Biotechnology and Biology of Trichoderma

Biotechnology and Biology of Trichoderma

1st Edition - February 17, 2014

Write a review

  • Editors: Vijai Gupta, Monika Schmoll, Alfredo Herrera-Estrella, R. Upadhyay, Irina Druzhinina, Maria Tuohy
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444595768
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444595942

Purchase options

Purchase options
DRM-free (Mobi, EPub, PDF)
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order


Biotechnology and Biology of Trichoderma serves as a comprehensive reference on the chemistry and biochemistry of one of the most important microbial agents, Trichoderma, and its use in an increased number of industrial bioprocesses for the synthesis of many biochemicals such as pharmaceuticals and biofuels. This book provides individuals working in the field of Trichoderma, especially biochemical engineers, biochemists and biotechnologists, important information on how these valuable fungi can contribute to the production of a wide range of products of commercial and ecological interest.

Key Features

  • Provides a detailed and comprehensive coverage of the chemistry, biochemistry and biotechnology of Trichoderma, fungi present in soil and plants
  • Includes most important current and potential applications of Trichoderma in bioengineering, bioprocess technology including bioenergy & biofuels, biopharmaceuticals, secondary metabolites and protein engineering
  • Includes the most recent research advancements made on Trichoderma applications in plant biotechnology and ecology and environment


Microbiologists; biotechnologists; professionals, researchers, undergraduates, or post-graduates in bio-chemical engineering and biochemistry/biology; evolution and genetics researchers

Table of Contents

  • Preface


    List of Contributors

    Seation A Biology and Biodiversity

    Chapter 1. Biodiversity of the Genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma in Different Habitats


    Methodology of Studying Trichoderma Biodiversity

    Trichoderma Diversity in Different Habitats


    Chapter 2. Ecophysiology of Trichoderma in Genomic Perspective

    Trichoderma in Its Ecological Niche

    From Diversity to Genomics

    Mycotrophy of Trichoderma

    Saprotrophy of Trichoderma on Dead Wood

    Trichoderma Growth in Soil

    Rhizosphere Competence of Trichoderma

    Trichoderma versus Mycorrhizae


    Facultative Endophytism of Trichoderma

    Animal Nourishment of Trichoderma

    Most of the Famous Trichoderma Species are Environmental Opportunists

    Versatile Carbon Utilization Patterns Reflect Ecological Specialization of Trichoderma spp.

    Chapter 3. DNA Barcode for Species Identification in Trichoderma


    The Tools

    Application of DNA Barcoding in Species-Level Identification of Trichoderma

    Taxonomic Studies

    Biodiversity Studies

    Identification of Industrial Trichoderma Strains

    Identification of Biocontrol Trichoderma Strains

    Identification of Trichoderma Isolates with Clinical Relevance

    Identification of Mushroom Pathogenic Trichoderma Strains


    Chapter 4. Understanding the Diversity and Versatility of Trichoderma by Next-Generation Sequencing


    Access to Fungal and Trichoderma Diversity—Taxonomic Profiling

    Plants Life under Control of Trichoderma—Functional Profiling


    Chapter 5. Molecular Evolution of Trichoderma Chitinases


    Phylogeny and Evolution of the GH Family 18 Gene Family in Trichoderma

    Subgroup A Chitinases

    Subgroup B Chitinases

    Subgroup C Chitinases


    Section B Secretion and Protein Production

    Chapter 6. Protein Production—Quality Control and Secretion Stress Responses in Trichoderma reesei

