Biology of Termites - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123955296, 9780323144582

Biology of Termites

1st Edition

Editors: Kumar Krishna
eBook ISBN: 9780323144582
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1969
Page Count: 612
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Biology of Termites, Volume I presents the anatomical, physiological, biochemical, and behavioral laboratory and field studies of termite species. Although termites have been associated mainly with damage, only less than 10% of the species have actually been recorded as pests, obscuring their important ecological role in the breakdown of vegetative matter and their variety and complexity of structure, physiology, social behavior, caste differentiation and regulation, and other aspects of their biology. After briefly describing the social organization, classification, and research history of termites, the book discusses the external morphology of these species and the similarities and differences between the various groups and the different castes. The subsequent chapters cover the internal anatomy of termites, including their digestive physiology, exocrine and endocrine glands, reproductive and nervous systems, and sense organs. Other chapters deal with the social behavior and communication in the termites and the termite colonizing flights and associated activities. The book also examines caste differentiation in the three lower termite families, namely, Hodotermitidae, Kalotermitidae, and Rhinotermitidae. This volume includes discussions on the rearing, feeding, and biochemistry of termites; the radioisotopes for feeding studies; and the moisture requirements for termite survival. The concluding chapters deal with the introduction or interception of termites by humans and their association with fungi, as well as the relationships of termite hosts with termitophiles.
Termite biologists, zoologists, botanists, ecologists, behaviorists, biochemists, endocrinologists, and economic entomologists will find this volume invaluable.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Chapter 1 Introduction

I. What are Termites? Their Social Organization

II. Classification

III. Recent History of Termite Research


Chapter 2 External Anatomy

I. Introduction

II. The Head

III. The Thorax

IV. The Abdomen

V. Conclusion


Chapter 3 The Digestive System

I. Introduction

II. Nutritive Regime

III. General Structure of the Digestive Tube (Workers)

IV. Comparative Anatomy

V. Physiology

VI. Conclusions


Chapter 4 Glands and Secretions

I. Introduction

II. Exocrine Glands

III. Endocrine Glands


Chapter 5 The Reproductive System

I. Introduction

II. The Primary Female

III. The Primary Male

IV. Neotenics and Neuters

V. Conclusion


Chapter 6 Nervous System and Sense Organs

I. Central Nervous System

II. Sensory Organs


Chapter 7 Social Behavior and Communication

I. Introduction

II. Sexual Behavior

III. Feeding Behavior and Foraging

IV. Nest Building and Construction Behavior

V. Colony Odor, Alarm, and Defense

VI. Regulatory Behavior

VII. Conclusion


Chapter 8 Flight and Colony Foundation

I. Introduction

II. Preflight Activities of the Colony

III. Flight

IV. Postflight Behavior

V. Foundation and Development of the Colony

VI. Concluding Remarks


Chapter 9 Caste Differentiation in the Lower Termites

I. Introduction

II. Definition of Terms

III. The Hodotermitidae

IV. The Kalotermitidae

V. The Rhinotermitidae

VI. Discussion and Summary


Chapter 10 Formation of Castes in the Higher Termites

I. Introduction

II. General Characteristics of the Castes and their Differentiation

III. Comparative Studies of Polymorphism in the Termitidae

IV. Variations of Polymorphism with Time

V. Determination of Polymorphism

VI. Conclusions


Chapter 11 Rearing of Termites and Testing Methods Used in the Laboratory

I. General Preconditions for Rearing, Breeding, and Testing

II. Rearing and Breeding

III. Testing


Chapter 12 Feeding Relationships and Radioisotope Techniques

I. Introduction

II. Radioisotope Studies of Food Exchange

III. Conclusion


Chapter 13 Biochemical Studies in Termites

I. Introduction

II. Food and Digestion

III. Hemolymph Components

IV. Lipids

V. Defensive Secretions

VI. Pheromones and Attractants


Chapter 14 Water Relations in Termites

I. Introduction

II. Survival Comparisons

III. Factors Influencing Survival Time during Experimental Drying

IV. Cultural Requirements in the Laboratory

V. Phyletic Considerations


Chapter 15 Species Introduced by Man

I. Introduction

II. Individual Histories of Introduction or Interception

III. General Conclusions from the Study of Introductions


Chapter 16 The Association of Termites and Fungi

I. Introduction

II. Fungi in Relation to Nutrition of Termites

III. Fungi Saprophytic in Termite Nest Structures

IV. Fungi Parasitic on or Pathogenic to Termites

V. Termites as Carriers of Fungi

VI. Use of Termite Fungi by Man


Chapter 17 The Biology of Termitophiles

I. Termitophiles in General

II. Collecting Termitophiles

III. The Evolution of Selected Termitophiles

IV. Termite-Termitophile Integrating Mechanisms

V. Concluding Remarks


Author Index

Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1969
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Kumar Krishna

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