions in general

Table of Contents

  • Biography

    • Baker Pacific Companies
    • Experience in the Biscuit Industry

    Acknowledgements

    Introduction

    Chapter 1. The Biscuits

    • Abstract
    • 1.1 Crackers
    • 1.2 Process for Snack Crackers
    • 1.3 Process for Soda Crackers
    • 1.4 Hard Sweet Biscuits
    • 1.5 Process for Hard Sweet Biscuits
    • 1.6 Short Doughs: Rotary Moulded Biscuits
    • 1.7 Short Doughs (Moulded Biscuits)
    • 1.8 Process for a Moulded Short Dough Biscuit
    • 1.9 Cookies
    • 1.10 Process for a Chocolate Chip Cookie
    • 1.11 Long Shelf Life Cakes, Snack Cakes
    • 1.12 Summary
    • Bibliography

    Chapter 2. Baking Process

    • Abstract
    • 2.1 From the Dough Piece to the Biscuit
    • 2.2 Ingredients
    • 2.3 Baking: The Development of the Biscuit Structure and Texture
    • 2.4 Summary
    • Bibliography

    Chapter 3. Biscuit Design and Output

    • Abstract
    • 3.1 Cutter and Moulding Roll Layouts
    • 3.2 Scrap and Scrap-Less Designs
    • 3.3 Docker Pins
    • 3.4 Oven Band Loadings
    • 3.5 Oven Size and Output
    • 3.6 Output Calculation
    • 3.7 Summary
    • Bibliography

    Chapter 4. Heat Transfer

    • Abstract
    • 4.1 Radiation
    • 4.2 Conduction
    • 4.3 Convection
    • 4.4 Summary
    • Bibliography

    Chapter 5. Oven Designs

    • Abstract
    • 5.1 Heat Transfer Methods
    • Bibliography

    Chapter 6. Oven Specifications: Hybrid Ovens

    • Abstract
    • 6.1 Specifications for Ovens: Crackers
    • 6.2 Recommended Oven Specification for Light Carrier Products (eg, Crispbreads, Rusks and Biscottes)
    • 6.3 Recommended Oven Specification for Hard Sweet Biscuits (eg, Marie)
    • 6.4 Recommended Oven Specification for Short Dough (Rotary Moulded) Biscuits
    • 6.5 Specifications for Ovens: Soft Dough Cookies
    • 6.6 Modular Oven Design
    • 6.7 Calculation of Oven Zone Lengths
    • 6.8 Example 1: DGF Oven for Baking Crackers (1.5 m×100 m Long)
    • 6.9 Example 2: Indirect Radiant Oven for Baking a Short Dough Biscuit, ‘Glucose’ (1.25 m×100 m Long)
    • Bibliography

    Chapter 7. Oven Construction: Direct Gas-Fired Ovens

    • Abstract
    • 7.1 Direct Gas-Fired Baking Chamber
    • 7.2 Baking Chamber Construction
    • 7.3 DGF Oven: Gas Burner System
    • 7.4 Flynn Burners
    • 7.5 Eratec MFB (Multifibre) Burners
    • 7.6 Control Panel Fascia Designs
    • 7.7 Control Panel Construction
    • Bibliography

    Chapter 8. Oven Construction: Indirect Radiant Ovens

    • Abstract
    • 8.1 Indirect Radiant Baking Chamber
    • 8.2 Indirect Fired Ovens: Burners
    • Bibliography

    Chapter 9. Heat Recovery System

    • Abstract
    • 9.1 Calculations of Hot Air Flow to the HRS Zone
    • Bibliography

    Chapter 10. Oven Conveyor Bands

    • Abstract
    • 10.1 Open Wire-Mesh Bands
    • 10.2 Heavy Mesh Bands
    • 10.3 Steel Bands
    • Bibliography

    Chapter 11. Oven Conveyor Design

    • Abstract
    • 11.1 Feed End
    • 11.2 Delivery End
    • 11.3 Oven End Hood Design
    • 11.4 Calculation of Oven Band Tension
    • 11.5 Calculation of Torque Required for the Conveyor Drive
    • 11.6 Calculation of Electric Motor Power
    • Bibliography

    Chapter 12. Process Control Systems

    • Abstract
    • 12.1 Temperature Control
    • 12.2 Temperature Monitoring and Control
    • 12.3 Temperature Controllers
    • 12.4 PID Control
    • 12.5 Top and Bottom Temperature Control and Heat Ratio Control
    • 12.6 Baking Time
    • 12.7 Humidity
    • 12.8 Colour Control
    • 12.9 Colour Measurement
    • 12.10 PLC Control
    • Bibliography