    Introduction—Milestones of Trichoderma reesei

    Protein Secretome of T. reesei

    ER Quality Control and Secretion Stress Responses


    Chapter 7. Heterologous Expression of Proteins in Trichoderma


    Promoter Options

    Fusion Partners

    Extracellular Proteases

    Secretion Stress in the Frame

    Mass Production of Heterologous Protein by Fermentation

    N-glycosylation of Heterologous Proteins Produced in T. reesei


    Chapter 8. Trichoderma Secretome: An Overview


    Proteomic Analysis of Secretory Proteins

    Extraction of Extracellular Proteins for Proteomic Analysis

    Extracellular Protein Secretion by T. reesei

    Polysaccharide Degradation Machinery of T. reesei

    New Candidates in Cellulose Degradation

    Hemicellulose Hydrolyzing Enzymes

    Lignin Degradation by T. reesei

    Industrial Applications of T. reesei Cellulolytic Enzymes


    Chapter 9. The Secretory Pathway in the Filamentous Fungus Trichoderma



    Cotranslational Translocation

    Post Translational Translocation

    Protein Modifications in the ER

    Vesicle Transport from ER to Golgi Complex and Trafficking within the Golgi Cisternae

    Transport after Trafficking within the Golgi Complex

    Secreted Proteins in Trichoderma

    Concluding Remarks

    Section C Secondary Metabolism

    Chapter 10. Secondary Metabolism and Antimicrobial Metabolites of Trichoderma



    Diketopiperazine-Like Compounds




    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    Chapter 11. Recent Advancements on the Role and Analysis of Volatile Compounds (VOCs) from Trichoderma


    Detection Techniques of VOCs

    Types of Volatiles Compounds

    Application of VOCs in Agriculture


    Section D Tools

    Chapter 12. Molecular Tools for Strain Improvement of Trichoderma spp.


    Genetic Transformation Techniques

    Auxotrophic and Dominant Selection Markers

    Marker Recycling Strategies and Marker Free Strains

    Advanced Methods for Gene Targeting

    RNA Mediated Gene Silencing

    Promoters for Recombinant Protein Expression and Targeting

    Concluding Remarks

    Chapter 13. Genetic Transformation and Engineering of Trichoderma reesei for Enhanced Enzyme Production


    Engineering Cellulase and Hemicellulase Regulation

    Homologous and Heterologous Gene Expression and Gene Disruption

    Protein Engineering

    Engineering Promoters


    Chapter 14. Applications of RNA Interference for Enhanced Cellulase Production in Trichoderma


    RNA Interference in Fungus

    Transcriptional Regulation of Cellulase Gene Expression

    Application of Gene Downregulation Strategy for Enhanced Cellulase Production

    Combination of RNAi and Overexpression of the Regulating Genes

    Conclusions and Prospects

    Chapter 15. RNAi-Mediated Gene Silencing in Trichoderma: Principles and Applications


    Molecular Mechanisms

    Advantages and Disadvantages of Using RNAi-Mediated Gene Silencing as a Genetic Manipulation Tool in Filamentous Fungi

    Strategies of Applying RNAi for Gene Silencing in Trichoderma and Other Filamentous Fungi


    Section E Cellulases

    Chapter 16. Cellulase Systems in Trichoderma: An Overview


    Degradation of Cellulose by Cellulase Systems

    History of the Trichoderma Cellulase Research

    Structural and Functional Diversity of Trichoderma Cellulases

    Cellulase Systems and Complexes

    Chapter 17. Use of Cellulases from Trichoderma reesei in the Twenty-First Century—Part I: Current Industrial Uses and Future Applications in the Production of Second Ethanol Generation

    Overview of the Global Enzyme Market

    Industrial Cellulases

    Current Applications


    Application of Trichoderma Cellulases in the Bioethanol Industry

    Chapter 18. Use of Cellulases from Trichoderma reesei in the Twenty-First Century—Part II: Optimization of Cellulolytic Cocktails for Saccharification of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks

    Genetics of Industrial Trichoderma reesei Strains

    The T. reesei Enzyme Cocktail

    Hydrolysis of Cellulose

    Limitations in Lignocellulose Hydrolysis

    Improvement of Enzyme Cocktails by Optimization of Enzyme Ratios

    Improvement by Supplementation of T. reesei Enzyme Cocktails

    Adapting Cellulose Cocktails to Process Conditions

    Conclusions and Perspectives

    Chapter 19. Beta-Glucosidase from Trichoderma to Improve the Activity of Cellulase Cocktails


