The revised edition of the renowned and bestselling title is the most comprehensive single text on all aspects of biomaterials science from principles to applications. Biomaterials Science, fourth edition, provides a balanced, insightful approach to both the learning of the science and technology of biomaterials and acts as the key reference for practitioners who are involved in the applications of materials in medicine.This new edition incorporates key updates to reflect the latest relevant research in the field, particularly in the applications section, which includes the latest in topics such as nanotechnology, robotic implantation, and biomaterials utilized in cancer research detection and therapy. Other additions include regenerative engineering, 3D printing, personalized medicine and organs on a chip. Translation from the lab to commercial products is emphasized with new content dedicated to medical device development, global issues related to translation, and issues of quality assurance and reimbursement. In response to customer feedback, the new edition also features consolidation of redundant material to ensure clarity and focus. Biomaterials Science, 4th edition is an important update to the best-selling text, vital to the biomaterials’ community.
The most comprehensive coverage of principles and applications of all classes of biomaterials
Edited and contributed by the best-known figures in the biomaterials field today; fully endorsed and supported by the Society for Biomaterials
Fully revised and updated to address issues of translation, nanotechnology, additive manufacturing, organs on chip, precision medicine and much more.
Online chapter exercises available for most chapters
Materials science and engineering and Biomedical Engineering undergraduate & graduate students and post-docs; Academic and professional researchers in R&D and clinical practice. Also applicable to life and biological sciences and mechanical engineering
Table of Contents
Part 1: Materials Science and Engineering 1.1 Overview of Biomaterials 1.1.1 Introduction to Biomaterials Science: An Evolving, Multidisciplinary Endeavor, 1.1.2 A History of Biomaterials Section 1.2 Properties of Materials 1.2.1 Introduction: Properties of Materials—the Palette of the 1.2.2 The Nature of Matter and Materials 1.2.3 Bulk Properties of Materials 1.2.4 Surface Properties and Surface Characterization of Biomaterials 1.2.5 Role of Water in Biomaterials Section 1.3 Classes of Materials Used in Medicine 1.3.1 The Materials Side of the Biomaterials Relationship 1.3.2 Polymers: Basic Principles 1.3.2A Polyurethanes 1.3.2B Silicones 1.3.2C Fluorinated Biomaterials 1.3.2D The Organic Matrix of Restorative Composites and Adhesives 1.3.2E Hydrogels 1.3.2F Degradable and Resorbable Polymers 1.3.2G Applications of “Smart Polymers” as Biomaterials 1.3.3 Metals: Basic Principles 1.3.3A Titanium Alloys, Including Nitinol 1.3.3B Stainless Steels 1.3.3C CoCr Alloys 1.3.3D Biodegradable Metals 1.3.4 Ceramics, Glasses, and Glass-Ceramics: Basic Principles 1.3.4A Natural and Synthetic Hydroxyapatites 1.3.4B Structural Ceramic Oxides 1.3.5 Carbon Biomaterials 1.3.6 Natural Materials 1.3.6A Processed Tissues 1.3.6B Use of Extracellular Matrix Proteins and Natural Materials in Bioengineering 1.3.7 Composites 1.3.8A Microparticles 1.3.8B Nanoparticles Section 1.4: Materials Processing 1.4.1 Introduction to Materials Processing for Biomaterials 1.4.2 Physicochemical Surface Modification of Materials Used in Medicine 1.4.3A Nonfouling Surfaces 1.4.3B Nonthrombogenic Treatments and Strategies 1.4.4 Surface-Immobilized Biomolecules 1.4.5 Surface Patterning 1.4.6 Medical Fibers and Biotextiles 1.4.7 Textured and Porous Biomaterials 1.4.8 Biomedical Applications of Additive Manufacturing Part 2: Biology and Medicine Section 2.1 Some Background Concepts 2.1.1 Introduction to Biology and Medicine—Key Concepts in the Use of Biomaterials in Surgery and Medical Devices 2.1.2 Adsorbed Proteins on Biomaterials 2.1.3 Cells and Surfaces in Vitro 2.1.4 Functional Tissue Architecture, Homeostasis, and Responses to Injury 2.1.5 The Extracellular Matrix and Cell–Biomaterial Interactions 2.1.6 Effects of Mechanical Forces on Cells and Tissues Section 2.2 Host Reaction to Biomaterials and Their Evaluation 2.2.1 Introduction to Biological Responses to Materials 2.2.2 Inflammation, Wound Healing, the Foreign-Body Response, and Alternative Tissue Responses 2.2.3 Innate and Adaptive Immunity: The Immune Response to Foreign Materials 2.2.4 The Complement System 2.2.5 Systemic and Immune Toxicity of Implanted Materials 2.2.6 Blood Coagulation and Blood–Material Interactions 2.2.7 Tumorigenesis and Biomaterials 2.2.8 Biofilms, Biomaterials, and Device-Related Infections Section 2.3 Characterization of Biomaterials 2.3.1 How Well Will It Work? Introduction to Testing Biomaterials 2.3.2 The Concept and Assessment of Biocompatibility 2.3.3 In Vitro Assessment of Cell and Tissue Compatibility 2.3.4 In Vivo Assessment of Tissue Compatibility 2.3.5 Evaluation of Blood–Materials Interactions 2.3.6 Animal Surgery and Care of Animals Section 2.4 Degradation of Materials in the Biological Environment 2.4.1 Introduction: The Body Fights Back–Degradation of Materials in the Biological