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Biomaterials for Cancer Therapeutics - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780081029831, 9780081029848

Biomaterials for Cancer Therapeutics

2nd Edition

Evolution and Innovation

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Editors: Kinam Park
Paperback ISBN: 9780081029831
eBook ISBN: 9780081029848
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 4th March 2020
Page Count: 782
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Table of Contents

  1. Cancer: so common and so difficult to deal with
  2. Ana Santos Cravo and Randall Mrsny

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 General classification of cancers

    1.3 Early detection—still the best medicine

    1.4 Cancer genetics and epigenetics

    1.5 Factors that make a cell cancerous

    1.6 The concept of a transition from chronic inflammation to cancer

    1.7 Current methods to treat various cancers

    1.8 Cancer as a real estate concept—location, location, location

    1.9 Areas of greatest unmet need in treating cancers

    1.10 Conclusion and future trends

    References

  3. Phenotypic evolution of cancer cells: structural requirements for survival
  4. Farzaneh Atrian and Sophie A. Lelie `vre

    2.1 Introduction

         2.1.1 Phenotypic overview of cancer progression

         2.1.2 Evolution of the organization of nuclei in cancer cells

         2.1.3 Involvement of nuclear structural proteins in gene transcription

         2.1.4 The extracellular matrix component of the tumor microenvironment

         2.1.5 Drug resistance in cancer

    2.2 Mechanical properties of the tumor microenvironment

         2.2.1 Matrix remodeling in cancerous tissue

         2.2.2 Influence of matrix stiffness and tissue geometry on cancer phenotype

         2.2.3 Future directions: design of "intelligent" biomaterials that respond to microenvironmental changes

    2.3 Nuclear structure as a mediator of information

         2.3.1 Physical properties of the cell nucleus

         2.3.2 Nuclear proteins involved in mechanosensing

         2.3.3 Future directions: identification of internal nuclear features that have the ability to link microenvironmental changes and chromatin

    2.4 Nuclear dynamics in anticancer drug resistance and cell survival

        2.4.1 Drug resistance and survival in cancer cell populations

        2.4.2 Nuclear dynamics and alterations in genome functions

        2.4.3 Future directions: platforms and biomaterials to integrate nuclear reorganization and cell survival in tumors

    2.5 Conclusion

    References

  5. Immunoactive drug carriers in cancer therapy
  6. Fanfei Meng, Soonbum Kwon, Jianping Wang and Yoon Yeo

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Synthetic polymers

         3.2.1 Polyethyleneimine

         3.2.2 Pluronic polymers

         3.2.3 Polymeric drugs

    3.3 Polysaccharides

         3.3.1 Chitosan

         3.3.2 Hyaluronic acid

         3.3.3 Chondroitin sulfate

         3.3.4 Alginate

         3.3.5 Pectin

    3.4 Polypeptides

         3.4.1 Polypeptides as drug and gene carriers

         3.4.2 Antiproliferative or immune adjuvant activities of polypeptides

    3.5 Polar lipids

         3.5.1 Polar lipids in drug and gene delivery

         3.5.2 Anticancer activities of polar lipids

         3.5.3 Immune activities of polar lipids

    3.6 Vitamin E derivatives

         3.6.1 α-Tocopherol succinate

         3.6.2 D-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate

    3.7 Inorganic materials

         3.7.1 Iron oxide

         3.7.2 Graphene oxide

         3.7.3 Others: Au, SiO2, and TiO2

    3.8 Conclusion

    Acknowledgment

    References

  7. Treating cancer by delivering drug nanocrystals
  8. Wei Gao, Clairissa D. Corpstein and Tonglei Li

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Preparation of drug nanocrystals

         4.2.1 Top-down approach

         4.2.2 Top-down approach

    4.3 Cellular interaction and intracellular delivery

         4.3.1 Cellular update and hybrid nanocrystal

         4.3.2 Hybrid nanocrystal with environment-sensitive fluorophore

    4.4 In vivo performance

    4.5 Conclusion

    References

  9. Polymer therapeutics
  10. Kyung Hyun Min, Hong Jae Lee and Sang Cheon Lee

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Polymeric drugs for multivalent biorecognition