    Cellulase Classification

    Trichoderma reesei Cellulases

    Trichoderma reesei BGLs

    BGLs from Aspergillus oryzae

    Synergism between Cellulases

    Heterologous Expression of Cellulases

    Yarrowia lipolytica Expression Platforms

    Pichia pastoris Expression Platforms

    β-Glucosidase from Trichoderma to Improve the Activity of Cellulase Cocktails

    Chapter 20. Regulation of Glycoside Hydrolase Expression in Trichoderma


    Regulation by Environmental Parameters

    Regulatory Mechanisms

    Physiological Responses

    Chapter 21. Trichoderma Proteins with Disruption Activity on Cellulosic Substrates

    Structure and Occurrence of Cellulose in Nature

    General Aspects of Cellulose Degradation

    Cellulose Degradation by T. reesei

    Cellulolytic Enzymes in Other Trichoderma Species

    Chapter 22. Molecular Mechanism of Cellulase Production Systems in Trichoderma


    Cellulase System of T. reesei

    Induction Mechanism of Cellulase Production

    Promoter Involved in Cellulase Production

    Molecular Mechanism of Cellulase Production

    Approaches for Refining the Cellulases Production System in T. reesei

    Chapter 23. Trichoderma in Bioenergy Research: An Overview


    Fungal Enzyme Systems and Trichoderma Technology

    Industrial Applications of Trichoderma

    Trichoderma Enzyme Systems in Bioenergy Research


    Section F Industrial Applications

    Chapter 24. Trichoderma Enzymes for Food Industries


    Fungus of Industrial Interest

    Trichoderma Enzymes for Industries



    Other Enzymes

    Food Industry

    Perspectives for Biotechnological Production of Enzymes by Trichoderma

    Chapter 25. Trichoderma: A Dual Function Fungi and Their Use in the Wine and Beer Industries


    Application in the Wine and Beer Industries

    Chapter 26. Trichoderma Enzymes for Textile Industries



    Textile Processes

    Trichoderma Enzymes in Textile Finishing Processes

    Trichoderma as a Production Host for Textile Enzymes

    Future Trends

    Chapter 27. Metabolic Diversity of Trichoderma


    Global Metabolism

    Carbohydrate Metabolism and Glycoside Hydrolases

    Energy Metabolism

    Secondary Metabolism

    Metabolism and Transporters

    Chapter 28. Sequence Analysis of Industrially Important Genes from Trichoderma


    Gene Sequence Analysis Fundamentals

    Genome Analysis of Trichoderma

    Industrially Genes from Trichoderma

    Sequence Analysis of Industrially Genes from Trichoderma


    Chapter 29. Biosynthesis of Silver Nano-Particles by Trichoderma and Its Medical Applications


    SNP Biosynthesis


    Medical Application

    Chapter 30. Role of Trichoderma Species in Bioremediation Process: Biosorption Studies on Hexavalent Chromium


    Hexavalent Chromium Bioremediation will be Discussed Here with a Case Study Representing Chromium Biosorption by Trichoderma Species


    Section G Biocontrol and Plant Growth Promotion

    Chapter 31. Applications of Trichoderma in Plant Growth Promotion


    Trichoderma as a Plant Growth Promoter

    Consistency of Growth Promotion


    Mechanisms of Growth Promotion


    Chapter 32. Molecular Mechanisms of Biocontrol in Trichoderma spp. and Their Applications in Agriculture



    Morphological Changes

    Roll of Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes

    Signal Transduction in Mycoparasitism

    ROS-Nox-Signal Transduction

    Antibiosis (Secondary Metabolites Involved in Biocontrol)



    Nonribosomal Peptides

    Mycotoxins Produced by Trichoderma spp.

    Synergism between Enzymes and Antibiotics

    Competition for Nutrients

    Plant Growth Promotion by Trichoderma

    Plant Root Colonization

    Induction of Systemic Resistance to Plants by Trichoderma spp.

