Biotechnology of Blood

Biotechnology of Blood

1st Edition - July 30, 1991

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  • Editor: Jack Goldstein
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483294469

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Biotechnology of Blood presents research on applications of biotechnology to blood and its components. The book is organized into four parts. Part I begins with an overview of the blood business in order to provide background of the industry, to identify problems, and perhaps some solutions that rely on the scientific advances made possible by biotechnology. This is followed by studies on the storage and preservation of red blood cells; autologous blood salvage procedures; the development procedures to provide a constant supply of blood group O; and the development of blood substitutes. Part II on plasma fractions includes studies on the preparation of plasma fractions, recombinant antihemophilic factors, and fibrinogen. Part III on the regulation of blood cell products includes studies such as hematopoietic stem cell processing and storage; and long-term bone marrow cell cultures. Part IV on blood-borne diseases examines the inactivation of viruses found with plasma proteins and viruses found with cellular components.

Table of Contents

  • Part I. Oxygen Delivery Systems

    1. Biotechnology, Economies, and the Business of Blood

    1.1 Cellular Components and Biotechnology

    1.2 Plasma Products


    2. Long-Term Storage and Preservation of Red Blood Cells

    2.1 Current State of Liquid Preservation at 4°C

    2.2 Current Research in Nonfrozen Systems

    2.3 Frozen Red Cells

    2.4 Post-Thaw Preservation of Red Cells

    2.5 Conclusions


    3. Autologous Blood Salvage Procedures

    3.1 Advantages of Autologous Transfusion

    3.2 Clinical Applications

    3.3 Contraindications

    3.4 Intraoperative Blood Salvage Devices

    3.5 Postoperative Blood Salvage

    3.6 Complications

    3.7 Characteristics of Salvaged Blood

    3.8 Administrative Considerations

    3.9 Summary


    4. The Production of Group O Cells

    4.1 Biochemistry, Genetics, and Formation of the ABO Blood Group Antigens

    4.2 Treatment Conditions Compatible with RBC Viability

    4.3 Enzymatic Conversion of Group B RBC to Group O: In Vivo Studies

    4.4 Enzymatic Conversion of Group A RBC to Group O: In Vitro Studies

    4.5 Future Perspectives: Rh Modification


    5. Chemically Modified and Recombinant Hemoglobin Blood Substitutes

    5.1 Regulation of the Oxygen Affinity of Hemoglobin

    5.2 Dissociation of the Hemoglobin Tetramer

    5.3 Chemical Modification of Hemoglobin

    5.4 Purification of Hemoglobin

    5.5 Autooxidation of Hemoglobin

    5.6 Recombinant Production of Hemoglobin

    5.7 Summary


    6. Liposome-Encapsulated Hemoglobin: Historical Development of a Blood Substitute

    6.1 Fabrication

    6.2 In Vivo Studies

    6.3 Future Directions


    7. Medical Oxygen Transport Using Perfluorochemicals

    7.1 History of Perfluorochemicals in Oxygen Transport

    7.2 Data on the Use of PFC Emulsions

    7.3 Medical Applications and Clinical Studies

    7.4 Future Perfluorochemical Products

    7.5 Conclusion


    Part II. Plasma Fractions

    8. Current Approaches to the Preparation of Plasma Fractions

    8.1 Albumin

    8.2 Plasma Protein Fraction

    8.3 Antihemophilic Factor (Factor VIII, or AHF)

    8.4 Immunoglobulins

    8.5 Fibrinogen

    8.6 Prothrombin Complex

    8.7 Activated Prothrombin Complex Concentrates

    8.8 Antithrombin III

    8.9 Current Equipment and Technologies Used in Plasma Fractionation


    9. Recombinant Antihemophilic Factors

    9.1 Factor VIII

    9.2 Factor IX

    9.3 Factor VII

    9.4 Other Recombinant Coagulation Factors

    9.5 Conclusion


    10. Recombinant Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator

    10.1 The Fibrinolytic System

    10.2 Nonrecombinant Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator (t-PA)

    10.3 Recombinant Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator (rt-PA)

    10.4 Mutants and Variants of Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator

    10.5 Conclusions


    11. Fibrinogen and Fibrin Formation and Its Role in Fibrinolysis

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Physicochemical Properties of Fibrinogen

    11.3 Chains and Prosthetic Groups of Fibrinogen

    11.4 Primary Structure of Fibrinogen

    11.5 Activation of Fibrinogen

    11.6 Fibrin(ogen)olysis in Presence of Plasmin

    11.7 Interaction of Fibrinogen and Fibrin with Ions, Plasma Proteins, and Cells

    11.8 Biosynthesis of Fibrinogen

    11.9 Evolution of Fibrinogen and Hemostatic Mechanisms

    11.10 Role of Fibrinogen in Health and Disease


    12. Fibrinogen-Fibrin: Preparation and Use of Monoclonal Antibodies as Diagnostics

    12.1 Fibrinogen-to-Fibrin Transition and Fibrin(ogen)olysis

    12.2 Monitoring Blood Levels of Fibrin(ogen) Degradation Products

    12.3 Characterization of Fibrin(ogen) Antigens in Tissues

    12.4 Monoclonal Antibodies as Thrombus Imaging Agents Abbreviations and Terms


    Part III. In Vivo and In Vitro regulation of Blood Cell Production

    13. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Processing and Storage

    13.1 Hematopoietic Stem Cell Collection and Processing

    13.2 Hematopoietic Stem Cell Storage

    13.3 Summary and Conclusions


    14. Erythropoietin: Its Role in the Regulation of Erythropoiesis and as a Therapeutic in Humans

    14.1 The Erythropoietin (Epo) Gene

    14.2 Regulation of Epo Production

    14.3 Plasma Epo

    14.4 Interactions of Epo with Its Target Cell

    14.5 Epo as a Therapeutic Treatment

    14.6 Summary


    15. Hematopoietic Colony-Stimulating Factors

    15.1 Biotechnology of CSFs

    15.2 Multi-CSF

    15.3 GM-CSF

    15.4 G-CSF

    15.5 M-CSF

    15.6 Summary


    16. Long-Term Bone Marrow Cell Cultures

    16.1 Evolving Hierarchy of Hematopoietic Progenitors

    16.2 Hematopoietic Microenvironment

    16.3 Clinical Applications—Current and Future


    Part IV. Blood-Borne Viral Diseases

    17. Inactivation of Viruses Found with Plasma Proteins

    17.1 Viral Risk from Single Units of Blood

    17.2 Viral Risk from Plasma Protein Fractions

    17.3 Summary and Conclusion


    18. Inactivation of Viruses Found with Cellular Components

    18.1 Physical Methods for Virus Removal or Inactivation

    18.2 Immune Neutralization

    18.3 Hydrolyzable Chemical Agents

    18.4 Photosensitization Techniques

    18.5 Irradiation Methods

    18.6 Summary and Conclusions



Product details

  • No. of pages: 480
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Newnes 1991
  • Published: July 30, 1991
  • Imprint: Newnes
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483294469

About the Editor

Jack Goldstein

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