Biomarkers in Toxicology

Biomarkers in Toxicology

1st Edition - January 25, 2014

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  • Editor: Ramesh Gupta
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124046498

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Description

Biomarkers in Toxicology is a timely and comprehensive reference dedicated to all aspects of biomarkers that relate to chemical exposure and their effects on biological systems. This book includes both vertebrate and non-vertebrate species models for toxicological testing and development of biomarkers. Divided into several key sections, this reference volume contains chapters devoted to topics in molecular-cellular toxicology, as well as a look at the latest cutting-edge technologies used to detect biomarkers of exposure and effects. Each chapter also contains several references to the current literature and important resources for further reading. Given this comprehensive treatment, Biomarkers in Toxicology is an essential reference for all those interested in biomarkers across several scientific and biomedical fields.

Key Features

  • Written by international experts who have evaluated the expansive literature to provide you with one resource covering all aspects of toxicology biomarkers
  • Identifies and discusses the most sensitive, accurate, unique and validated biomarkers used as indicators of exposure and effect of chemicals of different classes
  • Covers special topics and applications of biomarkers, including chapters on molecular toxicology biomarkers, biomarker analysis for nanotoxicology, development of biomarkers for drug efficacy evaluation and much more

Readership

Toxicologists, pharmacologists, biotechnologists, biologists, health professionals, environmental health specialists, and biomedical researchers in academic, industry and regulatory settings

Table of Contents

  • Part I: General

    Chapter 1. Introduction

    Chapter 2. Rodents model for toxicity testing and biomarkers

    Introduction

    The rat

    The mouse

    The hamster

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 3. Minipig models for toxicity testing and biomarkers

    Introduction

    Minipigs in Toxicological Testing

    Biomarker Development and Qualification

    Standard Biomarkers used in Minipig Toxicological Studies

    Excipients and Vehicles

    Future use and Challenges

    Biomarkers

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 4. Nonhuman primates in preclinical research

    Introduction

    Nonhuman Primates as Animal Models

    Clinical Pathology in Nonhuman Primates

    Background Lesions in Nonhuman Primates

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 5. Biomarkers of toxicity in zebrafish

    Introduction

    Zebrafish Background

    Ecotoxicological Biomarkers of Toxicity

    Examples of Biomarkers of Fish Toxicity

    An Example of an Established Biomarker: Vitellogenin

    Cautions

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 6. Caenorhabditis elegans as a model for biomarkers of diseases and toxicities

    Introduction

    C. Elegans and Biomarkers

    Biomarkers for General Organ Damage

    Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Cancers

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 7. Alternative animal toxicity testing and biomarkers

    Introduction

    Use of Alternatives to Animal Testing and Biomarkers

    Reasons for Developing Alternatives to Animal Tests and the Role of Biomarkers

    Examples of Organizations Researching and Funding Alternatives to Animal Testing and Biomarker Development

    Achieving 3RS with Minimal to no Animal Testing by using Biomarkers

    Applications of In Vitro Tests and Biomarkers

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 8. Toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic modeling

    Introduction

    Toxicokinetic Models

    Toxicodynamic Models

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Part II: Systems Toxicity Biomarkers

    Chapter 9. Central nervous system toxicity biomarkers

    Introduction

    Measuring CNS Dysfunctions

    Biomarkers in Neurotoxicology

    A Case Study: The Organophosphorus Insecticides

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 10. Peripheral nervous system toxicity biomarkers

    Introduction

    Organization of the Nervous System

    Types of Biomarkers of the PNS

    PNS Biomarkers Based on Mechanisms

    PNS Biomarker Methodology

    Autonomic Nervous System

    Role of peripheral nervous system in Parkinson’s disease and Lewy body disease

    Biomarkers of Enteric Nervous System

    Emerging Avenues of PNS Biomarker Developments: Exosomes

    Personalized Medicine

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 11. Cardiovascular toxicity biomarkers

