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Biotechnological Applications of Proteins and Enzymes - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780121109509, 9780323151337

Biotechnological Applications of Proteins and Enzymes

1st Edition

Papers Presented at a Conference Honoring the Sixtieth Birthday of Professor Ephraim Katchalski-Katzir, Held at Kiryat Anavim, Israel, May 23-27, 1976

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Editor: Zvi Bohak
eBook ISBN: 9780323151337
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1977
Page Count: 416
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Biotechnological Applications of Proteins and Enzymes contains the proceedings of a conference honoring the 60th birthday of Israeli scientist Ephraim Katchalski-Katzir, held at Kiryat Anavim, Israel, on May 23-27, 1976. The papers focus on the applications of proteins and enzymes in biotechnology, medicine, and nutrition. It provides an extensive biography of Ephraim Katchalski-Katzir and a discussion of his pioneering efforts in biotechnological applications of proteins and enzymes. Organized into four sections comprised of 20 chapters, this compilation begins with an overview of applied research in non-industrial laboratories. Then, it discusses the enzymes and their production, exploitation of soluble and insolubilized enzymes, medical applications of enzymes and proteins, and use of proteins as food. Individual chapters look at protein immobilization and affinity chromatography, cells and enzymes as industrial catalysts, exploitation of multienzyme systems for synthesis, biotransformation of steroid hormones and antibiotics, and the role of zinc in normal and abnormal growth processes. It explains the applications of antibodies, use of immobilized enzymes in analysis, some medical applications of immobilized proteins and enzymes, and interaction of food proteins with water and lipids. The book concludes with a chapter on muscle and connective tissue proteins as food. This book will be of interest to biochemists, biologists and microbiologists, biotechnologists, food technologists, and others involved in research on the biotechnological applications of proteins and enzymes.

Table of Contents

List of Participants


Ephraim Katchalski-Katzir: Portrait of an Israeli Scientist

Greetings by Eliezer Tal

Chapter I The Position of Applied Research in Nonindustrial Laboratories

I. Introduction

II. The Two Facets of Research: Applied and Basic

III. Lessons from the Past

IV. Science and Social Needs

V. Determining Goals and Priorities

VI. Concluding Remarks

Part I Production of Enzymes

Chapter 2 Selection of Bacteria as Sources of Enzymes

I. Introduction

II. A Strategy for the Selection of Enzyme Sources

III. Steps toward International Cooperation in the Selection of Biocatalysts


Chapter 3 Industrial Approach to Enzyme Production

I. Introduction

II. Development of New Enzyme Preparations

III. Purification

IV. Immobilization

V. Control Methods and Safety Measures

VI. Conclusions


Chapter 4 The Microbial Production of Enzymes

I. Introduction

II. Utilization of Industrial Enzymes

III. Methodology of Enzyme Production

IV. The Complex Nature and Function of Some Enzyme Systems

V. Problems Related to Enzyme Production


Chapter 5 Production of Enzymes and Proteins in Tissue Culture

I. Introduction

II. The Need for Large-Scale Tissue Culture

III. Valuable Products from Tissue Culture

IV. Difficulties of Large-Scale Production

V. Apparatus for Large-Scale Production of Cells in Culture

VI. Cell Line Development

VII. Manipulation of the Growth Medium Composition

VIII. Plasminogen Activator Production from Tissue Culture: An Example of the Technology

IX. Conclusions


Part II. Exploitation of Soluble and Insolubilized Enzymes

Chapter 6 Protein Immobilization and Affinity Chromatography

I. Introduction

II. Hydrophobic Affinity Adsorption

III. Charge-Transfer Adsorption

IV. Metal Chelate Affinity Chromatography

V. Chemisorption or Covalent Chromatography

VI. Bioaffinity Chromatography

VII. Appendix: Nomenclature


Chapter 7 Industrial Application of Immobilized Enzymes: Present State of the Art

