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Bioprocess Engineering - 3rd Edition - ISBN: 9780128210123, 9780128223833

Bioprocess Engineering

3rd Edition

Kinetics, Sustainability, and Reactor Design

Author: Shijie Liu
eBook ISBN: 9780128223833
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128210123
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 17th April 2020
Page Count: 958
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Bioprocess Engineering: Kinetics, Sustainability, and Reactor Design, Third Edition, is a systematic and comprehensive textbook on bioprocess kinetics, molecular transformation, bioprocess systems, sustainability and reaction engineering. The book reviews the relevant fundamentals of chemical kinetics, batch and continuous reactors, biochemistry, microbiology, molecular biology, reaction engineering and bioprocess systems engineering, introducing key principles that enable bioprocess engineers to engage in the analysis, optimization, selection of cultivation methods, design and consistent control over molecular biological and chemical transformations. The quantitative treatment of bioprocesses is the central theme in this text, however more advanced techniques and applications are also covered.

Key Features

  • Includes biological molecules and chemical reaction basics, cell biology and genetic engineering
  • Describes kinetics and catalysis at molecular and cellular levels, along with the principles of fermentation
  • Covers advanced topics and treatise in interactive enzyme and molecular regulations, also covering solid catalysis
  • Explores bioprocess kinetics, mass transfer effects, reactor analysis, control and design


Senior undergraduate students in Chemical Engineering, Bioprocess Engineering, Biological Engineering

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1. Biological Cycle
1.2 Green Chemistry
1.3. Sustainability
1.4. Biorefinery
1.5. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering
1.6. Mathematics, Biology and Engineering
1.7. The Story of Penicillin: The Dawn of Bioprocess Engineering
1.8. Bioprocesses: Regulatory Constraints
1.9. The Pillars of Bioprocess Kinetics and Systems Engineering
1.10. Summary

Chapter 2. An Overview of Biological Basics
2.1. Cells and Organisms
2.2. Viruses
2.3. Prions
2.4. Stem Cell
2.5. Cell Chemistry
2.6. Cell Feed
2.7. Non Earthly / Unnatural Biological Agents
2.8. Summary

Chapter 3. An Overview of Chemical Reaction Analysis
3.1 Chemical Species
3.2 Chemical Reactions
3.3 Reaction Rates
3.4 Approximate Reactions
3.5 Stoichiometry
3.7 Yield and Yield Factor
3.7 Reaction Rates near Equilibrium
3.8 Energy Regularity
3.9 Classification of Multiple Reactions and Selectivity
3.10 Coupled Reactions
3.11 Reactor Mass Balances
3.12 Reaction Energy Balances
3.13 Reactor Momentum Balance
3.14 Ideal Reactors
3.15 Bioprocess Systems Optimization
3.16 Summary

Chapter 4. Batch Reactor
4.1. Isothermal Batch Reactors
4.2 Batch Reactor Sizing
4.3 Non-Isothermal Batch Reactors
4.4 Numerical Solutions of Batch Reactor Problems
4.5 The Reactor Pinch Graph
4.6 Summary

Chapter 5. Ideal Flow Reactors
5.1. Commonly Useful Parameters
5.2. Plug Flow Reactor (PFR)
5.3. Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) and Chemostat
5.4. Multiple Reactors
5.5. Recycle Reactors
5.6. PFR with Distributed Feeding and Withdrawing
5.7. Reactive Distillation
5.8 PFR or CSTR?
5.9 Steady Nonisothermal Flow Reactors
5.10. Reactive Extraction
5.11 Graphic Solutions Using Batch Concentration Data
5.12 Summary

Chapter 6. Kinetic Theory and Reaction Kinetics
6.1 Elementary Kinetic Theory
6.2 Collision Theory of Reaction Rates
6.3. Reaction Rate Analysis / Approximation
6.4. Unimolecular Reactions
6.5. Free Radicals
6.6. Kinetics of Acid Hydrolysis
6.7. Parametric Estimation
6.8. Summary

Chapter 7. Enzymes
7.1. How Enzymes Work
7.2. Simple Enzyme Kinetics
7.3. Competitive and Allosteric Enzyme Kinetics
7.4. Enzyme Inhibition
7.5. Higher Order Rational Kinetics
7.6. pH effects
7.7. Temperature Effects
7.8. Insoluble Substrates and/or High Enzyme Loading
7.9. Immobilized Enzyme Systems
7.10. Analysis of Bioprocess with Enzymatic Reactions
7.11. Large-Scale Production of Enzymes
7.12. Medical and Industrial Utilization of Enzymes
7.13. Kinetic Approximation: Why Michaelis-Menten Equation Works
7.14. Summary