Environment 2.4.2 Chemical and Biochemical Degradation of Polymers Intended to Be Biostable 2.4.3 Metallic Degradation and the Biological Environment 2.4.4 Degradative Effects of the Biological Environment on Ceramic Biomaterials 2.4.5 Pathological Calcification of Biomaterials Section 2.5 Applications of Biomaterials 2.5.1 Introduction to Applications of Biomaterials 2.5.2A Cardiovascular Medical Devices: Heart Valves, Pacemakers and Defibrillators Mechanical Circulatory Support, and Other Intracardiac Devices 2.5.2B Cardiovascular Medical Devices: Stents, Grafts, Stent-Grafts and Other Endovascular Devices 2.5.3 Extracorporeal Artificial Organs and Therapeutic Devices 2.5.4 Orthopedic Applications 2.5.5 Dental Applications 2.5.6 Ophthalmologic Applications: Introduction 2.5.7 Bioelectronic Neural Implants 2.5.8 Burn Dressings and Skin Substitutes 2.5.9 Description and Definition of Adhesives, and Related Terminology 2.5.10 Biomaterials for Immunoengineering 2.5.11 Biomaterials-Based Model Systems to Study Tumor–Microenvironment Interactions 2.5.12 Drug Delivery Systems 2.5.13 Responsive Polymers in the Fabrication of Enzyme-Based Biosensors Section 2.6 Applications of Biomaterials in Functional Tissue Engineering 2.6.1 Rebuilding Humans Using Biology and Biomaterials 2.6.2 Overview of Tissue Engineering Concepts and Applications 2.6.3 Tissue Engineering Scaffolds 2.6.4 Micromechanical Design Criteria for Tissue-Engineering Biomaterials 2.6.5 Tendon Tissue-Engineering Scaffolds 2.6.6 Bone Tissue Engineering 2.6.7 Biomaterials for Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering 2.6.8 Soft Tissue Engineering Part 3: The Medical Product Life Cycle 3.1.1 Introduction: Biomaterials in Medical Devices 3.1.2 Total Product Lifecycle for Biomaterial-Based Medical Devices 3.1.3 Safety and Risk Considerations in Medical Device Development 3.1.4 Sterilization and Disinfection of Biomaterials for Medical Devices 3.1.5 Verification and Validation: From Bench to Human Studies 3.1.6 Commercial Considerations in Medical Device Development 3.1.7 Regulatory Constraints for Medical Products Using Biomaterials 3.1.8 Role of Standards for Testing and Performance Requirements of Biomaterials 3.1.9 Medical Device Failure—Implant Retrieval, Evaluation, and Failure Analysis 3.1.10 Legal Concepts for Biomaterials Engineers 3.1.11 Moral and Ethical Issues in the Development of Biomaterials and Medical Products Appendix A: Properties of Biological Fluids Appendix B: Properties of Soft Materials Appendix C: Chemical Composition of Metals and Ceramics Used for Implants Appendix D: The Biomaterials Literature Appendix E: Assessment of Cell and Matrix Components in Tissues (Online only)
William Wagner, PhD
Director of the McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine & Distiinguished Professor of Surgery, Bioengineering and Chemical Engineering, University of Pittsburgh
William R. Wagner is the Director of the McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine as well as a Distinguished Professor of Surgery, Bioengineering and Chemical Engineering at the University of Pittsburgh. He also currently serves as Chairman of the Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine International Society (TERMIS) – Americas, the Deputy Director of the NSF Engineering Research Center on “Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials” and Chief Scientific Officer of the Armed Forces Institute of Regenerative Medicine. Professor Wagner is the Founding Editor and Editor-in-Chief of one of the leading biomaterials and biomedical engineering journals, Acta Biomaterialia, and currently serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Organogenesis, Experimental Biology & Medicine, and the Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. Dr. Wagner is a past president of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs (ASAIO; 2010-2011) and has served on the Executive Board of the International Federation of Artificial Organs (IFAO). He is a fellow and former vice president of the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering (AIMBE; 2000) and has been elected a fellow of the Biomedical Engineering Society (2007), the International Union of Societies for Biomaterials Science and Engineering (2008), the American Heart Association (2001) and TERMIS (2015). He has served as Chairman for the Gordon Research Conference on Biomaterials: Biocompatibility & Tissue Engineering as well as for the Biomedical Engineering Society Annual Meeting, ASAIO, and the First World Congress of TERMIS. He was previously recognized by selection to the “Scientific American 50”, the magazine’s annual list recognizing leaders in science and technology from the research, business and policy fields. In 2011 he was awarded the Society for Biomaterials Clemson Award for Applied Research, in 2012 he received the Chancellor’s Distinguished Research Award from the University of Pittsburgh and in 2013 he received the TERMIS Senior Scientist Award. Dr. Wagner's research interests are generally in the area of cardiovascular engineering with projects that address medical device biocompatibility and design, hypothesis-driven biomaterials development, tissue engineering, and targeted imaging.