I. Introduction

II. Large-Scale Applications

III. Small-Scale Applications

IV. Potential Large-Scale Applications of the Future

V. General Discussion of Design Parameters

VI. Functional Characteristics of Enzymes for Reactors

VII. Concluding Remarks


Chapter 8 A Comparison of Cells and Enzymes as Industrial Catalysts

I. Introduction

II. Selection of Catalyst Form

III. Discussion


Chapter 9 "Togetherness" through Immobilization

I. Introduction

II. Multistep Enzyme Systems

III. Enzyme-Cofactor Systems

IV. Enzyme Electrodes and Thermistors


Chapter 10 Chemically Modified Polymers Containing Isocyanide Functional Groups as Supports for Enzyme Immobilization

I. Introduction

II. Attachment of Isocyanide Groups to Common Polymers

III. Coupling of Proteins to Polymers Containing Isocyanide Functional Groups

IV. Chemical Modification of Polymers Containing Isocyanide Functional Groups

V. Concluding Remarks


Chapter 11 Effectiveness of Enzyme-Membrane Filtration Reactors

I. Introduction

II. Materials and Methods

III. Results and Discussion


Chapter 12 Exploitation of Multienzyme Systems for Synthesis

I. Introduction

II. Materials and Methods

III. Results and Discussion

IV. Economic Analysis of the Enzymatic Synthesis


Chapter 13 Biotransformation of Steroid Hormones and Antibiotics

I. Introduction

II. Steroid Hormones

III. Antibiotics

IV. Enzymes of Commercial Importance


Part III Medical Applications of Proteins and Enzymes

Chapter 14 Zinc Biochemistry: A Perspective on the Role of the Metal in Normal and Abnormal Growth Processes

I. Introduction

II. Biochemical Approaches

III. Chemical Features of Zinc Enzymes

IV. Zinc and Normal Cell Biology

V. DNA Metabolism in Zinc-Deficient Euglena gracilis

VI. DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase I and II of Euglena gracilis: Zinc Metalloenzymes

VII. Zinc and Neoplastic Disease

VIII. Epilogue


Chapter 15 Novel Application for Antibodies

I. Introduction

II. Covalent Binding of Daunomycin and Adriamycin to Antibodies

III. Specific Cytotoxic Effects of the Drug-Antibody Conjugates

IV. Fab' Dimers of Antitumor Immunoglobulins as Covalent Carriers of Daunomycin

V. In Vivo Effect of Daunomycin-Antibody Conjugates

VI. Concluding Remarks


Chapter 16 Applications of Immobilized Enzymes in Analysis With Particular Reference to the Automated Determination of Blood Glucose Using Nylon Tube-Immobilized Glucose Dehydrogenase

I. Introduction

II. Enzymes Immobilized in Nylon Tube

III. Application to the Assay of Glucose

IV. Concluding Remarks


Chapter 17 Some Economic, Enzymological, and Practical Problems in the Technological and Analytical Application of Immobilized Enzymes

I. Introduction

II. Immobilized Enzymes as Preparative Tools

III. Immobilized Proteins as Analytical Tools

IV. Concluding Remarks


Chapter 18 Some Medical Applications of Immobilized Proteins and Enzymes

I. Introduction

II. Immobilized Nonenzymatic Proteins

III. Immobilized Enzymes

IV. Concluding Remarks


Part IV Proteins as Food

Chapter 19 Interaction of Food Proteins with Water and with Lipids, and Some Effects of These Interactions on Functional Properties

I. Introduction

II. Protein Hydration

III. Lipid-Protein Interactions

IV. Interactions of Oxidized Lipids with Proteins


Chapter 20 Muscle and Connective Tissue Proteins as Food

I. Introduction

II. Muscle Cell Structure and Composition

III. Contraction

IV. Postmortem Changes

V. Cold-Shortening and Thaw-Rigor

VI. Resolution of Rigor

VII. Connective Tissue Proteins

VIII. Thermal Effects

IX. Meat Color

X. Concluding Remarks




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© Academic Press 1977
28th January 1977
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

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Zvi Bohak

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