         5.2.1 Polymer therapeutics for cross-linking of antigens on the cell surface

         5.2.2 Polymeric drugs conjugated with an apoptosis-inducing ligand’

    5.3 Polymeric drugs inhibiting chemokine receptors

    5.4 Polymeric P-glycoprotein inhibitors

         5.4.1 Multidrug resistance by P-glycoprotein

         5.4.2 Classes of polymeric P-glycoprotein inhibitors

    5.5 Summary and future perspectives

    Acknowledgment

    References

  11. pH-sensitive biomaterials for cancer therapy and diagnosis 000

Kyoung Sub Kim, Jun Hu and You Han Bae

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Nature of pH-sensitivity

     6.2.1 Protonation/deprotonation

     6.2.2 Acid-labile bonds

6.3 Tumor pH probe

6.4 Nanosystem activation by pH

     6.4.1 Simultaneous activation by extracellular/subcellular pH by design

     6.4.2 Sequential activation by tumor extracellular/subcellular pH

6.5 Applications of pH-sensitive biomaterials

     6.5.1 Drug delivery

     6.5.2 Tumor imaging

6.6 Conclusion and perspective

References

     7.   Nucleic acid anticancer agents

           S. Samaddar and D.H. Thompson

            7.1 Introduction

            7.2 Oligonucleotides targeting RNA

                 7.2.1 siRNA (short interfering RNA)

                 7.2.2 Short hairpin RNA

                 7.2.3 microRNA

                 7.2.4 Splice-switching oligonucleotides

                 7.2.5 Gapmer

                 7.2.6 DNAzyme

           7.3 Oligonucleotides targeting DNA

                 7.3.1 Triplex folding oligonucleotides

           7.4 Oligonucleotides targeting proteins

                 7.4.1 Oligonucleotides that stimulate the immune system

                 7.4.2 Aptamers

                 7.4.3 DNA decoys

           7.5 Chemical modifications of nucleic acids to boost their in vivo efficacy

                 7.5.1 Carbohydrate modifications

                 7.5.2 Backbone modification

    1. Summary

           References

  1. Biomaterials for gene editing therapeutics
  2. Gayong Shim, Dongyoon Kim, Quoc-Viet Le, Junho Byun, Jinwon Park and Yu-Kyoung Oh

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Gene editing platform

         8.2.1 Zinc finger nuclease

         8.2.2 Transcription activatorlike effector nuclease

         8.2.3 Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeatassociated nuclease Cas9

