Bioprocess Engineering

Bioprocess Engineering

Kinetics, Sustainability, and Reactor Design

3rd Edition - April 7, 2020

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  • Author: Shijie Liu
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128210123
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128223833

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Bioprocess Engineering: Kinetics, Sustainability, and Reactor Design, Third Edition, is a systematic and comprehensive textbook on bioprocess kinetics, molecular transformation, bioprocess systems, sustainability and reaction engineering. The book reviews the relevant fundamentals of chemical kinetics, batch and continuous reactors, biochemistry, microbiology, molecular biology, reaction engineering and bioprocess systems engineering, introducing key principles that enable bioprocess engineers to engage in the analysis, optimization, selection of cultivation methods, design and consistent control over molecular biological and chemical transformations. The quantitative treatment of bioprocesses is the central theme in this text, however more advanced techniques and applications are also covered.

Key Features

  • Includes biological molecules and chemical reaction basics, cell biology and genetic engineering
  • Describes kinetics and catalysis at molecular and cellular levels, along with the principles of fermentation
  • Covers advanced topics and treatise in interactive enzyme and molecular regulations, also covering solid catalysis
  • Explores bioprocess kinetics, mass transfer effects, reactor analysis, control and design


Senior undergraduate students in Chemical Engineering, Bioprocess Engineering, Biological Engineering

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1. Introduction
    1.1. Biological Cycle
    1.2 Green Chemistry
    1.3. Sustainability
    1.4. Biorefinery
    1.5. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering
    1.6. Mathematics, Biology and Engineering
    1.7. The Story of Penicillin: The Dawn of Bioprocess Engineering
    1.8. Bioprocesses: Regulatory Constraints
    1.9. The Pillars of Bioprocess Kinetics and Systems Engineering
    1.10. Summary

    Chapter 2. An Overview of Biological Basics
    2.1. Cells and Organisms
    2.2. Viruses
    2.3. Prions
    2.4. Stem Cell
    2.5. Cell Chemistry
    2.6. Cell Feed
    2.7. Non Earthly / Unnatural Biological Agents
    2.8. Summary

    Chapter 3. An Overview of Chemical Reaction Analysis
    3.1 Chemical Species
    3.2 Chemical Reactions
    3.3 Reaction Rates
    3.4 Approximate Reactions
    3.5 Stoichiometry
    3.7 Yield and Yield Factor
    3.7 Reaction Rates near Equilibrium
    3.8 Energy Regularity
    3.9 Classification of Multiple Reactions and Selectivity
    3.10 Coupled Reactions
    3.11 Reactor Mass Balances
    3.12 Reaction Energy Balances
    3.13 Reactor Momentum Balance
    3.14 Ideal Reactors
    3.15 Bioprocess Systems Optimization
    3.16 Summary

    Chapter 4. Batch Reactor
    4.1. Isothermal Batch Reactors
    4.2 Batch Reactor Sizing
    4.3 Non-Isothermal Batch Reactors
    4.4 Numerical Solutions of Batch Reactor Problems
    4.5 The Reactor Pinch Graph
    4.6 Summary

    Chapter 5. Ideal Flow Reactors
    5.1. Commonly Useful Parameters
    5.2. Plug Flow Reactor (PFR)
    5.3. Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) and Chemostat
    5.4. Multiple Reactors
    5.5. Recycle Reactors
    5.6. PFR with Distributed Feeding and Withdrawing
    5.7. Reactive Distillation
    5.8 PFR or CSTR?
    5.9 Steady Nonisothermal Flow Reactors
    5.10. Reactive Extraction
    5.11 Graphic Solutions Using Batch Concentration Data
    5.12 Summary

    Chapter 6. Kinetic Theory and Reaction Kinetics
    6.1 Elementary Kinetic Theory
    6.2 Collision Theory of Reaction Rates
    6.3. Reaction Rate Analysis / Approximation
    6.4. Unimolecular Reactions
    6.5. Free Radicals
    6.6. Kinetics of Acid Hydrolysis
    6.7. Parametric Estimation
    6.8. Summary

    Chapter 7. Enzymes
    7.1. How Enzymes Work
    7.2. Simple Enzyme Kinetics
    7.3. Competitive and Allosteric Enzyme Kinetics
    7.4. Enzyme Inhibition
    7.5. Higher Order Rational Kinetics
    7.6. pH effects
    7.7. Temperature Effects
    7.8. Insoluble Substrates and/or High Enzyme Loading
    7.9. Immobilized Enzyme Systems
    7.10. Analysis of Bioprocess with Enzymatic Reactions
    7.11. Large-Scale Production of Enzymes
    7.12. Medical and Industrial Utilization of Enzymes
    7.13. Kinetic Approximation: Why Michaelis-Menten Equation Works
    7.14. Summary

