Biomass, Biofuels, Biochemicals

Biomass, Biofuels, Biochemicals

Climate Change Mitigation: Sequestration of Green House Gases

1st Edition - December 1, 2021

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  • Editors: Indu Thakur, Ashok Pandey, Huu Ngo, Carlos Soccol, Christian Larroche
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128235003
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128236093

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Biomass, Biochemicals, Biofuel: Climate Change Mitigation: Sequestration of Green House Gases is designed to not only give basic knowledge on the topics presented, but also to enlighten on conventional and advanced technologies, socioeconomic aspects, techno-economic feasibility, models and modeling tools, and detailed LCA approaches in the sequestration of GHGs for biofuel and biomaterials, including biopolymer production. These innovative technologies and novel prospective directly find applications in day-to-day practices. The book is a useful guide to politicians, researchers, teachers and waste management practitioners. It offers a treasure of knowledge to guide readers on the importance of GHGs sequestration in important areas. The issue of climate change is gaining much more attention by researchers, public, politicians and others. Climate change is one of the most complex issues the world is facing today. It has implications across society, including in science, technology, economics, society, politics, and moral and ethical dilemmas.

Key Features

  • Introduces appropriate technologies for GHG sequestration for biofuel and biomaterials production
  • Presents the best available technologies for climate mitigation and examples from various geographical areas
  • Evaluates technological systems to help users develop technically best and economically feasible projects
  • Offers chemical looping mechanisms for the sequestration of green house gases for biofuel and biomaterials


(Bio chemical Engineer), researchers, teachers, policymakers, politicians in academia and corporate research. Environmental Sciences Students (Undergraduate and Post-Graduate). Public and Private consultants in both the sectors viz., Green House Gases sequestration and Climate Change (Globally)