    Chapter 13. Oven Safety Monitoring and Alarm

    • Abstract
    • 13.1 Oven Band Safety Systems
    • 13.2 Oven Burners and Gas System
    • 13.3 Extraction, Combustion Air and Circulation Fans
    • 13.4 Oven: General Safety Equipment and Instructions
    • Bibliography

    Chapter 14. Oven Operation: Direct Gas-Fired Oven

    • Abstract
    • 14.1 Starting the Direct Gas-Fired Oven
    • 14.2 Heating Up/Start of Production
    • 14.3 Shutting Down the Direct Gas-Fired Oven
    • Bibliography

    Chapter 15. Oven Operation: Indirect Radiant Oven

    • Abstract
    • 15.1 Operation of the Indirect Radiant Oven
    • Bibliography

    Chapter 16. Oven Efficiency

    • Abstract
    • 16.1 Energy Use
    • 16.2 Example
    • 16.3 Comparison of Oven Efficiency for Different Oven Types
    • 16.4 Calculations for the Energy Required to Bake Biscuits
    • 16.5 Comparing Fuel Costs
    • Bibliography

    Chapter 17. Oven Inspection and Audit

    • Abstract
    • 17.1 Oven Performance
    • 17.2 Oven Operation and Maintenance
    • Bibliography

    Appendix 1. Ingredients for Biscuits: An Introduction

    • A.1 Wheat Flour
    • A.2 Corn Flour
    • A.3 Sugar
    • A.4 Glucose Syrup
    • A.5 Cane Syrup 80%
    • A.6 Invert Syrup 70%
    • A.7 Fructose Syrup 80%
    • A.8 Malt Extract 80%
    • A.9 Dough Fat
    • A.10 Butter
    • A.11 Palm Oil
    • A.12 Coconut Oil
    • A.13 Whole Egg Powder
    • A.14 Lecithin
    • A.15 Yeast (Fresh)
    • A.16 Ammonium Bicarbonate (“Vol”) (NH4)HCO3
    • A.17 Sodium Bicarbonate
    • A.18 ACP – Acid Calcium Phosphate
    • A.19 SAPP – Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate
    • A.20 Salt
    • A.21 SMS – Sodium Metabisulphite Na2S2O5
    • A.22 Proteolytic Enzyme
    • Bibliography

    Appendix 2. Oven Maintenance

    • A2.1 New Equipment
    • A2.2 Safety Devices
    • A2.3 Routine Maintenance
    • A2.4 Mechanical Components
    • A2.5 Electrical Maintenance
    • A2.6 Maintenance Schedule
    • A2.7 Oven Cleaning
    • A2.8 Standard Lubrication
    • A2.9 General Lubrication Schedule
    • A2.10 Maintenance Log or Record
    • A2.11 Recommended Spare Parts
    • Bibliography

    Appendix 3. Combustion Data

    • Bibliography

    Appendix 4. Oven Manufacturers

    • China
    • Europe
    • India
    • Japan
    • Korea
    • USA

    Appendix 5. Oven Band Manufacturers

    • Agrati Group La Bridoire S.A.R.L.
    • Ark Engineers
    • Ashton Green & Company
    • Ashworth Bros. Inc.
    • Audubon
    • Berndorf Band Gmbh
    • Bharat Wire Mesh Company
    • Cambridge Engineered Solutions
    • Durgesh Industries
    • Heights Wire Belt Factory
    • AB Sandvik Process Systems
    • Steinhaus Gmbh
    • Yangzhou Jiangdu Huada Metal Mesh Belt Factory
    • Yangzhou Jinrun Mesh Belt Manufacturing Co.

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 348
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2016
  • Published: January 22, 2016
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128042113
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128042120
  • About the Author

    Iain Davidson

    Iain Davidson
    Iain graduated from the School of Industrial Design (Engineering) at Royal College of Art in London in 1965 and joined Baker Perkins Ltd. He was Industrial Design Engineer, working in the Technical Department on the design of new biscuit, bakery and candy processing. In 1990 Iain was appointed Regional Manager Asia Pacific for Baker Perkins and re-located to Indonesia and later to China. In 2000 Iain established his own company in Indonesia, PT Baker Pacific Mandiri. The company provided consultancy in the area of process technology and machinery for the biscuit, chocolate and candy industries, establishing a manufacturing capability for biscuit ovens and manufactured ovens in China, India and Indonesia. During recent years, Iain has provided training programs for technical staff in biscuit bakeries, both courses presented on site and also provision of presentation materials for in house programs. Iain is the author of three books published by Elsevier.

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Director, Baker Pacific Ltd., Histon, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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