    Signal Transduction Pathways that Mediate Trichoderma-Plant Communication

    Trichoderma Elicitor of Systemic Resistance in Plants

    Signal Transduction during Plant–Trichoderma Interaction in Trichoderma

    Transgenic Plants Expressing Trichoderma Genes

    Concluding Remarks

    Chapter 33. Genome-Wide Approaches toward Understanding Mycotrophic Trichoderma Species


    Lessons from the Genome Sequence

    Transcriptome Analyses

    The Functional Genomics View of Mycoparasitism

    High-Throughput Analysis of the Trichoderma-Plant Interaction

    Future Directions

    Concluding Remarks

    Chapter 34. Insights into Signaling Pathways of Antagonistic Trichoderma Species


    G Protein Signaling

    Effector Pathways of G Protein Signaling in Fungi

    Signaling Pathways and Characterized Components in Trichoderma Species

    Signal Transduction Components and Pathways Affecting Vegetative Growth and Conidiation

    The Role of Signaling in Trichoderma Mycoparasitism and Biocontrol


    Chapter 35. Enhanced Resistance of Plants to Disease Using Trichoderma spp.


    Induced Disease Resistance in Plants

    Induced Resistance by Trichoderma spp.

    Signaling Pathways of Trichoderma-Induced Resistance

    Trichoderma spp.-Secreted Elicitors of Plant Resistance

    Engineering Plants for Disease Resistance Using Trichoderma Genes

    Combination of Trichoderma with Other Beneficial Microorganisms

    Other Effects of Trichoderma spp. Inoculation to the Plant


    Chapter 36. Enhanced Plant Immunity Using Trichoderma


    Mechanisms of Plant Protection by Microbes

    Trichoderma-Induced Immunity

    Plant Protection Conferred by Trichoderma


    Chapter 37. Genes from Trichoderma as a Source for Improving Plant Resistance to Fungal Pathogen


    Trichoderma Inducing Resistance in Plants

    Transgenic Plants Expressing Trichoderma Genes Develop Increased Resistance to Fungal Pathogens

    Trichoderma Genes Involved in Elicitation of ISR



    Chapter 38. Trichoderma Species as Abiotic Stress Relievers in Plants


    Microbes for the Management of Abiotic Stresses

    Alleviation of Abiotic Stress in Plants by Trichoderma

    Alleviation of Drought Stress in Plants by Trichoderma

    Alleviation of Salinity Stress in Plants by Trichoderma

    Alleviation of Heat Stress in Plants by Trichoderma

    Trichoderma Genes for Abiotic Stress Tolerance

    Mechanism of Abiotic Stress Tolerance Using Trichoderma

    Host Gene: Stress Tolerant Varieties


    Chapter 39. Advances in Formulation of Trichoderma for Biocontrol


    Types of Formulation


    Enhancement of Shelf Life and Application Efficiency

    Compatibility with Other Biological Systems

    Conclusion and Future Prospects

    Chapter 40. Trichoderma: A Silent Worker of Plant Rhizosphere


    Diverseness Amongst Trichoderma

    Trichoderma as Inducer of Plant Defense Response

    Trichoderma as a Biofertilizer and Plant Growth Promoter


    Trichoderma Genes Responsible for Playing “Big Games”



Product details

  • No. of pages: 650
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2014
  • Published: February 17, 2014
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444595768
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444595942

About the Editors

Vijai Gupta

Vijai Gupta
Dr Vijai G. Gupta is an Assistant Professor of Biotechnology at MITS University of India. Currently he is working as Research Scientist at National University of Ireland in Galway. Dr. Gupta’s present work is focused on the development and optimization of novel Enzyme-based bioconversion systems for biorefining and bioenergy. He has been honored with several awards, including the prestigious Indian ICAR Senior Research Fellowship and Indian Young Scientist Award. He has submitted 33 new fungal nucleotide sequences and deposited 147 fungal strains in International databases. His work with Fusarium spp., Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Penicillium spp. and Trichoderma spp. is augmented by contributions to biotechnological development, molecular diversity, secondary metabolites and industrial applications Dr. Gupta is the editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Plant Pathology and a regional editorial board member of 8 other respected journals. He is the author of 40 journal articles and 27 book chapters. Gupta has also written and edited books and series from reputed publishers, including CRC Press, Taylor and Francis, USA; Springer, USA; Elsevier, USA; Nova Science Publisher, USA and LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia

Monika Schmoll

Dr. Monika Schmoll received her degree (1999) and Ph. D. (2003) on regulation of cellulase expression and signal transduction in the filamentous fungus Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei) at the Vienna University of Technology. Besides gaining postdoctoral experience and building her own group at the Vienna University of Technology, she has been a visiting scientist in the laboratory of Professor N. Louise Glass (Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, USA), the University of Rome La Sapienza and the University of Szeged, Hungary. She is author of 33 publications and 2 book chapters. Currently, Dr. Schmoll is group leader in the Research Area Molecular Biotechnology at the Vienna University of Technology. The primary research field of Dr. Schmoll is the interconnection between light response, sexual development and cellulase gene expression in Trichoderma reesei. She showed for the first time that cellulase gene expression is modulated by light in T. reesei and could since then elucidate important mechanistic details on the underlying mechanism. Her group discovered the sexual cycle in the biotechnological workhorse Trichoderma, which had previously considered asexual. This work was published in PNAS in 2009 and since then investigation of this phenomenon and its peculiarities in Trichoderma has become an additional focus. Her work with Trichoderma is complemented by contributions to genome annotation of several fungi (Trichoderma spp., Aspergillus nidulans, Postia placenta, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora), especially in the field of signal transduction.

Affiliations and Expertise

Vienna University of Technology, Austria

Alfredo Herrera-Estrella

Prof. Alfredo Herrera-Estrella grew up in Mexico City and graduated from the National School of Biological Sciences in 1985. He did his graduate research (1986-1990) with Prof. Marc Van Montagu at the State University of Ghent, Belgium, studying the T-DNA transfer process from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to plants. He described for the first time Agrobacterium virulence proteins capable of carrying the T-DNA into the plant cell nucleus, and began to study the mycoparasitic process of the biocontrol agent Trichoderma atroviride. Dr. Herrera-Estrella pioneered the development of molecular tools for the study of a biocontrol agent with the establishment of transformation systems, and cloning of the first mycoparasitism related genes. Such developments opened possibilities for strain improvement. He continued those studies while at the Genetic Engineering Department of the Irapuato Unit of Cinvestav (1991-2004), and began studies towards the elucidation of the mechanisms involved in light perception in Trichoderma. In 2000, he was awarded the prize of the Mexican Academy of Sciences. By 2004, he got involved in the establishment of the National Laboratory of Genomics for Biodiversity. Since then he and his group have been involved in Functional Genomics Projects, including the elucidation of the complete maize genome, and the development of advanced techniques to study gene expression by deep sequencing. Dr. Herrera-Estrella has continuing efforts in the elucidation of signaling cascades triggering asexual development in fungi. In particular his group has been using functional genomics approaches for this purpose, and recently has been involved in the study of the role of reactive oxygen species as signal molecules in injury responses in fungi.