         8.2.4 Others

    8.3 Delivery strategies for gene editing

         8.3.1 Delivery vectors

         8.3.2 Barriers for intracellular delivery

         8.3.3 Mode of gene editing

    8.4 Biomaterial-based delivery of gene editing systems

         8.4.1 Polymers

         8.4.2 Lipids

         8.4.3 Peptides

         8.4.4 Inorganic materials

         8.4.5 Nucleic acidbased nanostructures

    8.5 Clinical trials

    8.6 Challenges and future perspectives

    Acknowledgments

    References

  3. Liquid biopsies for early cancer detection

Stefan H. Bossmann

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Liquid biopsies

     9.2.1 Liquid biopsies based on circulating tumor cells

     9.2.2 Liquid biopsies based on the human genome and characteristic mutations in cancer

9.3 Technologies for liquid biopsies based on genetic and epigenetic mutations

     9.3.1 State-of-the-art in liquid biopsies

9.4 Exosomes

9.5 Cytokines and other signaling proteins as biomarkers for cancer progression

9.6 Classic methods of cytokine detection in biospecimens

     9.6.1 Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay

     9.6.2 Radioimmunoassays

9.6.3 Chemiluminescence assays

9.6.4 Cytokine bioassays

9.6.5 Multiparametric flow cytometry in conjunction with using (magnetic) beads

9.6.6 Enzyme-linked immunospots (ELISPOT and FLUOROSPOT)

9.6.7 Bar code technology

9.6.8 Cytokine detection by means of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

9.7 Protease and kinase networks

9.7.1 Protease activity and cancer

9.8 Outlook: cost-effectiveness will be an important factor

References

     10. Nanotechnology for cancer screening and diagnosis: from innovations to clinical applications R. Zeineldin

          10.1 Introduction

              10.1.1 Biosensing and screening of biomarkers

              10.1.2 Imaging

          10.2 Nanotechnology for cancer diagnosis

               10.2.1 Properties and advantages of nanoparticles and nanomaterials

          10.3 Nanotechnology-based biosensing platforms

               10.3.1 Lab-on-a-chip and microarrays

               10.3.2 Sphere-based platforms

               10.3.3 Magnetic-based assays

               10.3.4 Other platforms

          10.4 Nanotechnology for biosensing—early detection of cancer

               10.4.1 Screening—enhancing biomarkers detection

               10.4.2 Detecting circulating tumor cells

               10.4.3 Clinical applications of nanotechnology in biosensing

         10.5 Nanotechnology for cancer imaging

               10.5.1 Targeted molecular imaging

               10.5.2 Types of imaging enabled by nanomaterials

               10.5.3 Types of imaging enhanced by nanomaterials

               10.5.4 Nano-based multimodal imaging

               10.5.5 Theranostics

               10.5.6 Nanotechnology for tumor classification/staging

               10.5.7 Concerns with using nanomaterials in imaging

               10.5.8 Clinical applications for nanotechnology in cancer imaging

         10.6 Conclusion and future trends

          References

  1. Advances and clinical challenges in biomaterials for in vivo tumor imaging

Andre ´ O’Reilly Beringhs, Raana Kashfi Sadabad and Xiuling Lu

         11.1 Current state of tumor imaging in the clinic

              11.1.1 Positron emission tomography

              11.1.2 Magnetic resonance imaging

              11.1.3 X-ray computed tomography

        11.2 Potential clinical uses of novel biomaterials for tumor imaging

        11.3 Preclinical advances in biomaterials for tumor imaging

             11.3.1 Quantum dots

             11.3.2 Carbon-based materials

             11.3.3 Lipid-based materials

             11.3.4 Polymer-based materials

        11.4 Riskbenefit assessment and perspectives

         References

      12. Macroscopic fluorescence lifetime-based Fo ¨rster resonance energy transfer imaging for quantitative ligandreceptor binding

            Alena Rudkouskaya, Denzel E. Faulkner, Nattawut Sinsuebphon, Xavier Intes and Margarida Barroso

        12.1 Assessment of target engagement in drug delivery

        12.2 Challenges in the quantification of target engagement in preclinical cancer research

             12.2.1 Enhanced permeability and retention effect

             12.2.2 Biochemical and imaging methods to assess target engagement

             12.2.3 Fo ¨rster resonance energy transfer to quantify target engagement

        12.3 In vivo molecular imaging in preclinical research

             12.3.1 Positron emission tomography versus optical imaging

             12.3.2 Visible and near-infrared fluorescence lifetime imaging

             12.3.3 Preclinical applications of fluorescence lifetime imaging Fo ¨rster resonance energy transfer imaging

        12.4 Fluorescence lifetime imaging Fo ¨rster resonance energy transfer imaging to quantify ligandreceptor binding

             12.4.1 Transferrintransferrin receptor-mediated drug delivery

             12.4.2 Wide-field time-resolved macroscopy fluorescence lifetime imaging optical imager

             12.4.3 MFLI Fo ¨rster resonance energy transfer imaging of transferrintransferrin receptor binding

             12.4.4 Advantages and limitations of MFLI Fo ¨rster resonance energy transfer imaging

        12.5 Imaging with high-resolution beyond the microscopy limit: mesoscopic fluorescence molecular tomography of thick tissues

        12.6 Future directions of MFLI Fo ¨rster resonance energy transfer imaging in the clinic

         Acknowledgments

         References

        Further reading

    13. Suppression of cancer stem cells

          Carla Garcia-Mazas, Sheila Barrios-Esteban, Noemi Csaba and Marcos Garcia-Fuentes

