Biophotonics, Tryptophan and Disease

Biophotonics, Tryptophan and Disease

1st Edition - October 9, 2021

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  • Editors: Laura Sordillo, Peter Sordillo
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128227916
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128227909

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Description

Biophotonics, Tryptophan and Disease is a comprehensive resource on the key role of tryptophan in wide range of diseases as seen by using optics techniques. It explores the use of fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman, imaging techniques and time-resolved spectroscopy in normal and diseased tissues and shows the reader how light techniques (i.e. spectroscopy and imaging) can be used to detect, distinguish and evaluate diseases. Diseases covered include cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and other age-related diseases. Biophotonics, Tryptophan and Disease offers a clear presentation of techniques and integrates material from different disciplines into one resource. It is a valuable reference for students and interdisciplinary researchers working on the interface between biochemistry and molecular biology, translational medicine, and biophotonics.

Key Features

  • Shows the key role of tryptophan in diseases
  • Emphasizes how optical techniques can be potent means of assessing many diseases
  • Points to new ways of understanding autism, aging, depression, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases

Readership

Graduate students and postdocs as well as researchers in molecular biology, biochemistry, biophysics and chemistry working on multidisciplinary research projects. Clinical researchers and pharmaceutical scientists

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contributors
  • About the editors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Part I: Biophotonics to investigate tryptophan and its metabolites
  • Chapter 1: The physics of key biophotonic techniques
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Tryptophan fluorescence
  • The design of photonic devices used in the evaluation of intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence
  • Raman spectroscopy of tryptophan
  • References
  • Chapter 2: Tryptophan analysis using multiphoton microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Multiphoton microscopy
  • Lifetime fluorescence and Förster resonance energy transfer
  • Fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy
  • Fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy, one photon (1P), and two photon excitation of tryptophan
  • Three photon (3P) excitation of tryptophan
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Deep-ultraviolet microscopy for tryptophan label-free imaging in cells and tissue
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Absorption
  • Intrinsic fluorescence
  • Resonance Raman scattering
  • Photothermal effect
  • Multiphoton excitation
  • Instrumentation
  • Discussion and conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 4: Tryptophan as a biomarker using terahertz spectroscopy
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • High frequency modes: Terahertz spectroscopy at the upper range
  • Low frequency modes: Terahertz spectroscopy at the lower range
  • Overview of water: The environment of proteins
  • THz and tryptophan
  • References
  • Part II: Tryptophan in diseases
  • Chapter 5: The role of tryptophan in Chagas disease and other trypanosomatid infections
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Tryptophan metabolism during the T. cruzi cycle in the insect vector and during human infection
  • The influence of tryptophan on other trypanosomatids
  • Genetic analysis of the enzymes tyrosine aminotransferase and aromatic L-2 hydroxyacid dehydrogenase (TcAHADH)
  • Role for photonics
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 6: Tryptophan fluorescence for early evaluation of cataracts
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • The eye lens
  • Tryptophan spectroscopy
  • Fluorescence measurements in the eye lens
  • Identification of the chemical nature of non-Trp emission
  • Spectral characterization of fluorescent PTMs
  • Quantification of fluorescent PTMs
  • Fluorescence confocal microscopy of post-mortem donor eye lenses
  • Significance of PTMs in crystallins
  • Cataracts therapy
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 7: Tryptophan, after inflammatory cytokine stimulation, determines plaque vulnerability and risk of myocardial infarction
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Inflammation
  • Kynurenines and cardiac disease
  • Plaque atherogenesis and vulnerability
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Tryptophan and metabolites (serotonin and kynurenines) in posttraumatic stress disorder
  • Abstract
  • PTSD: Definition and diagnostic criteria
  • Biology of PTSD
  • Metabolic pathways of tryptophan
  • Tryptophan derivatives and PTSD
  • Pharmacologic treatments
  • Non-pharmacologic interventions
  • References
  • Chapter 9: Effects of tryptophan metabolism on the brain: From early development to Alzheimer's disease
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Fluorescence-based techniques to detect tryptophan
  • Lifetime fluorescence techniques to analyze tryptophan
  • Concluding remarks
  • References
  • Chapter 10: Excess activity of 3-hydroxykynurenine, quinolinic acid, and other toxic tryptophan metabolites in neurogenerative diseases and other protein misfolding diseases
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Parkinson's disease and abnormal protein aggregates
  • Protein aggregates cause cell death by puncturing lipid membranes
  • Protein aggregation in Alzheimer's (ALZ)
  • Tryptophan metabolism and the kynurenine pathway
  • Increased KYN pathway activity in neurodegenerative diseases
  • Kynurenines and quinolinic acid in other proteopathies
  • Optical techniques to measure TRY
  • Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 11: Tryptophan and kynurenine levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
  • Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome-inflammation
  • Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, tryptophan, and kynurenine pathway
  • High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to analyze tryptophan and kynurenine
  • Results of our previous study
  • Concluding remarks and future perspective
  • References
  • Part III: Current applications: Biophotonics to study the role of tryptophan in diseases
  • Chapter 12: Fluorescence-based techniques using plasma: A unique biomarker for different cancers
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgment
  • Introduction
  • Experimental details
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 13: Synchronous luminescence spectroscopy of tryptophan in head and neck cancer
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgment
  • Introduction
  • The ratio technique for tissue characterization
  • Principle of the SLS technique
  • SLS of tryptophan in oral cancer
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 14: Tryptophan fluorescence for diagnosis and staging of gastrointestinal cancers
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • Tryptophan in normal and cancerous tissues
  • Tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy
  • Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) of tryptophan
  • Tryptophan fluorescence in saliva and gastric juice for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancers
  • Tryptophan fluorescence in tissues for diagnosis of oral and esophageal cancers
  • Tryptophan fluorescence in tissues for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancers
  • Statistical evaluation of the fluorescence from normal and cancerous colorectal tissue
  • Tryptophan fluorescence for staging of gastrointestinal cancer
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Part IV: The future: New directions in Biophotonics and the study of tryptophan and disease
  • Chapter 15: Tryptophan fluorescence and machine learning to study the aggressiveness of prostate cancer cell lines: A pilot study
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • NFL from fibroblast, DU-145, and PC-3 cell lines
  • NFL from LNCaP, DU-145, and PC-3 cell lines
  • Principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis to analyze the NFL spectra of fibroblast, DU-145, and PC-3 cell lines
  • Nonnegative matrix factorization to analyze NFL spectra of LNCaP, DU-145, and PC-3 cell lines
  • Support vector machines to classify the NFL spectra from LNCaP, DU-145, PC-3 cell lines
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 16: The principles of machine learning algorithms: Applications to biophotonics and disease
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Popular machine learning algorithms
  • Machine learning and optical spectroscopy for the assessment of disease
  • Future directions and limitations of machine learning algorithms in biophotonics
  • Conclusion
  • Appendix A. Math background and notation
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 220
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2021
  • Published: October 9, 2021
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128227916
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128227909

