Biology of Hydra

Biology of Hydra

1st Edition - January 1, 1973

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  • Editor: Allson Burnett
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323148696

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Biology of Hydra covers eight areas of Hydra biology, particularly, its behavior and ecology; polarity; gastrodermal and epidermal regeneration; differentiation of nervous elements; cell proliferation and morphogenesis; and mesoglea. This book describes, in particular, the various aspects of Hydra's behavior, not obvious in casual observation, as well as the animal’s feeding and digestion. It also looks into the contribution of interstitial cells to the regenerative process in Hydra; the ultrastructural changes during dedifferentiation and redifferentiation in the regenerating, isolated gastrodermis; regeneration from isolated epidermal explants; and regeneration of a Hydra containing no interstitial cells from an isolated basal disc. Furthermore, the book explains the grafting of the gastrodermis of Hydra viridis to the epidermis of Hydra pseudoligactis, and the results of such agraft on two animals sectioned for histological study. It examines the role of the neoblast in regeneration and the ultrastructure of Hydra’s nervous system. The book also explores Hydra’s growth and the contribution of cell proliferation to net growth and maintenance of form.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    In Memoriam

    Part I Behavior of Hydra

    Chapter 1. Behavior

    I. Introduction

    II. Locomotory Activity

    III. Feeding Behavior

    IV. Response to External Stimulation

    V. Summary


    Chapter 2. Feeding and Digestion

    I. Food Capture

    II. Ingestion of Food

    III. Digestion


    Part II Ecology of hydra

    Chapter 3. Ecology

    I. Introduction

    II. Some Preliminary Considerations

    III. Planktonic Phases

    IV. Environmental Crises and Hydrid Defenses

    V. Energetic Capital Investments of Hydrid Populations

    VI. Conclusion


    Part III Polarity in Hydra

    Chapter 4. The Developmental Significance of Interstitial Cells during Regeneration

    and Budding

    I. Introduction

    II. Experimental Analysis of Regeneration and Budding in Hydra Treated with Nitrogen Mustard to Selectively Eliminate Interstitial Cells

    III. Theoretical Aspects of Regeneration and Budding in Animals Devoid of Interstitial Cells


    Chapter 5. Expression and Maintenance of Organismic Polarity

    I. Review of Evidence Accumulated at Various Levels of Biological Organization

    II. Growth Patterns

    III. Theories Analyzing the Control of Polarized Form

    IV. Prospectus


    Part IV Gastrodermal Regeneration in hydra

    Chapter 6. Ultrastructural Changes during Dedifferentiation and Redifferentiation in the Regenerating, Isolated Gastrodermis

    I. Introduction

    II. Epidermal Differentiation — Dedifferentiation and Redifferentiation

    III. Epidermal Differentiation — Transformation

    IV. Gastrodermis

    V. Gastric Cavity

    VI. Formation of the Mesoglea

    VII. Summary and Conclusions


    Part V Epidermal Regeneration in Hydra

    Chapter 7. Regeneration from Isolated Epidermal Explants

    I. Introduction

    II. Methods

    III. Results

    IV. Discussion

    V. Summary


    Chapter 8. Epithelial-Muscle Cells



    Chapter 9. Regeneration of a Hydra Containing No Interstitial Cells from an Isolated Basal Disc

    I. Introduction

    II. Materials and Methods

    III. Results

    IV. Discussion


    Chapter 10. Interspecific Grafting of Cell Layers

    I. Introduction

    II. Methods

    III. Results and Discussion


    Chapter 11. Regeneration of a Complete Hydra from a Single, Differentiated Somatic Cell Type

    I. Introduction

    II. Normal Regeneration

    III. Dedifferentiation of Specialized Cell Types into I-Cells

    IV. Epidermal Regeneration

    V. Regeneration of Animals Lacking I-Cells

    VI. Regeneration of Whole Hydras from Explants Consisting Solely of Epitheliomuscular Cells

    VII. Discussion


    Part VI Differentiation of Nervous Elements in Hydra

    Chapter 12. Ultrastructure of Neurosensory Cell Development

    I. Introduction and Historical Review

    II. Neurosensory Cell Development

    III. The Mature Neurosensory Cell

    IV. Fate of Neurosensory Cells


    Chapter 13. Ultrastructure of Ganglionic Cell Development

    I. Introduction

    II. Early Development

    III. Later Development

    IV. Mature Ganglionic Cell


    Chapter 14. Structure of Neurosecretory Cells with Special Reference to the Nature of the Secretory Product

    I. Introduction

    II. The Neurosecretory Cell

    III. Mechanisms of Neurosecretory Release

    IV. Nature of Neurosecretory Material


    Part VII Cell Proliferation and Morphogenesis in Hydra

    Chapter 15. Organismal Growth and the Contribution of Cell Proliferation to Net Growth and Maintenance of Form

    Part I. Organismal Growth

    Part II. The Contribution of Cell Proliferation to Net Growth and Maintenance of Form


    Part VIII The Mesoglea of Hydra

    Chapter 16. The Mesoglea

    I. Mesoglea as Connective Tissue

    II. Physicochemical Structure of Mesoglea

    III. Mesoglea as a Dynamic Structure

    IV. Mesoglea Origin

    V. Morphogenic Role


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 482
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1973
  • Published: January 1, 1973
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323148696

About the Editor

Allson Burnett

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