    Chapter 8. Chemical Reactions on Solid Surfaces
    8.1 Catalysis
    8.2 How Does Reaction with Solid Occur?
    8.3 Langmuir: Theoretical Basis of Adsorption Kinetics
    8.4 Idealization of Nonideal Surfaces
    8.5 Cooperative Adsorption
    8.6 LHHW: Surface Reactions with Rate-Controlling Steps
    8.7 Why Rate Approximation such as LHHW works?
    8.8 Chemical Reactions on Nonideal Surfaces Based on the Distribution of Interaction Energy
    8.9. Chemical Reactions on Nonideal Surfaces: Cooperative Catalysis
    8.10 Kinetics of Reactions on Surfaces where the Solid is Either a Product or Reactant
    8.11 Decline of Surface Activity: Catalyst Deactivation
    8.12 Summary

    Chapter 9. Cell Metabolism
    9.1. The Central Dogma
    9.2. DNA Replication: Preserving and Propagating the Cellular Message
    9.3. Transcription: Sending the Message
    9.4. Translation: Message to Product
    9.5. Metabolic Regulation
    9.6. How a Cell Senses Its Extracellular Environment
    9.7 Major Metabolic Pathways
    9.8. Overview of Biosynthesis
    9.9. Overview of Anaerobic Metabolism
    9.10. Overview of Autotrophic Metabolism
    9.11. Monod Equation: FES Approximation to Metabolism
    9.12. Summary

    Chapter 10. Interactive Enzymes / Proteins
    10.1. Multifunctionization of Enzyme / Protein
    10.2. Covalent oligomerization
    10.3. Non-covalent association / assembly
    10.4 Domain swapping assembly
    10.5 Enzyme polymorphs
    10.6 Ligand enzyme interactions
    10.7 Ligand binding on homosteric enzyme
    10.8 Sequential ligand binding on allosteric enzyme
    10.9 Random-access ligand binding on allosteric enzyme
    10.10. Summary

    Chapter 11. Molecular Regulation on Multifunctional Enzymes
    11.1 Single Substrate Reactions 3
    11.2 Unimolecular Reactions 9
    11.3 Bimolecular Reactions 11
    11.4. Mixtures of Enzyme Oligomers and Classic Models of Enzyme Interactions
    11.5. Rational expressions for catalytic rate
    11.6 Multiple Different Ligand-Specific Active Centers
    11.7 Competitive catalysis on homosteric enzymes
    11.8 Competitive multi-factor catalysis
    11.9 Kinetics of Polymorphic Catalysis
    11.10. Summary

    Chapter 12. How Cells Grow
    12.1. Quantifying Biomass
    12.2. Batch Growth Patterns
    12.3 Biomass Yield
    12.4 Approximate Growth Kinetics and Monod Equation
    12.5 Cell Death Rate
    12.6 Cell Maintenance and Endogenous Metabolism
    12.7 Product Yield
    12.8 Oxygen Demand for Aerobic Microorganisms
    12.9. Effect of Environmental Conditions
    12.10. Heat Generation by Microbial Growth
    12.12. Overview of Cell Growth Kinetic Models
    12.13. Summary

    Chapter 13. Cell Cultivation
    13.1. Batch Culture
    13.2. Continuous Culture
    13.3. Choosing the Cultivation Method
    13.4. Chemostat with Recycle
    13.5. Multistage Chemostat Systems
    13.6. Waste Water Treatment Process
    13.7. Immobilized Cell Systems
    13.8. Solid Substrate Fermentations
    13.9. Fed-batch Operations
    13.10. Summary

    Chapter 14. Evolution and Genetic Engineering
    14.1 Mutations
    14.2. Selection
    14.3. Natural Mechanisms for Gene Transfer and Rearrangement
    14.4 Techniques of Genetic Engineering
    14.5 Applications of Genetic Engineering
    14.6 The Product and Process Decisions
    14.7. Host-Vector System Selection
    14.8. Regulatory Constraints on Genetic Processes
    14.9. Metabolic Engineering
    14.10. Protein Engineering
    14.11 Summary

    Chapter 15. Sustainability: Humanity Perspective
    15.1 What is Sustainability?
    15.2 Sustainability of Humanity
    15.3 Water
    15.4. CO2 and Biomass
    15.5. Woody Biomass Use and Desired Sustainable State
    15.6. Solar Energy
    15.7. Geothermal Energy
    15.8. Summary

