Biospeleology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080102429, 9781483185132


1st Edition

The Biology of Cavernicolous Animals

Authors: A. Vandel
Editors: G. A. Kerkut
eBook ISBN: 9781483185132
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1965
Page Count: 552
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Biospeleology: The Biology of Cavernicolous Animals discusses the fundamental concepts in understanding the biological make up of cave-dwelling animals. The title aims to relate the subterranean world as a habitat for organisms. The first part of the text tackles basic concerns, such as the concept of the subterranean world and cavernicoles, along with the history and research concerns in biospeleology. Next, the selection enumerates the subterranean flora and fauna, along with the geographical distribution and ecology of cavernicoles. The next two parts detail the physiology and behavior of cavernicoles, while the last part tackles the evolution of cavarnicoles. The book will be of great interest to zoologists, biologists, and ecologists who wish to gain a better understanding of the biological properties of subterranean organisms.

Table of Contents



A. Speleology

B. Biospeology

Part 1 Biospeology

Chapter I. The Subterranean World

A. Solid Media

B. Liquid Media


Chapter II. The Cavernicoles

A. Classification of the Cavernicoles and their Nomenclature

B. Characteristics of the Cavernicoles

Chapter III. The Origin and Development of Biospeology


A. Beginnings of Biospeology

B. Biospeological Research throughout the World

C. The Organization of Biospeological Research

D. The Present State of Biospeology

Chapter IV. Biospeological Means and Methods

A. Collecting Techniques

B. Attempts to Transplant Fauna

C. Breeding of Cavernicoles

D. Subterranean Laboratories

E. Biospeological Publications

F. The Congress of Speleology

Part 2 A List of Cavernicolous Species

Chapter V. Subterranean Plants

A. Introduction

B. Fungi

C. Cyanophyceae

D. Algae

E. Plants other than Cryptogams

Chapter VI. The Free-Living Protista

A. Protista of Subterranean Waters

B. Protista of the Clay Deposits in Caves

Chapter VII. The Cavernicolous Invertebrates (Excluding Arthropoda)

Introduction— Cavernicolous Metazoa



Chapter VIII. The Arachnids

A. Arthropods

B. Chelicerates

C. Arachnida

D. Scorpionidea

E. Pseudoscorpionidea (Chernetes; Chelonethida)

F. Opilionids

G. Palpigrada

H. Pedipalpia

I. Araneida

J. Ricinulida

K. Acarina

L. Terrestrial Acarina

M. Amphibious Acarina

N. Aquatic Acarina

Chapter IX. The Crustacea

A. Introduction

B. Branchiopoda

C. Copepoda

D. Ostracoda

E. Malacostraca

F. Syncarida

G. Thermosbaenacea

H. Spelaeogriphacea

I. Mysidacea

J. Isopoda

K. Amphipoda

L. Decapoda

Chapter X. Onychophora and Myriapoda

A. Tracheata

B. Onychophora

C. Diplopoda

D. Chilopoda

Chapter XI. The Apterygote Insects

A. Insecta or Hexapoda

B. Apterygota

C. Collembola

D. Diplura

E. Thysanura

Chapter XII. The Pterygote Insects (Excluding Coleoptera)

A. Pterygota

B. Classification of the Insects

C. Blattoidea

D. Orthopteroidea

E. Psocoidea

F. Neuropteroidea

G. Hymenopteroidea

H. Mecopteroidea

Chapter XIII. The Coleoptera

A. Caraboidea

B. Staphylinoidea

C. Cucujoidea

D. Heteromera

E. Malacoderma

Chapter XIV. The Vertebrates

A. Fish

B. Amphibia

C. Reptiles

D. Homoiothermic Vertebrates

E. Birds

F. Mammals

Chapter XV. Phoretic and Parasitic Forms

A. Introduction

B. Parasitic Fungi

C. Gregarina

D. Cnidosporidia

E. Ciliates

F. Temnocephala

G. Trematodes

H. Cestoda

I. Rotifera

J. Nematomorpha

K. Oligochaeta and Hirudinea

L. Copepoda

M. Ostracoda

N. Diptera

O. Acarina

P.Parasites of Bats

Part 3 Geographical Distribution and Ecology of Cavernicoles

Chapter XVI. Geographical Distribution of Cavernicoles

A. Aquatic Cavernicoles

B. Terrestrial Troglophiles

C. Terrestrial Troglobia

D. Cavernicoles and Palaeogeography

Chapter XVII. The Distribution of Cavernicoles in the Subterranean World

A. Subterranean Ecology

B. The Different Habitats of Hypogeous Organisms

C. Subterranean Biotopes—Cavernicolous Synusia and Biocoenoses

Chapter XVIII. Physical, Chemical and Climatic Factors and their Action on the Physiology of Cavernicoles