    Introduction

    Physiology of the Cardiovascular System

    Cardiac Toxicity

    Cardiac Biomarkers

    Biomarker of Myocardial Ionic Dysfunction

    Biomarkers of Wall Stretch

    Biomarkers of Necrosis

    Biomarkers of Inflammation

    Remodeling

    Neurohormonal Action

    Vascular Biomarkers

    Other Markers

    Markers of Drug-Induced Toxicity

    Cardiac Biomarkers of Illegal Drugs, Chemicals, and Terror Agents

    Future Trends in Cardiovascular Biomarkers

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 12. Respiratory toxicity biomarkers

    Introduction

    The Respiratory System

    Causes of Lung Injury and Disease

    Types of Lung Injuries and Pathologies

    Sampling Methods for Analysis of Biomarkers of Lung Toxicity

    Types of Lung Toxicity Biomarkers

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 13. Hepatic toxicity biomarkers

    Introduction to Liver Toxicity

    Overview of Liver Physiology, Toxicity, and Pathology

    Review of Existing Biomarkers of Liver Toxicity

    Review of Emerging Biomarkers

    Biomarker Qualification and Validation

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 14. Conventional and emerging renal biomarkers

    Introduction

    Characteristics of Biomarkers

    Traditional Biomarkers

    Newer Biomarkers

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 15. Gastrointestinal toxicity biomarkers

    Introduction

    Biomarkers for Gastrointestinal Damage

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 16. Biomarkers of acute and chronic pancreatitis

    Introduction

    Anatomical, Physiological, and Metabolic Considerations for Pancreatic Injury

    Biomarkers of Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis

    Biomarkers of endocrine and autoimmune pancreatitis

    Biomarkers for Early Detection of Pancreatic Cancer

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 17. Skeletal muscle toxicity biomarkers

    Introduction

    Muscle Types

    Pesticides

    Metals

    Therapeutic Drugs

    Drugs of Abuse

    Venoms and Zootoxins

    Botulinum Toxin

    Myotoxic Plants

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 18. Dermal toxicity biomarkers

    Introduction

    Why are biomarkers of dermal toxicity needed?

    Biochemical Markers of Dermal Injury

    Markers of Exposure

    Histological/Ultrastructural Markers

    Defining Skin Biomarkers

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 19. Ocular biomarkers in diseases and toxicities

    Introduction

    Ocular Biomarkers

    Systemic Agents and Ocular Toxicity

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 20. Biomarkers of toxicity in human placenta

    Introduction

    Placental development and structure

    Toxic and Hormonally Active Chemicals in Human Placenta

    Placental Functions And Molecular Pathways Involved In Toxicity

    Potential Biomarkers of Toxicity in Human Placenta

    Use of Placenta in Regulatory Toxicology – Considerations by ecvam and other Organizations

    CONCLUDING REMARKS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    References

    Chapter 21. Blood and bone marrow toxicity biomarkers

    Introduction

    Hematopoietic System

    Mechanisms of Hematotoxicity

    Biomarkers of Hematotoxicity

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 22. Immunotoxicity biomarkers

    Introduction

    The Immune System

    Mechanisms of Immunotoxicity

    Biomarkers

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Part III: Agents Toxicity Biomarkers

    Chapter 23. Insecticides

    Introduction

    Organophosphates and Carbamates

    Chlorinated Hydrocarbons

    Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids

    Amitraz

    Neonicotinoids

    Fipronil

    Ivermectin and Selamectin

    Rotenone

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 24. Herbicides and fungicides

    Introduction

    Background

    Toxicokinetics

    Mechanism of Action

    Biomarkers and Biomonitoring of Exposure

    Herbicides

    Fungicides

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 25. Polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated biphenyls, and brominated flame retardants

    Introduction

    Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Polybrominated Biphenyls

    Brominated Flame Retardants

    Thyroid Hormone Disruption as a Biomarker of Exposure and Effect

    Perturbed Calcium Homeostasis and Kinase Signaling as Biomarkers of Effect

    Induction of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes as a Biomarker of Exposure and Effect

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 26. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Introduction