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1: Climate change research and implications of the use of near-term carbon budgets in public policy
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1.1: Introduction
  • 1.2: Standard metrics to quantify and compare the extent of changes in climate
  • 1.3: Climate models
  • 1.4: The impacts of climate change
  • 1.5: How to mitigate? The promises and perils of mitigation options
  • 1.6: Climate mitigation and transformation of the industrial structure: Linking temperature targets to carbon budgets
  • 1.7: Conclusions and perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 2: Role of essential climate variables and black carbon in climate change: Possible mitigation strategies
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 2.1: Introduction
  • 2.2: Global climate observing systems and effective climate variables
  • 2.3: Black carbon and its climatic implications
  • 2.4: Evidence of climate change
  • 2.5: Impact sectors of climate change
  • 2.6: Mitigation and adaptation strategies
  • 2.7: Conclusions and perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Economic and sociopolitical evaluation of climate change for policy and legal formulations
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgment
  • 3.1: Introduction
  • 3.2: Monetary valuation in Integrated Assessment Models and Energy System Models
  • 3.3: The institutional climate and energy policy framework of the European Union
  • 3.4: The role of monetary valuation in climate and energy policy: Obscuring or illuminating?
  • 3.5: Conclusions and perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 4: Chemical looping mechanisms for sequestration of greenhouse gases for biofuel and biomaterials
  • Abstract
  • 4.1: Introduction
  • 4.2: Concept and competing greenhouse gases capture technologies
  • 4.3: Chemistry of greenhouse gases mitigation
  • 4.4: Role of inorganic compounds and metals in mitigation of greenhouse gases
  • 4.5: Naturally occurring, low-cost materials, and nanomaterials in mitigation of greenhouse gases
  • 4.6: Process descriptions and characteristics of chemical looping combustion with gaseous fuels
  • 4.7: Model development for greenhouse gases mitigation
  • 4.8: Chemical methods for producing biofuel and biomaterials from greenhouse gases mitigation
  • 4.9: Conclusions and perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 5: Environmental DNA insights in search of novel genes/taxa for production of biofuels and biomaterials
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 5.1: Introduction
  • 5.2: Evolution of eDNA in response to greenhouse gases and other environmental stressors
  • 5.3: Exploration of eDNA for the assessment of biodiversity and environmental stressor-induced changes in organisms
  • 5.4: eDNA and biodegradation and bioremediation of environmental hazards
  • 5.5: Identification and monitoring of greenhouse gas concentrating genes in the environment
  • 5.6: Identification and genomic mining of novel degradation genes
  • 5.7: Environmental DNA metagenomics in monitoring bioprocessing and biovalorization
  • 5.8: eDNA and environmental impact assessment
  • 5.9: The exposome paradigm using eDNA signatures and health assessment
  • 5.10: Data science and machine learning processes of greenhouse gases sequestration for bioproducts
  • 5.11: Conclusions and perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 6: Biological carbon dioxide sequestration by microalgae for biofuel and biomaterials production
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 6.1: Introduction
  • 6.2: Carbon capturing, sequestering, and storage approaches
  • 6.3: Carbon sequestration by microalgae
  • 6.4: Production of biofuels by CO2-sequestering microalgae
  • 6.5: Production of value-added biomaterials from microalgae
  • 6.6: Prospects and challenges of biosequestration as greenhouse gases (GHGs) mitigation tool
  • 6.7: Conclusions and perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 7: Sequestration of nitrous oxide for nutrient recovery and product formation
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 7.1: Introduction
  • 7.2: Nitrification and denitrification processes
  • 7.3: Microbiome in nitrification and denitrification processes
  • 7.4: Physicochemical methods for mitigation of nitrous oxide
  • 7.5: Plant-based technologies for mitigation of nitrous oxide
  • 7.6: Microbiome-based technologies for the mitigation of nitrous oxide
  • 7.7: Chemical looping mechanisms for mitigation of nitrous oxide for biofuel and biomaterials
  • 7.8: Biological looping for mitigation of nitrous oxide for biofuel and biomaterials
  • 7.9: Role of nanomaterials in nutrient recovery and nitrous oxide mitigation
  • 7.10: Conclusions and perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Life-cycle assessment on sequestration of greenhouse gases for the production of biofuels and biomaterials
  • Abstract
  • 8.1: Introduction
  • 8.2: Life-cycle environmental impacts of GHG storage
  • 8.3: Life-cycle environmental impacts of GHGs utilization
  • 8.4: Life-cycle environmental impacts of GHG mitigation for biofuel production
  • 8.5: Life-cycle environmental impacts of GHGs for biomaterials production
  • 8.6: Techno-economic analysis of biodiesel production from carbon dioxide sequestrating bacteria
  • 8.7: Conclusions and perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 9: Microbial transformation of methane to biofuels and biomaterials
  • Abstract
  • 9.1: Introduction
  • 9.2: Biological process of methane production
  • 9.3: Global methane sinks and methanotrophic microorganisms
  • 9.4: Mechanisms of methane oxidation by methanotrophs
  • 9.5: Functional genomes and proteomes as molecular markers for methane mitigation
  • 9.6: Emerging technologies for mitigation of methane
  • 9.7: Methane-based value-added products and biomaterials produced by methanotrophs
  • 9.8: Upgradation of methane sequestration technologies for the production of bioproducts and biomaterials