    Chapter 15 Sustainability and Stability
    16.1 Feed Stability of a CSTR
    16.2 Thermal Stability of a CSTR
    16.3 Approaching Steady State
    16.4. Catalyst Instability
    16.5. Genetic Instability
    16.6 Mixed Cultures
    16.7. Sustainability of Mixed Culture
    16.8 Summary

    Chapter 17. Mass Transfer Effects: Immobilized and Heterogeneous Reaction Systems
    17.1 How Transformation Occurs in A Heterogeneous System?
    17.2 Molecular Diffusion and Mass Transfer Rate
    17.3 External Mass Transfer
    17.4. Reactions in Isothermal Porous Catalysts
    17.5 Mass Transfer Effects in Non-Isothermal Porous Particles
    17.6. External and Internal Mass Transfer Effects
    17.7. Encapsulation Immobilization
    17.8. External and Internal Surface Effects
    17.9. The Shrinking Core Model
    17.10. Summary

    Chapter 18. Bioreactor Design and Operation
    18.1 Bioreactor Selection
    18.2 Reactor Operational Mode Selection
    18.3 Aeration, Agitation and Heat Transfer
    18.4 Scale-up
    18.5 Scale-down
    18.6 Bioinstrumentation and Controls
    18.7 Sterilization of Process Fluids
    18.8 Aseptic Operations and Practical Considerations for Bioreactor System Construction
    18.9 Effect of Imperfect Mixing
    18.10 Summary

    Chapter 19. Combustion, Reactive Hazard and Bioprocess Safety
    19.1 Biological hazards
    19.2 Identifying Chemical Reactivity Hazards
    19.3 Heat, flames, fires, and explosions
    19.4 Probabilities, redundancy, and worst-case scenarios
    19.5 Chain reactions
    19.6 Auto-oxidation and safety
    19.7 Combustion
    19.8 Premixed flames
    19.9 Heat generation
    19.10 Gasification and Pyrolysis
    19.11 Solid and liquid explosives
    19.12 Explosions and detonations
    19.13 Reactor safety
    19.14 Summary

    Chapter 20. Nonideal Reactors
    20.1 Diffusion and flow in a reactor
    20.2 Dispersion
    20.3 Stirred Tank Reactor
    20.4 Tubular Reactor
    20.5 Buble Column
    20.6 Fluidized Bed Reactor
    20.7 Reactor Residence Time Distribution
    20.8 Summary

    Chapter 21. Bioprocess Kinetics Experimental Design
    21.1 Introduction
    21.2 Identification of objectives
    21.3 Model construction
    21.4 Factorial design
    21.5 Taguchi method
    21.6 Responsive surface
    21.7 Summary

Product details

  • No. of pages: 958
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2020
  • Published: April 7, 2020
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128210123
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128223833

About the Author

Shijie Liu

Shijie Liu
Dr. Shijie Liu is a professor of bioprocess engineering at the State University of New York – College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY ESF), Syracuse, NY, USA. His contributions include volume averaging in porous media, kinetics of reactions on solid surfaces, cooperative adsorption theory, the theory of interactive enzymes, and the kinetic modeling of polyauxic growth / fermentation. Much of his childhood was spent in the country side of Sichuan Province in China, finished high school in 1978 from Luxi High School, in a little town just a few kilometers away from his home of birth. He graduated from Chengdu University of Science and Technology (now merged into Sichuan University) with a BS degree in Chemical Engineering in 1982. His early career started in the chemical industrial city of Lanzhou, China before moving to Canada. He obtained his PhD degree in Chemical Engineering from the University of Alberta in 1992 under Prof. Jacob H. Masliyah. Since then, he worked in the University of Alberta and Alberta Research Council before joining SUNY ESF in 2005. He has over 150 peer-reviewed publications today and maintains strong collaborations with colleagues in China from various universities. He taught a variety of courses including transport phenomena, numerical methods, mass transfer, chemical kinetics, pulp and paper technology, colloids and interfaces, chemical reaction engineering, bioreaction engineering, bioprocess kinetics and systems engineering, bioefinery processes, advanced biocatalysis, advanced bioprocess kinetics, and bioprocess engineering. Dr. Liu currently serves as the Editor-In-Chief of the Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy, as well as the Editor-In-Chief of the Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery.

Affiliations and Expertise

College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY ESF), State University of New York, NY, USA

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