Affiliations and Expertise

National Laboratory of Genomics for Biodiversity, Mexico

R. Upadhyay

Professor R. S. Upadhyay (b. November 15, 1955) received his M. Sc. (1976) and Ph. D. (1980) degrees from Banaras Hindu University (BHU), Varanasi, India. Since then he has been actively engaged in research. His main focus on research has been on biological control of plant pathogens, programmed plant cell death in response to pathogens, bioremediation of toxic effluents, induced resistance in plants and their immunization, plant growth promoting microbes, chitinase production from actinomycetes, mycorrhizal technology for reclamation of wastelands, role rhizobacteria in detoxifying phytotoxic effects, development of molecular markers in tracking microbes in environment, effect of biotic and abiotic factors on plants, and molecular basis of plant-microbe interaction specially for Trichoderma spp. & Fusarium spp. His work has been well cited internationally. He has been working at Banaras Hindu University in various positions such as Lecturer, (1984-88), Senior Lecturer, (1988-1991), UGC Research Scientist-B, BHU (1988-1991 on lien from BHU), Reader, Banaras Hindu University (1991-1999, appointed in absentia), Professor, (1999 till date), Student Advisor, Faculty of Science, BHU (2010-11), Coordinator, Environmental Science, BHU (2011 till date) and Dy. Coordinator, Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, BHU (2011, for five years). He has been recipient of six prestigious national fellowships of the Government of India. He is recipient of five national awards in the area of science, two conferred by the Prime Minister of India. In addition he worked in prestigious foreign laboratories as visiting Scientist of The Royal Society, London (1988-89), Research Associate of NIH, U.S.A. (1990-91), and INSA- JSPS Fellowship, Japan (1994-95). He has also visited many other courtiers to participate in International conferences or for delivering invited lectures.

Affiliations and Expertise

Banaras Hindu University, India

Irina Druzhinina

Dr. Irina Druzhinina studied biology at the Lomonosov’s State University in Moscow, Russia, and at the University of Vienna, where she graduated (PhD) in 2001. Thereafter she became a University Assistant in the research area of C.P. Kubicek at Vienna University of Technology, and habilitated in 2011 in “Microbiology”. She is now leader of the working group “Microbiology” at the same institute.

The scientific work of Irina Druzhinina started with a focus on mycology and molecular evolution, working on species diversity and population differentiation in Trichoderma, where she established an online tool for species identification based on DNA barcodes that is today one of the main resources for this purpose for researchers worldwide. In addition, she worked on such diverse topics as phenotype profiling of industrial fungi, peptaibol biosynthesis in Trichoderma, biodiesel production by marine algae, Trichoderma endophytes, biofungicide development and molecular ecology of Trichoderma. In the last years, her interest expanded to ecological genomics, i.e. the use of genome wide information to study the evolutionary adaptation of Trichoderma in its habitats. She acts as a member of the editorial board for Applied and Environmental Microbiology, and is the chair of the International Subcommission on Taxonomy of Trichoderma and Hypocrea, a member of ICTF/IUMS. She published > 60 papers in peer reviewed international journals and edited a book

Affiliations and Expertise

Plants Nutrition Department, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University

Maria Tuohy

Dr. Maria G. Tuohy is the Head of the Molecular Glycobiotechnology Research Group, Department of Biochemistry, School of Natural Sciences, NUI Galway which has developed a strong track record in Glycobiotechnology and Enzyme Biotechnology. She has more than 20 years experience in the molecular biochemistry, genetics and biotechnology of fungi, with a special interest in thermophilic ascomycetes and the characterization of these fungi as cell factories for protein production, including novel thermostable enzymes/enzyme systems. Dr. Tuohy and her group have developed patented enzyme-based technologies for key bioenergy and biorefinery applications from terrestrial and marine biomass and wastes, including 3rd generation feedstocks. The group also investigates the use of enzymes for the recovery and selective modification of high-value biochemicals and plant carbohydrate-derived bioactives (‘Glycobioengineering’). Dr. Tuohy is a PI in the Energy Research Centre, NUI, Galway and the recently funded national Bioenergy and Biorefinery Competence Centre, is a member of the EU FP7 Biofuels Platform and a national research PhytoNetwork. Dr. Tuohy has been a visiting researcher in RUGhent, Belgium and BSH Institut fur Holzchemie, Hamburg. Dr. Tuohy is author of ~132 research publications, including refereed publications, book chapters, conference papers poster/short communications. She is also a reviewer for international journals and funding agencies and several books as co-editor- Springer Science Publisher, USA; CRC Press, Taylor and Francis, USA; Germany; Nova Science Publisher, USA and Elsevier Press, USA (under Progress) with Dr. V. K. Gupta

Affiliations and Expertise

Head of the Molecular Glycobiotechnology Research Group, Department of Biochemistry, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland

Ratings and Reviews

Write a review

There are currently no reviews for "Biotechnology and Biology of Trichoderma"