Biotechnology of Blood - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780750691208, 9781483294469

Biotechnology of Blood

1st Edition

Editors: Jack Goldstein
eBook ISBN: 9781483294469
Imprint: Newnes
Published Date: 30th July 1991
Page Count: 480
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Biotechnology of Blood presents research on applications of biotechnology to blood and its components. The book is organized into four parts. Part I begins with an overview of the blood business in order to provide background of the industry, to identify problems, and perhaps some solutions that rely on the scientific advances made possible by biotechnology. This is followed by studies on the storage and preservation of red blood cells; autologous blood salvage procedures; the development procedures to provide a constant supply of blood group O; and the development of blood substitutes. Part II on plasma fractions includes studies on the preparation of plasma fractions, recombinant antihemophilic factors, and fibrinogen. Part III on the regulation of blood cell products includes studies such as hematopoietic stem cell processing and storage; and long-term bone marrow cell cultures. Part IV on blood-borne diseases examines the inactivation of viruses found with plasma proteins and viruses found with cellular components.

Table of Contents

Part I. Oxygen Delivery Systems

1. Biotechnology, Economies, and the Business of Blood

1.1 Cellular Components and Biotechnology

1.2 Plasma Products


2. Long-Term Storage and Preservation of Red Blood Cells

2.1 Current State of Liquid Preservation at 4°C

2.2 Current Research in Nonfrozen Systems

2.3 Frozen Red Cells

2.4 Post-Thaw Preservation of Red Cells

2.5 Conclusions


3. Autologous Blood Salvage Procedures

3.1 Advantages of Autologous Transfusion

3.2 Clinical Applications

3.3 Contraindications

3.4 Intraoperative Blood Salvage Devices

3.5 Postoperative Blood Salvage

3.6 Complications

3.7 Characteristics of Salvaged Blood

3.8 Administrative Considerations

3.9 Summary


4. The Production of Group O Cells

4.1 Biochemistry, Genetics, and Formation of the ABO Blood Group Antigens

4.2 Treatment Conditions Compatible with RBC Viability

4.3 Enzymatic Conversion of Group B RBC to Group O: In Vivo Studies

4.4 Enzymatic Conversion of Group A RBC to Group O: In Vitro Studies

4.5 Future Perspectives: Rh Modification


5. Chemically Modified and Recombinant Hemoglobin Blood Substitutes

5.1 Regulation of the Oxygen Affinity of Hemoglobin

5.2 Dissociation of the Hemoglobin Tetramer

5.3 Chemical Modification of Hemoglobin

5.4 Purification of Hemoglobin

5.5 Autooxidation of Hemoglobin

5.6 Recombinant Production of Hemoglobin

5.7 Summary


6. Liposome-Encapsulated Hemoglobin: Historical Development of a Blood Substitute

6.1 Fabrication

6.2 In Vivo Studies

6.3 Future Directions


7. Medical Oxygen Transport Using Perfluorochemicals

7.1 History of Perfluorochemicals in Oxygen Transport

7.2 Data on the Use of PFC Emulsions

7.3 Medical Applications and Clinical Studies

7.4 Future Perfluorochemical Products

7.5 Conclusion


Part II. Plasma Fractions

8. Current Approaches to the Preparation of Plasma Fractions

8.1 Albumin

8.2 Plasma Protein Fraction

8.3 Antihemophilic Factor (Factor VIII, or AHF)

8.4 Immunoglobulins

8.5 Fibrinogen

8.6 Prothrombin Complex

8.7 Activated Prothrombin Complex Concentrates

8.8 Antithrombin III

8.9 Current Equipment and Technologies Used in Plasma Fractionation


9. Recombinant Antihemophilic Factors

9.1 Factor VIII

9.2 Factor IX

9.3 Factor VII

9.4 Other Recombinant Coagulation Factors

9.5 Conclusion


10. Recombinant Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator

10.1 The Fibrinolytic System

10.2 Nonrecombinant Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator (t-PA)

10.3 Recombinant Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator (rt-PA)

10.4 Mutants and Variants of Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator

10.5 Conclusions


11. Fibrinogen and Fibrin Formation and Its Role in Fibrinolysis

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Physicochemical Properties of Fibrinogen

11.3 Chains and Prosthetic Groups of Fibrinogen

11.4 Primary Structure of Fibrinogen

11.5 Activation of Fibrinogen

11.6 Fibrin(ogen)olysis in Presence of Plasmin

11.7 Interaction of Fibrinogen and Fibrin with Ions, Plasma Proteins, and Cells

11.8 Biosynthesis of Fibrinogen

11.9 Evolution of Fibrinogen and Hemostatic Mechanisms

11.10 Role of Fibrinogen in Health and Disease


12. Fibrinogen-Fibrin: Preparation and Use of Monoclonal Antibodies as Diagnostics

12.1 Fibrinogen-to-Fibrin Transition and Fibrin(ogen)olysis

12.2 Monitoring Blood Levels of Fibrin(ogen) Degradation Products

12.3 Characterization of Fibrin(ogen) Antigens in Tissues

12.4 Monoclonal Antibodies as Thrombus Imaging Agents Abbreviations and Terms


Part III. In Vivo and In Vitro regulation of Blood Cell Production

13. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Processing and Storage

13.1 Hematopoietic Stem Cell Collection and Processing

13.2 Hematopoietic Stem Cell Storage

13.3 Summary and Conclusions


14. Erythropoietin: Its Role in the Regulation of Erythropoiesis and as a Therapeutic in Humans

14.1 The Erythropoietin (Epo) Gene

14.2 Regulation of Epo Production

14.3 Plasma Epo

14.4 Interactions of Epo with Its Target Cell

14.5 Epo as a Therapeutic Treatment

14.6 Summary


15. Hematopoietic Colony-Stimulating Factors

15.1 Biotechnology of CSFs

15.2 Multi-CSF

15.3 GM-CSF

15.4 G-CSF

15.5 M-CSF

15.6 Summary


16. Long-Term Bone Marrow Cell Cultures

16.1 Evolving Hierarchy of Hematopoietic Progenitors

16.2 Hematopoietic Microenvironment

16.3 Clinical Applications—Current and Future


Part IV. Blood-Borne Viral Diseases

17. Inactivation of Viruses Found with Plasma Proteins

17.1 Viral Risk from Single Units of Blood

17.2 Viral Risk from Plasma Protein Fractions

17.3 Summary and Conclusion


18. Inactivation of Viruses Found with Cellular Components

18.1 Physical Methods for Virus Removal or Inactivation

18.2 Immune Neutralization

18.3 Hydrolyzable Chemical Agents

18.4 Photosensitization Techniques

18.5 Irradiation Methods

18.6 Summary and Conclusions




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© Newnes 1991
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About the Editor

Jack Goldstein

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