    Biomarkers of Exposure

    Biomarkers of Effect

    Biomarkers of susceptibility

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 27. Bisphenol A

    Introduction

    Mechanisms of Action

    Hallmarks of Exposure to Bisphenol A at the Tissue Level

    Bisphenol A Metabolites

    Biomolecular Responses to Bisphenol A Exposure

    Polymorphisms and Sensitivity to BISPHENOL A Exposure

    Risk Assessment

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 28. Melamine

    Introduction and Historical Background

    Toxicology of Melamine

    Biomarkers

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 29. Metals

    Introduction

    Classification of Biomarkers

    Selection of an Ideal Biomarker: Benefits and Drawbacks

    Biomonitoring of Exposure to Heavy Metals

    Lead

    Arsenic

    Mercury

    Cadmium

    Chromium

    Thallium

    Manganese

    Current Concerns and Biological Relevance

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 30. Chemical and biological warfare agents

    Introduction

    Desirable Properties of Biomarkers

    Chemical Warfare Agents

    Classification of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Biomarkers of Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents

    Nerve Agents

    Blister Agents or Vesicants

    Biological Warfare Agents

    Classification of Biological Warfare Agents: Modes of Delivery and Possible Portals of Entry

    Biomonitoring of Exposure to Biological Warfare Agents

    Anthrax

    Smallpox

    Plague

    Botulism

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 31. Freshwater cyanotoxins

    Introduction

    Hepatotoxins

    Neurotoxins

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 32. Mycotoxins

    Introduction

    Aflatoxins

    Ochratoxins

    Fumonisins

    Deoxynivalenol Trichothecene

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 33. Poisonous plants: biomarkers for diagnosis

    Introduction

    Astragalus and Oxytropis Species (Locoweeds, Nitrotoxin Spp., and Selenium Accumulators)

    Larkspurs (Delphinium Spp.)

    Lupines (Lupinus Spp.)

    Poison Hemlock (Conium Maculatum)

    Water Hemlock (Cicuta Spp.)

    Ponderosa Pine Needles (Pinus Spp.)

    Rayless Goldenrod (Isocoma Pluriflora) and White Snakeroot (Ageratina Altissima)

    Halogeton (Halogeton glomeratus)

    Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid-Containing Plants

    Photosensitizing Plants

    Death Camas

    Knapweeds: Centaurea Spp.

    Conclusions

    References

    Part IV: Pharmaceuticals and Nutraceuticals Biomarkers

    Chapter 34. Biomarkers of drug toxicity

    Introduction

    Biomarkers of Drug-Induced Liver Toxicity

    Biomarkers of Drug-Induced Kidney Toxicity

    Biomarkers of Drug-Induced Vascular Injury

    Biomarkers of Drug-Induced Cardiac Injury

    Biomarkers of Drug-Induced Brain Injury

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 35. Biomarkers of toxicity for dietary ingredients contained in dietary supplements

    Introduction

    Overview of Regulation of Dietary Supplements in the USA

    Biomarkers of Toxicity: Dietary Ingredients

    Biomarkers of Toxicity: Toxic Compounds in New Dietary Ingredients

    Biomarkers of Toxicity: Active Moiety of a Dietary Ingredient

    Use of Biomarkers to Address Safety of Multiple Ingredients in New Dietary Ingredient Notifications

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 36. Nutriphenomics in rodent models: Impact of dietary choices on toxicological biomarkers

    Introduction

    Dietary Choices

    Diet-Induced Metabolic Disorders

    Control Diet Influence on Phenotype

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Part V: Biomarkers of Petroleum Products and Mixtures Toxicity

    Chapter 37. Biomarkers of petroleum products toxicity

    Introduction

    Chemical Markers

    Biochemical Biomarkers

    Tissue and Body Fluid Levels of Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    Histopathology

    Biomarkers in Birds

    Dispersants

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 38. Biomarkers of chemical mixture toxicity

    Introduction

    Potential Chemical Mixtures

    Biomonitoring for Assessing Human Exposure to Chemical Mixtures

    Risk Assessment of Combined Actions of Chemical Mixtures

    Biomarkers of Target Organ Toxicity of Chemical Mixtures

    Nonspecific Biomarkers of Toxic Response

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Part VI: Biomarkers of Radiation, Nanoparticles, and Carcinogenesis