  • 9.9: Conclusions and perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 10: Hydrogen production and carbon sequestration for biofuels and biomaterials
  • Abstract
  • 10.1: Introduction
  • 10.2: Hydrogen in the environment
  • 10.3: Mechanisms of hydrogen production
  • 10.4: Mechanism of carbon dioxide capture and storage during hydrogen production
  • 10.5: Challenges associated with hydrogen production and carbon capture
  • 10.6: Conclusions and perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 11: Carbon dioxide fixation and phycoremediation by algae-based technologies for biofuels and biomaterials
  • Abstract
  • 11.1: Introduction
  • 11.2: Sources of CO2 emissions
  • 11.3: Approaches and methodology for the monitoring of CO2 in municipal wastewater
  • 11.4: Role of algae in CO2 emission and mitigation in municipal wastewater
  • 11.5: Enabling technologies and bioreactors in algal cultivation and phycoremediation
  • 11.6: Production of biofuels from CO2 sequestration and mitigation
  • 11.7: Prospects of biorefinery for CO2 sequestration and biomaterials production
  • 11.8: Conclusions and perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 12: Microbial electrosynthesis systems toward carbon dioxide sequestration for the production of biofuels and biochemicals
  • Abstract
  • 12.1: Introduction
  • 12.2: Sources of carbon dioxide emission
  • 12.3: Bioelectrochemical system (BES): Principles and components
  • 12.4: Microbial electrochemical systems (MES) for CO2 bioconversion
  • 12.5: Challenges for MES for CO2 bioconversion
  • 12.6: Scope for betterment of microbial electrochemical system
  • 12.7: Conclusions and perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 13: Carbon sequestration and harnessing biomaterials from terrestrial plantations for mitigating climate change impacts
  • Abstract
  • 13.1: Introduction
  • 13.2: Enhancing biomass production for carbon sequestration and multidimensional benefits
  • 13.3: Harnessing biomaterials from produced biomass
  • 13.4: Conclusions and perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 14: Solid waste landfill sites for the mitigation of greenhouse gases
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 14.1: Introduction
  • 14.2: Physiochemical factors and drivers of greenhouse gas emission in landfill sites
  • 14.3: Approaches and methodology for monitoring GHGs in solid waste and landfill sites
  • 14.4: Specific case of landfill diffuse emissions modeling
  • 14.5: GHG mitigation by using organic-rich amendments in landfill cover
  • 14.6: Mitigation of GHG emission from landfills through valorization of wastes into valuable by-products
  • 14.7: Assessing landfill potential to generate valuable products through metagenomics
  • 14.8: Role of life-cycle (LCA) assessment for evaluation of MSW management technologies
  • 14.9: Conclusions and perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 15: Nitrogen and phosphorus management in cropland soils along with greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation for nutrient management
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgment
  • 15.1: Introduction
  • 15.2: Nutrient biogeochemical cycles
  • 15.3: Physicochemical and climatic factors in emission and mitigation of GHGs
  • 15.4: Multiple soil production processes
  • 15.5: Omics in nutrient management from cropland soil
  • 15.6: Cropland management with greenhouse gases (GHGs) mitigation strategies and potential
  • 15.7: Technical challenges for reducing N2O emissions
  • 15.8: Enabling technology for mitigation of N2O emissions in cropland for plant productivity
  • 15.9: Challenges for production of biofuel linked to N2O emissions
  • 15.10: Conclusions and perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 16: Roles and impacts of bioethanol and biodiesel on climate change mitigation
  • Abstract
  • 16.1: Introduction
  • 16.2: Transportation biofuels
  • 16.3: Political and economical frameworks
  • 16.4: Environmental framework: Life-cycle assessment for biofuels
  • 16.5: Deterministic models for greenhouse gases emissions
  • 16.6: Mass balance for carbonic gas emissions
  • 16.7: Conclusions and perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 17: Diatom biorefinery: From carbon mitigation to high-value products
  • Abstract
  • 17.1: Introduction
  • 17.2: Role of diatoms in carbon dioxide mitigation
  • 17.3: Role of diatoms in nature
  • 17.4: Diatom cellular machinery: Unique attributes
  • 17.5: Phycoremediation potential of diatoms
  • 17.6: Biotechnological applications
  • 17.7: Other compounds
  • 17.8: Conclusions and perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 18: Influence of greenhouse gases on plant epigenomes for food security
  • Abstract
  • 18.1: Introduction
  • 18.2: Plant and climate change
  • 18.3: Greenhouse gases and biosequestration mechanisms
  • 18.4: Epigenetics changes due to climate change
  • 18.5: Causes of climatic change in epigenetics of plants
  • 18.6: Mechanisms involved in plant epigenetics
  • 18.7: Correlation of epigenetics with the effect of climate change on plant health
  • 18.8: Climate change and food security due to epigenetics
  • 18.9: Plant bioproducts and epigenetics
  • 18.10: Conclusions and perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 19: Epigenome's environmental sensitivity and its impact on health
  • Abstract
  • 19.1: Introduction
  • 19.2: Impact of climate change on human health
  • 19.3: Climate change, genetic consequences, and adaptive genetic changes, climatic modification of virulence in pathogen
  • 19.4: Epigenomic modifications allowing phenotypic changes to rapidly adapt to climate change
  • 19.5: Impact of greenhouse gases and extreme temperatures on organism epigenomes
  • 19.6: Climate change, epigenetics, and human health
  • 19.7: Conclusions and perspectives
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 510
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2021
  • Published: December 1, 2021
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128235003
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128236093