Chapter 8. Chemical Reactions on Solid Surfaces
8.1 Catalysis
8.2 How Does Reaction with Solid Occur?
8.3 Langmuir: Theoretical Basis of Adsorption Kinetics
8.4 Idealization of Nonideal Surfaces
8.5 Cooperative Adsorption
8.6 LHHW: Surface Reactions with Rate-Controlling Steps
8.7 Why Rate Approximation such as LHHW works?
8.8 Chemical Reactions on Nonideal Surfaces Based on the Distribution of Interaction Energy
8.9. Chemical Reactions on Nonideal Surfaces: Cooperative Catalysis
8.10 Kinetics of Reactions on Surfaces where the Solid is Either a Product or Reactant
8.11 Decline of Surface Activity: Catalyst Deactivation
8.12 Summary

Chapter 9. Cell Metabolism
9.1. The Central Dogma
9.2. DNA Replication: Preserving and Propagating the Cellular Message
9.3. Transcription: Sending the Message
9.4. Translation: Message to Product
9.5. Metabolic Regulation
9.6. How a Cell Senses Its Extracellular Environment
9.7 Major Metabolic Pathways
9.8. Overview of Biosynthesis
9.9. Overview of Anaerobic Metabolism
9.10. Overview of Autotrophic Metabolism
9.11. Monod Equation: FES Approximation to Metabolism
9.12. Summary

Chapter 10. Interactive Enzymes / Proteins
10.1. Multifunctionization of Enzyme / Protein
10.2. Covalent oligomerization
10.3. Non-covalent association / assembly
10.4 Domain swapping assembly
10.5 Enzyme polymorphs
10.6 Ligand enzyme interactions
10.7 Ligand binding on homosteric enzyme
10.8 Sequential ligand binding on allosteric enzyme
10.9 Random-access ligand binding on allosteric enzyme
10.10. Summary

Chapter 11. Molecular Regulation on Multifunctional Enzymes
11.1 Single Substrate Reactions 3
11.2 Unimolecular Reactions 9
11.3 Bimolecular Reactions 11
11.4. Mixtures of Enzyme Oligomers and Classic Models of Enzyme Interactions
11.5. Rational expressions for catalytic rate
11.6 Multiple Different Ligand-Specific Active Centers
11.7 Competitive catalysis on homosteric enzymes
11.8 Competitive multi-factor catalysis
11.9 Kinetics of Polymorphic Catalysis
11.10. Summary

Chapter 12. How Cells Grow
12.1. Quantifying Biomass
12.2. Batch Growth Patterns
12.3 Biomass Yield
12.4 Approximate Growth Kinetics and Monod Equation
12.5 Cell Death Rate
12.6 Cell Maintenance and Endogenous Metabolism
12.7 Product Yield
12.8 Oxygen Demand for Aerobic Microorganisms
12.9. Effect of Environmental Conditions
12.10. Heat Generation by Microbial Growth
12.12. Overview of Cell Growth Kinetic Models
12.13. Summary

Chapter 13. Cell Cultivation
13.1. Batch Culture
13.2. Continuous Culture
13.3. Choosing the Cultivation Method
13.4. Chemostat with Recycle
13.5. Multistage Chemostat Systems
13.6. Waste Water Treatment Process
13.7. Immobilized Cell Systems
13.8. Solid Substrate Fermentations
13.9. Fed-batch Operations
13.10. Summary

Chapter 14. Evolution and Genetic Engineering
14.1 Mutations
14.2. Selection
14.3. Natural Mechanisms for Gene Transfer and Rearrangement
14.4 Techniques of Genetic Engineering
14.5 Applications of Genetic Engineering
14.6 The Product and Process Decisions
14.7. Host-Vector System Selection
14.8. Regulatory Constraints on Genetic Processes
14.9. Metabolic Engineering
14.10. Protein Engineering
14.11 Summary