    Chapter 39. Biomarkers of radiation injury and response

    Introduction

    Background

    Interaction of Radiation with Matter

    Biological Consequences of Radiation

    Effects of Radiation on Organisms

    Biomonitoring of Exposure to Radiation

    Biomarker Selection and Use

    DNA: Chromosome, Single Nucleotide Polymorphism, and Methylation

    RNA

    Protein Biomarkers

    Metabolomics

    Microbiome

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 40. Biomarker analysis for nanotoxicology

    Introduction

    Nano–Bio Interface

    Biomarkers Used for Nanotoxicity

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 41. Engineered nanomaterials: Biomarkers of exposure and effect

    Introduction and Background

    Classification and Characteristics of Nanomaterials

    Definition and Meaning of Biological Monitoring and its Application to Engineered Nanomaterials

    Biological Interactions Relevant to Biomarkers of Exposure to Engineered Nanomaterials at Molecular, Cellular, and Organ Level

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 42. Epigenetic biomarkers in toxicology

    Introduction

    DNA Methylation

    Histone Modifications

    Epigenetics and Disease

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 43. Genotoxicity biomarkers: Molecular basis of genetic variability and susceptibility

    Introduction

    Genotoxic Biomarker Detection Methods

    Biomarkers and Mechanism of Action

    Molecular Basis of Genetic Variability and Susceptibility

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 44. Risk factors as biomarkers of susceptibility in breast cancer

    Introduction

    Life Stage Susceptibility

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 45. Pancreatic and ovarian cancer biomarkers

    Introduction

    Currently used Clinical Biomarkers

    Diagnostic Biomarkers

    Prognostic Biomarkers

    Predictive Biomarkers

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 46. Prostate cancer biomarkers

    Introduction

    Biomarkers and Cancer Biomarkers

    Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Criteria and Validation of Prostate Cancer Biomarkers

    History of Prostate Cancer Biomarkers

    Candidate Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 47. Biomonitoring exposures to carcinogens

    Introduction

    Assessing Exposures

    Assessing Effects

    Assessing Susceptibility

    Discovery and Validation of New Biomarkers

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Part VII: Special Topics

    Chapter 48. Biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease

    Introduction

    Genetic Risk Factors for ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE

    Mechanisms of Synaptic Dysfunction and Neuronal Loss

    Biomarkers

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 49. Biomarkers of Parkinson’s disease

    Introduction

    Genetic Biomarkers

    Biochemical Markers

    Neuroimaging Markers

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 50. Cytoskeletal disruption as a biomarker of developmental neurotoxicity

    Introduction

    Microtubules

    Microfilaments

    Intermediate Filaments

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 51. Biomarkers of mitochondrial dysfunction and toxicity

    Introduction

    Mitochondrial Function: General Overview

    Mitochondrial Toxicity

    Xenobiotics and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    Mitochondria and Disease

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 52. Biomarkers of oxidative/nitrosative stress and neurotoxicity

    Introduction

    Lipid Peroxidation and Markers of Oxidative Stress

    Excitotoxicity and Oxidative Damage

    Neuroinflammation and Oxidative Injury

    Metal Toxicity and Oxidative Injury

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 53. Citrulline: Pharmacological perspectives and role as a biomarker in diseases and toxicities

    Introduction

    Citrulline: More Efficacious than Arginine – Justification

    Salient Aspects of NITRIC OXIDE

    Biochemical Aspects

    Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Citrulline

    Citrulline as a Biomarker in Diseases

    Conditions in Which Citrulline May Prove to Be a Biomarker in the Future

    Citrulline as a Biomarker in Toxicities

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 54. Pathological biomarkers in toxicology

    Introduction

    Diagnostic Pathology

    Morphologic (Gross and Microscopic) Pathology

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Part VIII: Applications of Biomarkers in Toxicology

    Chapter 55. Biomarkers in drug safety evaluation

    Introduction

    Use of Biomarkers in Drug Safety Evaluation

    Traditional Indicators for Drug Toxicity Assessment

    Translation and Qualification of Safety Biomarkers

    Biomarker Validation and Qualification

    Integration and Use of Safety Biomarkers in Drug Development

    Safety Biomarkers for Preclinical and/or Clinical Perspectives

    Genetic Biomarkers

    Importance of Understanding Specific Mechanisms of Toxicity in Drug Development

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 56. Membrane transporters and transporter substrates as biomarkers for drug pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and toxicity/adverse events