About the Editors

Indu Thakur

Professor I.S. Thakur is currently professor in the School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. Professor Thakur is working on bioremediation, biovalorization and detoxification of natural and organic compounds, developed bacterial consortium by genetic breeding, characterized genes and proteins, proteomics, genomics analysis for CO2 sequestration for biomass, enzymes, biodiesel, bioflocculant, bioplastic, biomaterials. He has published more than 210 research papers in peer reviewed journals, chapters in books, two text books, four patents and technologies with h index of 34, and ≥3800 citations (Google Scholar). Prof Thakur has been Visiting Scientist and Visiting Professor in Germany, Japan and France, Canada, Australia

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India

Ashok Pandey

Ashok Pandey
Professor Ashok Pandey is currently Distinguished Scientist at the Centre for Innovation and Translational Research, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, India and Executive Director (Honorary) at the Centre for Energy and Environmental Sustainability – India. Formerly, he was Eminent Scientist at the Center of Innovative and Applied Bioprocessing, Mohali and Chief Scientist & Head of Biotechnology Division and Centre for Biofuels at CSIR’s National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Trivandrum. His major research and technological development interests are industrial & environmental biotechnology and energy biosciences, focusing on biomass to biofuels & chemicals, waste to wealth & energy, industrial enzymes, etc. Professor Pandey is Adjunct/Visiting Professor/Scientist in universities in France, Brazil, Canada, China, Korea, South Africa, and Switzerland and also in several universities several in India. He has ~1425 publications/communications, which include 16 patents, 90 books, >700 papers and book chapters, etc with h index of 105 and ~48,800 citations (Goggle scholar). He has transferred several technologies to industries and has done industrial consultancy for about a dozen projects for Indian/international industries. Professor Pandey is the recipient of many national and international awards and honours, which include Highest Cited Researcher (Top 1% in the world), Clarivate Analytics, Web of Science (2020, 2019 & 2018); Top scientist in Biotechnology (#1 in India and #8 in the world), Stanford University world ranking (2020); Fellow, World Society of Sustainable Energy Technologies (2020); Fellow, Indian Chemical Society (2020); Distinguished Scientist, VDGOOD Professional Association, India (2020); Distinguished Professor of Eminence with global impact in the area of Biotechnology, Precious Cornerstone University, Nigeria (2020); IconSWM Life-time Achievement Award 2019, International Society for Solid Waste Management, KIIT, Bhubaneshwar, India (2019); Yonsei Outstanding Scholar, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea (2019); Life-Time Achievement Award from the Biotech Research Society, India (2018); Life-Time Achievement Award from Venus International Research Awards (2018), Most Outstanding Researcher Award from Career360 (2018), Life-Time Achievement Award from the International Society for Energy, Environment and Sustainability (2017); Fellow, Royal Society of Biology, UK (2016); Felow, International Society for Energy, Environment and Sustainability (2016); Academician of European Academy of Sciences and Arts, Austria (2015); Fellow, National Academy of Sciences, India (2012); Fellow, Association of Microbiologists of India (2008); Honorary Doctorate degree from Univesite Blaise Pascal, France (2007); Fellow, International Organization of Biotechnology and Bioengineering (2007); Thomson Scientific India Citation Laureate Award, USA (2006); Fellow, the Biotech Research Society, India (2005); UNESCO Professor (2000); Raman Research Fellowship Award, CSIR (1995); GBF, Germany and CNRS, France Fellowships (1992) and Young Scientist Award (1989), etc. Professor Pandey is Founder President of the Biotech Research Society, India (; Founder & International Coordinator of International Forum on Industrial Bioprocesses, France (, Chairman of the International Society for Energy, Environment & Sustainability (, Editor-in-chief of Bioresource Technology (, Honorary Executive Advisor of Journal of Energy and Environmental Sustainability (, Journal of Systems Microbiology and Biomanufacturing (, Journal of Environmental Sciences and Engineering (, Subject Editor, Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, India ( and Associate Editor, Biologia – Section Cellular and Molecular Biology ( and editorial board member of several international and Indian journals.

Affiliations and Expertise

Distinguished Scientist, Centre for Innovation and Translational Research, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, India