About the Editors

Laura Sordillo

Laura A. Sordillo, MS, MPhil, PhD, is a research assistant professor at The Institute for Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Lasers in the physics and electrical engineering departments at The City College of the City University of New York, USA. Her interdisciplinary research involves the development of novel short wavelength infrared techniques for deep tissue imaging of the brain, the application of optical spectroscopy for the assessment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s, as well as of cancer, and the study of ultrafast optical processes in photosynthetic systems. She is the recipient of the Kaylie Entrepreneur Award, the MSKCC-CCNY Graduate Research Award, the 2016-2017 Grove School of Engineering Graduate Fellowship, the 2017-2018 Corning Inc. PhD Fellowship Award and the 2018-2019 Corning Inc. PhD Fellowship Award. She has published more than 60 papers and holds 13 patents.

Affiliations and Expertise

Researcher, Optics/Photonics, Physics and Electrical Engineering Department, The City College of New York, NY, USA

Peter Sordillo

Peter P. Sordillo, M.D., PhD is a physician and cancer researcher whose specialty is the treatment of extremely rare cancers. In addition to his M.D., he holds three graduate degrees in philosophy (causality) (Columbia University), and a graduate degree in physics (NYU). He is Vice-President and Chief Scientific Officer at SignPath Pharma Inc., a biotechnology company; Attending Physician in Medical Oncology, Hematology and Internal Medicine at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City; and research consultant at The Institute for Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Lasers, Physics Department, The City College of the City University of New York, USA. He has published more than 190 papers and holds 15 patents.

Affiliations and Expertise

Vice-President and Chief Scientific Officer, SignPath Pharma Inc; Attending Physician in Medical Oncology, Hematology and Internal Medicine, Lenox Hill Hospital, NY, USA

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