        13.1 Introduction

             13.1.1 Models of cancer origin

             13.1.2 Characteristics of cancer stem cells

             13.1.3 The cancer stem cell niche

             13.1.4 Cancer stem cell drug resistance

       13.2 Pharmacological strategies for suppressing cancer stem cells

             13.2.1 Druggable pharmacological strategies

             13.2.2 Gene therapies for cancer stem cells

       13.3 Nanomedicines for cancer stem cell therapy

             13.3.1 Delivery of small drugs to cancer stem cells

             13.3.2 Gene delivery to cancer stem cells

             13.3.3 Targeting to cancer stem cells

       13.4 Concluding remarks

            Acknowledgments

           Abbreviations

           References

     14. Comparison of two- and three-dimensional cancer models for assessing potential cancer therapeutics

            Bailu Xie, Nicole Teusch and Randall Mrsny

          14.1 Introduction

           14.2 A brief history of two- and three-dimensional in vitro cancer models

           14.3 Methods used for high-throughput testing of potential chemotherapeutics in vitro

            14.4 Practical aspects of techniques to establish three-dimensional in vitro cancer models

                 14.4.1 Spinner flasks/bioreactors

                 14.4.2 Gel-like substances/scaffold structures (hydrogels)

                 14.4.3 The hanging drop format

                 14.4.4 Low-attachment plates with centrifugation

                 14.4.5 Magnetic levitation

                 14.4.6 Micropatterning

                 14.4.7 Microencapsulation

                14.4.8 Microfluidics

                14.4.9 Bioprinting

            14.5 The future of three-dimensional cancer models

              Acknowledgments

              References

     15. Engineered tumor models for cancer biology and treatment

            Hye-ran Moon and Bumsoo Han

          15.1 Introduction

          15.2 Complexities of cancers and the tumor microenvironment

          15.3 Design and development of tumor models

              15.3.1 Spheroids and organoids

              15.3.2 Animal models

              15.3.3 Microfluidic models

          15.4 Challenges and opportunities

            Acknowledgments

            References

     16. Cancer mechanobiology: interaction of biomaterials with cancer cells

           Sarah Libring and Luis Solorio

           16.1 What is mechanotransduction?

           16.2 Native mechanobiology through cancer’s progression

                16.2.1 The primary tumor microenvironment

                16.2.2 The premetastatic niche and primary cell motility

                16.2.3 Secondary tumor sites: dormancy, reactivation, and drug resistance

           16.3 Researching mechanotransduction

                16.3.1 Techniques for studying mechanotransduction

                16.3.2 Cancer models

                16.3.3 Material selection

                16.4 Conclusion and future trends

                     References

     17. Immunostimulatory materials

           Evan Scott and Sean Allen

          17.1 Introduction

          17.2 Immunostimulation

               17.2.1 General mechanisms of immunostimulation: antigen-presenting cells and Toll-like receptors

               17.2.2 Cellular mediators of immune dysregulation within the tumor microenvironment

         17.3 Immunostimulatory hydrogels

               17.3.1 Sustained delivery of immunomodulators

               17.3.2 Hydrogels as artificial sites of immune stimulation

         17.4 Enhancing immunostimulation via nanobiomaterials

               17.4.1 Designing nanoscale biomaterials for cellular targeting

               17.4.2 Biodistributions of administered nanobiomaterials

               17.4.3 Antigen-presenting cells as key targets of therapeutic immunostimulation

               17.4.4 Nanobiomaterials for RNA interfering-based cancer therapy

               17.4.5 Nanobiomaterials to enhance cancer vaccination

               17.4.6 Nanobiomaterials to enhance adoptive T-cell therapy

               17.4.7 Future directions of nanobiomaterials for cancer immune dysregulation

               References

     18. Biomaterials for cancer immunotherapy

            Kinan Alhallak, Jennifer Sun, Barbara Muz and Abdel Kareem Azab

         18.1 Noncellular immunotherapies

              18.1.1 Delivery of antibodies

              18.1.2 Delivery of immunomodulators

              18.1.3 Delivery of other molecules

        18.2 Artificial cellular immunotherapies

              18.2.1 Artificial antigen-presenting cells

              18.2.2 Artificial T cells

        18.3 Adoptive cell therapy

             18.3.1 T cells

             18.3.2 Natural killer cells

             18.3.3 Macrophages

             18.3.4 Dendritic cells

         18.4 Gene-based immunotherapies

             18.4.1 Small interfering RNA

             18.4.2 Messenger RNA

         18.5 Conclusion

                 References

     19. Lymph node targeting for improved potency of cancer vaccine

            Guangsheng Du and Xun Sun

         19.1 Introduction

        19.2 Tumor-draining lymph node as a target for cancer vaccines

            19.2.1 The role of lymphatic vessels and lymph node in vaccination

            19.2.2 Lymphatic system in cancer conditions

       19.3 Targeting strategies for lymph nodes

           19.3.1 Direct intranodal injection

           19.3.2 Passive draining of nanoparticulate vaccines from the interstitial space

           19.3.3 Active binding with lymphatic endothelium by ligandreceptor interaction

           19.3.4 Albumin "hitchhiking" approach

       19.4 The dilemma between lymph node targeting and uptake and retention in antigen-presenting cells

