Biology of Fertilization V3 - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124926035, 9780323148436

Biology of Fertilization V3

1st Edition

The Fertilization Response of the Egg

Editors: Charles Metz
eBook ISBN: 9780323148436
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 6th May 1985
Page Count: 488
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The Fertilization Response of the Egg is the third and final volume of the Biology of Fertilization which provides a detailed discussion of the responses of the egg to the fertilizing sperm, collectively called as the activation of the egg. It is an anthology of physiological articles written by biology and physiology professionals.

The book is divided into 12 chapters, half of which focused on the sea urchin egg fertilization, as it is the most studied form. The first two chapters cover the discussions on the first visible egg responses to fertilization and the formation of the fertilization membrane. The following chapter describes the relationship of sperm entry into the amphibian egg and the establishment of the symmetry of the embryo. Other chapters focus on the electrical and ionic changes of the egg plasma membrane and cytoplasm. The remaining parts of the book describe the synthetic activities in the egg that are initiated during fertilization. These include description of DNA and maternal RNA syntheses, nuclear-cytoplasm interactions, protein synthesis during oogenesis and early embryogenesis, and the expression of maternal messenger RNA.

The book is an excellent reference for undergraduate and graduate biology students, specifically in physiology, embryogenesis, and developmental biology. It can also be an invaluable source of information for lecturers and professionals in biology.

Table of Contents




Contents of Other Volumes

1. Functions of Egg Cortical Granules

I. Introduction

II. The Cortex of the Egg

III. Structure and Chemical Composition of Cortical Granules

IV. Secretory Functions of Cortical Granules

V. Conclusion


2. The Formation of the Fertilization Membrane of the Sea Urchin Egg

I. Introduction

II. Historical Perspective

III. Fertilization Membrane Morphology

IV. Fertilization Membrane Precursors

V. Assembly of the Fertilization Membrane

VI. Summary and Conclusions


3. Sperm Penetration and the Establishment of the Dorsal-Ventral Polarity of the Amphibian Egg

I. Introduction

II. Organization of the Egg Cytoplasm Prior to Fertilization

III. The Fertilization Reaction

IV. The Appearance of the Gray Crescent

V. Experimental Perturbation of the Fertile Egg's Pattern of Bilateral Symmetry

VI. Concluding Remarks


4. The Role of Calcium Explosions, Waves, and Pulses in Activating Eggs

I. All Eggs Can Be Artificially Activated by Raising Their Cytosolic Calcium

II. Medaka Eggs Are Activated by a Traveling Internal Calcium Explosion

III. Sea Urchin Eggs Are Apparently Activated by a Very Similar Explosion

IV. All Deuterostome Eggs May be Activated by a Traveling Internal Calcium Explosion

V. Protostome Eggs

VI. The Accessory Roles of pH

VII. The Consequences of Calcium Pulses in Eggs

VIII. Schemes and Questions


5. Ionic Signaling in the Sea Urchin Egg at Fertilization

I. Introduction

II. Assaying the Response of the Egg to Activation

III. The Release of Intracellular Calcium

IV. The Consequences of the Increase in Intracellular Free Calcium

V. The Consequences of the Increase in Intracellular pH

VI. The Ionic Hypothesis of Egg Activation

VII. Events That Precede the Calcium Release

VIII. Conclusions


6. Polyspermy-Preventing Mechanisms

I. Introduction

II. Extracellular Blocks to Polyspermy

III. Plasma Membrane Blocks to Polyspermy

IV. Physiological Polyspermy

V. Unanswered Questions


7. Pronuclear Events during Fertilization

I. Development of the Male Pronucleus

II. Aspects Regulating the Metamorphosis of the Sperm Nucleus into a Male Pronucleus

III. Development of the Female Pronucleus

IV. Pronuclear Association

V. Concluding Remarks


8. Activation of DNA Synthesis during Early Embryogenesis

I. Introduction

II. Oogenesis: Preparation for Nuclear DNA Synthesis

III. Activation of Nuclear DNA Synthesis at Fertilization

IV. Control of DNA Synthesis during Early Embryogenesis

V. Molecular Mechanisms of DNA Replication in Embryogenesis


9. Interspersed Maternal RNA of Sea Urchin and Amphibian Eggs

I. Introduction

II. The Complexity of Maternal RNA

III. Short Repetition DNA Sequence Transcripts in Egg RNA

IV. The Organization of Single Copy and Short Repetitive Sequences in Maternal RNA

V. The Structure of Maternal Poly(A) RNAs Containing a Specific Short Repeat Sequence Element

VI. The Nucleotide Sequences of Transcribed 2109A Repeats and Flanking Single Copy Regions

VII. Source of Embryo mRNA

VIII. The Metabolism of Interspersed Maternal RNA

IX. The Evolution of Interspersed Poly(A) RNA

X. Concluding Remarks


10. Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Interactions in Early Development



11. Protein Synthesis during Oogenesis and Early Embryogenesis in the Mammal

I. Introduction

II. Accumulation and Storage of RNA during Oogenesis

III. Protein Synthesis during Oogenesis

IV. Programs of Protein Synthesis and Expression Initiated during Meiotic Maturation of Potential Consequence to Postfertilization Development


12. Maternal Messenger RNA: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Spatial Control of Its Expression in Embryos

I. Introduction

II. Protein Synthetic Machinery and Points of Control

III. Acceleration of Protein Synthesis in the Sea Urchin Embryo

IV. Sequence-Specific Selection of Maternal mRNAs for Translation

V. Spatial Localization of Maternal mRNAs: A Paradigm for Determination?

VI. Conclusions


Addendum to Chapter 5



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© Academic Press 1985
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Charles Metz

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