Huu Ngo

Prof. Ngo is currently a Professor of Environmental Engineering and serving as Deputy Director of Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, Co-Director of Joint Research Centre for Protective Infrastructure Technology and Environmental Green Bioprocess, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology Sydney. He has been duly elected as Fellow of International Water Association (FIWA) and Fellow and Lead Researcher of the International Bioprocessing Association (FIBA and LRIBA) while serving as IBA Council Member. Prof. Ngo is internationally well-known for his activities in the areas of advanced biological waste treatment technologies (e.g. membrane bioreactor, specific attached and/or suspended growth bioreactors, anaerobic digesters, wetland and bio-sorption) and membrane technologies. His expertise and practical experience also covers the areas of alternative resources, management and impacts assessment, and solid waste management. Currently, he is very active to work on the development of specific green bioprocessing technologies: resource recovery, water-waste- bioenergy nexus and greenhouse gas emission control. Prof. Ngo has been listed as Highly Cited Researcher 2019 in Cross Field Category, Clarivate Analytics, Web of Science; Elsevier - World Top 3 ranking researcher 2019 in Environmental Engineering; Lead Researcher in the field of Biotechnology in Australia. He ranks #2 in the world for number of scholarly outputs in the SciVal topic ‘membrane fouling; bioreactors; membrane bioreactors (SciVal, Feb 2020). He ranks #1 in Australia for number of scholarly outputs in the SciVal topic ‘biosorption; aqueous solution; bisorption capacity; ‘antibiotics; oxytetracycline; veterinary antibiotics’, (SciVal, Feb 2020). Prof. Ngo has published more than 500 SCI/ISI journal papers (citations >20,000), 7 books and 35 book chapters, a number of patents while receiving several highly recognized honours/awards. He has been invited to give numerous plenary/keynotes and invited talks, seminars and lecturers in the international conferences as well as the universities/research institutions. Prof. Ngo has appointed as Editor of Bioresource Technology, Elsevier, Associate Editor of Science of the Total Environment, Elsevier, Associate Editor of Water Process Engineering and Associate Editor of Heliyon Journal, Elsevier. He is also an editorial board member/guest editor of numerous international journals such as Bioresource Technology Reports, Elsevier; Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring and Management, Elsevier; Journal of Energy and Environmental Sustainability, IJSEES, Environmental Science and Ecotechnology, EHIT, Journal of Bioengineered, Taylor & Francis.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, University of Technology Sydney, Australia

Carlos Soccol

Professor Carlos Ricardo Soccol is the research group leader of DEBB (Department of Bioprocess Engineering and Biotechnology) at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil, with twenty years of experience in biotechnological research and development of bioprocesses with industrial application. He is graduated in Chemical Engineering (UFPR, 1979), Master in Food Technology (UFPR, 1986) and Ph.D. in Genie Enzymatique, Microbiologie et Bioconversion (Université de Technologie de Compiègne,- France, 1992). Postdoctor at Institut ORSTOM/IRD (Montpellier, 1994 and 1997) and at the Université de Provence et de la Méditerranée (Marseille, 2000). He is HDR Professor at Ecole d'Ingénieurs Supériure of Luminy, Marseille-France. He has experience in the areas of Science and Food Technology, with emphasis on Agro-industrial and Agroalimentary Biotechnology, acting in the following areas: bioprocess engineering and solid state fermentation, submerged fermentation, bioseparations, industrial bioprocesses, enzyme technology, tissue culture, bio-industrial projects and bioproduction. He is currently Coordinator of Master BIODEV-UNESCO, Associate Editor of five international journals and Editor in Chief of Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology Journal. Professor Soccol received several national and international awards which include Science & Technology award of the Govt. of Paraná (1996), Scopus/Elsevier award (2009), Dr. Honoris Causa, University Blaise Pascal-France (2010), Outstanding Scientist – 5th International Conference on Industrial Bioprocesses, Taipei, Taiwan (2012), Elected Titular Member of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences (2014). He is a technical and scientific consultant of several companies, agencies and scientific journals in Brazil and abroad. He has supervised and formed 96 Master Science students, 48 PhD students and 14 Post-Doctorate Students. He has 995 publications/communications which include 17 books, 107 book chapters, 270 original research papers, 557 research communications in international and national conferences and has registered 44 patents. His research articles until the moment were cited (Scopus DataBase) 5600 Times with Index h=36.

Affiliations and Expertise

Research Group Leader, Department of Bioprocess Engineering and Biotechnology, Federal University of Parana, Brazil

Christian Larroche

Prof. Christian Larroche is Director of Polytech Clermont-Ferrand, a graduate school of engineering of University Clermont-Auvergne, France. He is also member of the research laboratory Institut Pascal and of the laboratory of excellence ImobS3 at the same university. He has strong research skills and expertise in the area of applied microbiology and biochemical engineering. He is author of 220 documents, including 114 articles, three patents, 15 book chapters and 24 co-editions of books or journal special issues. He is member of French Society for Process Engineering (SFGP), French Society of Biotechnology and European Federation of Chemical Engineering. He is administrator of IBA-IFIBiop and editor of Bioresource Technology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Laboratory, Institute Pascal, University Clermont Auvergne, Clermont Ferrand, France

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