Chapter 15. Sustainability: Humanity Perspective
15.1 What is Sustainability?
15.2 Sustainability of Humanity
15.3 Water
15.4. CO2 and Biomass
15.5. Woody Biomass Use and Desired Sustainable State
15.6. Solar Energy
15.7. Geothermal Energy
15.8. Summary

Chapter 15 Sustainability and Stability
16.1 Feed Stability of a CSTR
16.2 Thermal Stability of a CSTR
16.3 Approaching Steady State
16.4. Catalyst Instability
16.5. Genetic Instability
16.6 Mixed Cultures
16.7. Sustainability of Mixed Culture
16.8 Summary

Chapter 17. Mass Transfer Effects: Immobilized and Heterogeneous Reaction Systems
17.1 How Transformation Occurs in A Heterogeneous System?
17.2 Molecular Diffusion and Mass Transfer Rate
17.3 External Mass Transfer
17.4. Reactions in Isothermal Porous Catalysts
17.5 Mass Transfer Effects in Non-Isothermal Porous Particles
17.6. External and Internal Mass Transfer Effects
17.7. Encapsulation Immobilization
17.8. External and Internal Surface Effects
17.9. The Shrinking Core Model
17.10. Summary

Chapter 18. Bioreactor Design and Operation
18.1 Bioreactor Selection
18.2 Reactor Operational Mode Selection
18.3 Aeration, Agitation and Heat Transfer
18.4 Scale-up
18.5 Scale-down
18.6 Bioinstrumentation and Controls
18.7 Sterilization of Process Fluids
18.8 Aseptic Operations and Practical Considerations for Bioreactor System Construction
18.9 Effect of Imperfect Mixing
18.10 Summary

Chapter 19. Combustion, Reactive Hazard and Bioprocess Safety
19.1 Biological hazards
19.2 Identifying Chemical Reactivity Hazards
19.3 Heat, flames, fires, and explosions
19.4 Probabilities, redundancy, and worst-case scenarios
19.5 Chain reactions
19.6 Auto-oxidation and safety
19.7 Combustion
19.8 Premixed flames
19.9 Heat generation
19.10 Gasification and Pyrolysis
19.11 Solid and liquid explosives
19.12 Explosions and detonations
19.13 Reactor safety
19.14 Summary

Chapter 20. Nonideal Reactors
20.1 Diffusion and flow in a reactor
20.2 Dispersion
20.3 Stirred Tank Reactor
20.4 Tubular Reactor
20.5 Buble Column
20.6 Fluidized Bed Reactor
20.7 Reactor Residence Time Distribution
20.8 Summary

Chapter 21. Bioprocess Kinetics Experimental Design
21.1 Introduction
21.2 Identification of objectives
21.3 Model construction
21.4 Factorial design
21.5 Taguchi method
21.6 Responsive surface
21.7 Summary


No. of pages:
© Elsevier 2020
17th April 2020
eBook ISBN:
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About the Author

Shijie Liu

Shijie Liu

Dr. Shijie Liu is a professor of bioprocess engineering at the State University of New York – College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY ESF), Syracuse, NY, USA. His contributions include volume averaging in porous media, kinetics of reactions on solid surfaces, cooperative adsorption theory, the theory of interactive enzymes, and the kinetic modeling of polyauxic growth / fermentation. Much of his childhood was spent in the country side of Sichuan Province in China, finished high school in 1978 from Luxi High School, in a little town just a few kilometers away from his home of birth. He graduated from Chengdu University of Science and Technology (now merged into Sichuan University) with a BS degree in Chemical Engineering in 1982. His early career started in the chemical industrial city of Lanzhou, China before moving to Canada. He obtained his PhD degree in Chemical Engineering from the University of Alberta in 1992 under Prof. Jacob H. Masliyah. Since then, he worked in the University of Alberta and Alberta Research Council before joining SUNY ESF in 2005. He has over 150 peer-reviewed publications today and maintains strong collaborations with colleagues in China from various universities. He taught a variety of courses including transport phenomena, numerical methods, mass transfer, chemical kinetics, pulp and paper technology, colloids and interfaces, chemical reaction engineering, bioreaction engineering, bioprocess kinetics and systems engineering, bioefinery processes, advanced biocatalysis, advanced bioprocess kinetics, and bioprocess engineering. Dr. Liu currently serves as the Editor-In-Chief of the Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy, as well as the Editor-In-Chief of the Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery.

Affiliations and Expertise

College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY ESF), State University of New York, NY, USA

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