Affiliations and Expertise
Distinguished Professor of Surgery, Bioengineering & Chemical Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Director, McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Shelly Sakiyama-Elbert, PhD
Professor of Biomedical Engineering & Associate Chair for Graduate Studies
Shelly Sakiyama-Elbert joined the faculty in Biomedical Engineering at Washington University in 2000, where she is currently a professor of Biomedical Engineering and the Associate Chair for Graduate Studies.
Her research focuses on developing biomaterials for drug delivery and cell transplantation for the treatment of peripheral nerve and spinal cord injury. She has written 5 book chapters and over 60 articles in peer-reviewed journals. She has 8 U.S. patents and 2 patent applications submitted. Her research is funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the National Institute of Health. Previously, she received early career awards from the Whitaker Foundation and the WH Coulter Foundation. She is currently on the Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine International Society (TERMIS): Americas Council and served on the Biomedical Engineering Society (BMES) Board of Directors from 2009-2012. She joined the College of Fellows for the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering in 2011 and was elected a fellow of the Biomedical Engineering Society in 2013.
Her other professional service includes serving as an associate editor for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, a member of the Editorial Board of Acta Biomaterialia, member of the Long Range Planning Committee for the Society for Biomaterials (SFB) (2003-05), and serving as a standing member of the Biomaterials/ Biointerfaces (BMBI) study section for the NIH (2010- 2013). She served as chair for the 2013 Gordon Research Conference on Biomaterials & Tissue Engineering. She is currently the co-president of the Association of Women Faculty and served as a provost faculty fellow from 2012-2013.
Affiliations and Expertise
Professor and Chair, Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA
Guigen Zhang, PhD
Professor, Clemson University
Dr. Zhang began his academic career at Tongji University (Shanghai, China) in 1987. After his doctoral and postdoctoral trainings, he resumed his research career at Northwestern University in Illinois. Before joining Clemson University in fall of 2008, Dr. Zhang was an Associate Professor at the University of Georgia where he pioneered a bio-micro/nanotechnology program. Dr. Zhang has served as major professor to six doctoral students and two master students. All of his doctoral graduates are pursuing research careers in academia (e.g., Stanford, UIUC) and in industries (e.g., IBM, COMSOL). He also served on graduate advisory committees for another three doctoral students and two master students. He has mentored three postdoctoral fellows and numerous undergraduate students. He serves on the editorial board of the Journal of Biological Engineering and is an education editor for the Biomaterials Forum. Dr. Zhang has served as PI on several NIH and NSF grants and participated in the NIH study sessions and NSF review panels numerous times in the areas of biotechnology and nanotechnology covering topics such as chip based sensors, sensors and detectors for environmental monitoring, nanoscale drug delivery, and MEMS and NEMS devices.
Affiliations and Expertise
Professor and F. Joseph Halcomb III, M.D. Endowed Chair, Chair of the F. Joseph Halcomb III, M.D. Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA
Michael Yaszemski, PhD, MD
Professor of Orthopaedics and Bioengineering & Director of the Tissue Engineering and Biomaterials Laboratory, Mayo Clinic
Dr. Yaszemski is a Professor of Orthopaedics and Bioengineering at the Mayo Clinic, and the Director of the Tissue Engineering and Biomaterials Laboratory. His clinical practice encompasses spinal surgery and sacropelvic tumor surgery. His research interests are in the synthesis and characterization of novel degradable polymers for use in bone regeneration, spinal cord regeneration via tissue engineering strategies, and controlled local drug delivery to musculoskeletal tumors.
Affiliations and Expertise
Krehbiel Family Endowed Professor of Orthopedics and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA
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