       19.5 Lymph nodetargeted vaccine carriers for cancer therapy

            19.5.1 Polymeric micelles

            19.5.2 Lipid-coated inorganic nanoparticles

            19.5.3 Polymeric nanoparticles

            19.5.4 Liposomes

            19.5.5 Other nanoparticles

       19.6 Summary, prospection, and conclusion

               Acknowledgments

               References

     20. Immunogenic clearance-mediated cancer vaccination

           Gi-Hoon Nam, Yoosoo Yang and In-San Kim

        20.1 Introduction

        20.2 Current cancer immunotherapies using cancer vaccines

             20.2.1 Conventional cancer vaccines: past and present

             20.2.2 Limitations and challenges of conventional cancer vaccines

        20.3 Immunogenic clearance

            20.3.1 Immunogenic cell death for releasing neoantigens and danger-associated molecular patterns

            20.3.2 Enhancing tumor cell phagocytosis by innate immune cells

            20.3.3 Combination therapy utilizing immunogenic clearance

           20.3.4 Biomaterials for immunogenic clearance

       20.4 Enhancing the response rate of immune checkpoint blockades to tumors

      20.5 Conclusion

              Acknowledgments

             References

     21. The future of drug delivery in cancer treatment

            Amit Singh and Mansoor Amiji

       21.1 Introduction

       21.2 Challenges with designing and personalizing cancer therapy

            21.2.1 Tumor heterogeneity and complexity

            21.2.2 Multidrug resistance

            21.2.3 Biological barriers

            21.2.4 Physiological barriers

       21.3 Challenges with nanotechnology-based drug delivery

           21.3.1 Drug encapsulation and stability

           21.3.2 Tumor-specific delivery and targeting

          21.3.3 Pharmacokinetic modulation

          21.3.4 Intracellular and subcellular delivery

       21.4 Safety challenges with nano-drug delivery

          21.4.1 Material safety issues

          21.4.2 Limitations of characterization tools and biological models

          21.4.3 Immunological profiling and immunotoxicity

      21.5 Formulation challenges with nano-drug delivery

         21.5.1 Nanoparticle design

        21.5.2 Analytical characterization

        21.5.3 Manufacturing and scale-up issues

     21.6 Current clinical landscape in nano-based drug delivery in cancer

        21.6.1 Lipid nanoparticles

        21.6.2 Polymeric nanoparticles

       21.6.3 Protein nanoparticles

     21.7 Conclusion and future perspective

            References

     22. Development of clinically effective formulations for anticancer applications: why it is so difficult?

            David Needham

      22.1 "Executive" overview

      22.2 Introduction

           22.2.1 So, you want to develop a clinically effective formulation?

           22.2.2 My motivation and goal

Part A. The nonscientific part

      22.3 It is actually not that difficult to get drugs approved (there are lots of them)

     22.4 What about cancer statistics and cancer trials?

     22.5 This regulated process costs money to cross "the valley of death"

     22.6 But just because it is approved does not mean it works

     22.7 And there are people who want to make money and are making money (which is fine)

Part B. The scientific part

     22.8 For cancer though, yes, it is difficult (but I think it is not impossible)

    22.9 The intravenous dosing problem for cancer: from here to there

   22.10 What is nanomedicine? And why?

   22.11 The only way to get a chemotherapeutic drug throughout a whole tumor is to release it in the blood stream of the tumor

   22.12 "Make the drug look like the cancer’s food": our efforts to treat osteosarcoma

  22.13 Final thoughts

  References

 


Description

Biomaterials for Cancer Therapeutics: Evolution and Innovation, Second Edition, discusses the role and potential of biomaterials in treating this prevalent disease. The first part of the book discusses the fundamentals of biomaterials for cancer therapeutics. Part Two discusses synthetic vaccines, proteins and polymers for cancer therapeutics. Part Three focuses on theranosis and drug delivery systems, while the final set of chapters look at biomaterial therapies and cancer cell interaction.

Cancer affects people of all ages, and approximately one in three people are estimated to be diagnosed with cancer during their lifetime. Extensive research is being undertaken by many different institutions to explore potential new therapeutics, and biomaterials technology is being developed to target, treat and prevent cancer. Hence, this book is a welcomed resource to the discussion.

Key Features

  • Provides a complete overview of the latest research into the potential of biomaterials for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of cancer
  • Discusses how the properties of specific biomaterials make them important in cancer treatment
  • Covers synthetic vaccines, proteins and polymers for cancer therapeutics

Readership

Biomaterials scientist and engineers; Biomedical engineers; Biomedical and pharmaceutical scientists


Details

No. of pages:
782
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Woodhead Publishing 2020
Published:
4th March 2020
Imprint:
Woodhead Publishing
Paperback ISBN:
9780081029831
eBook ISBN:
9780081029848

Ratings and Reviews


About the Editors

Kinam Park

Kinam Park is Showalter Distinguished Professor of Biomedical Engineering & Professor of Pharmaceutics at Purdue University, USA. His research focuses in the areas of nano/micro particles, polymer micelles, drug-eluting stents, extracellular matrix, fast dissolving tablets, and smart hydrogels.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Biomedical Engineering and Professor of Pharmaceutics, Purdue University, USA