    Introduction

    Membrane Transporters as Biomarkers for Drug Pharmacodynamics: Example of Multidrug Resistance in Cancers

    Membrane Transporters as Biomarkers for Drug Pharmacokinetics: The Role of Polymorphisms in Drug ABSORPTION, DISPOSITION, METABOLISM, AND EXCRETION

    Physiological Substrates of Transporters as Biomarkers

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 57. Biomarkers in biomonitoring of xenobiotics

    Introduction

    Requirements of a Biomarker for Toxicological Testing and Biomonitoring of Xenobiotics Exposure

    Biological Samples Used for Biomonitoring Exposure Through Biomarkers

    Biomarkers of Exposure for Monitoring Xenobiotics Exposure

    Biomarkers of Effect in Toxicology Testing

    Biomarkers of Susceptibility

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 58. Biomarkers of susceptibility: Pharmacogenomics and toxicogenomics

    Introduction

    Biomarkers Defined

    Biomarkers of Susceptibility

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 59. Biomarkers for drugs of abuse and neuropsychiatric disorders: Models and mechanisms

    Introduction

    Drugs of Abuse

    Amphetamine

    Cocaine

    Opioids

    Cannabinoids/Marijuana

    Alcohol

    Abused Substances and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Animal Models in Neuropsychiatry

    Biomarkers of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 60. MicroRNA expression as an indicator of tissue toxicity

    Introduction

    Standard Toxicity Measurements (Tissue and Circulating Biomarkers)

    Nomenclature

    Database

    Sample Preparation

    Kinetics and Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics

    Organ Systems

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 61. Percellome toxicogenomics project as a source of biomarkers of chemical toxicity

    Introduction

    Animal Studies and Percellome Data Generation

    Comprehensive Selection of Responding mRNAs

    Merging of Toxicogenomics Project Data to Percellome Database

    Estragole Study

    Pentachlorophenol Study

    Merging the Toxicogenomics project Data into the Percellome Database

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 62. Transcriptomic biomarkers in safety and risk assessment of chemicals

    Introduction

    Transcriptomics in Biomarker Discovery

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 63. Biomarkers in computational toxicology

    Introduction

    Exposure Modeling

    Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 64. Biomarkers in toxicology, risk assessment, and environmental chemical regulations

    Introduction

    Biomarkers

    Toxicology and Risk Assessment

    Biomarkers of Exposure

    Biomarkers of Effect

    Cancer-Related Biomarkers

    Biomarkers of Susceptibility

    Molecular Mechanisms and Risk Assessment

    Integration with Environmental Regulations

    Concluding Remarks and Future Direction

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1152
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2014
  • Published: January 25, 2014
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124046498

About the Editor

Ramesh Gupta

Dr. Ramesh C. Gupta, Professor & Head of Toxicology Department at Murray State university, is engaged in experimental brain research in relation to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and pesticide toxicity. He has delivered lectures in Australia, Italy, Japan, Germany, France, Switzerland, Spain, Czech Republic, China, South Korea, and Sweden. He served the panels of NIH, CDC, NIOSH, and NAS. He has >350 publications to his credit, including seven major books with Elsevier: (1) Toxicology of Organophosphate and Carbamate Compounds, (2) Veterinary Toxicology: Basic and Clinical Principles, (3) Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents, (4) Anticholinesterase Pesticides: Metabolism, Neurotoxicity, and Epidemiology, (5) Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, (6) Biomarkers in Toxicology and (7) Neutraceuticals. He is recipient of Murray State University's distinguished researcher award of the year-2006. He is a diplomate of American Board of Toxicology, and fellow of American College of Toxicology, American College of Nutrition, and Academy of Toxicological Sciences.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and Head, Toxicology Department, Breathitt Veterinary Center, Murray State University, Hopkinsville, KY, USA

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