A. Light

B. Temperature

C. The Atmosphere

D. Water

Part 4 Physiology of Cavernicoles

Chapter XIX. Nutrition and Sources of Food of Cavernicoles

A. Are Cavernicoles always Starved Animals

B. The Food of Cavernicoles

C. The Exogenous Sources of Food

D. Clay and Silts

E. Bacteria and Speleobacteriology

F. Utilization of Different Food Sources and the Food Cycles

Chapter XX. The Metabolism of Cavernicolous Animals

A. Respiratory Metabolism

B. Respiratory Metabolism in Different Cavernicoles

C. The Action of External Factors on Respiratory Metabolism

Chapter XXI. The Endocrine Glands of Cavernicolous Animals

A. Introduction

B. Invertebrates

C. Urodela

D. Fish

Chapter XXII. Reproduction and Development in Cavernicoles

A. Modes of Reproduction

B. Number and Size of the Eggs in Cavernicoles

C. Structure of the Ovaries and Oogenesis in Cavernicoles

D. Processes of Development

E. Factor of Time

F. Conclusions

Part 5 The Behavior of Cavernicoles; Sensitivity and Sense Organs

Chapter XXIII. The Behavior of Cavernicoles

A. Activity Rhythms

B. Some Examples of Behavior in Cavernicolous Animals

Chapter XXIV. Reactions of Cavernicoles to External Factors

A. Behavior with Respect to Mechanical Factors

B. Behavior with Respect to Movements

C. Behavior of Aquatic Cavernicoles with Respect to Running Water

D. Behavior towards Vibration

E. Behavior towards Sound Waves

F. Behavior towards Chemical Materials dissolved in Water

G. Behavior towards Chemical Substances carried by the Air

H. Behavior towards Humidity

Chapter XXV. The Behavior of Cavernicoles with Respect to Light

A. General Reactions to Light

B. Orientation Reactions to Light

C. Photoreceptors of Cavernicoles

D. Pigments and Pigmentation

Chapter XXVI. The Visual System of Cavernicoles

A. Introduction

B. The Distribution of Anophthalmia in the Animal Kingdom

C. Anophthalmic Cavernicoles

D. Instability of the Ocular Structures in Cavernicoles

E. Eye Pigments

G. Ontogenetic Evolution of Regressed Eyes

H. Effects of Regression of the Eye on the Structure of the Brain in Cavernicoles

I. Correlation between Depigmentation, Anophthalmia and Apterism

J. Conclusions. Genesis of Anophthalmia

Chapter XXVII. Echolocation

A. Principle of Echolocation

B. Echolocation in Bats

C. Echolocation in Birds

Part 6 The Evolution of Cavernicoles

Chapter XXVIII. Theoretical Concepts

A. Neo-Lamarckism

B. Mutationism

C. Organicism

Chapter XXIX. The Antiquity of Cavernicoles

A. Relative Ages of Cavernicoles

B. Ancient Cavernicoles. Concept of Relict Faunae

C. Origin of Relicts in Relation to Climatic Factors

D. Concept of Refuge

E. Different Types of Relicts

Chapter XXX. The Stages of Subterranean Evolution

A. Period of Preparation

B. Period of Instability

C. Period of Stability

Chapter XXXI. The Processes of Subterranean Evolution

A. Concept of Adaptation

B. Regressive Evolution

C. Significance of Regressive Evolution

D. Autoregulation

E. Autoregulation and Phyletic Senescence

F. Autoregulation in Cavernicoles (Period of Preparation)

G. Autoregulation in Cavernicoles (Final Period)

H. Does Progressive Evolution Occur among Cavernicoles

I. Compensation for Loss of Vision among Cavernicoles

J. Features of Cavernicoles

K. "Struggle for Existence" and Natural Selection

L. Conclusion

Author Index

Subject Index

Other Titles in the Zoology Division

Other Divisions in the Series


No. of pages:
© Pergamon 1965
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

A. Vandel

About the Editor

G. A. Kerkut

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