Biological Response Modifiers - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780126957709, 9780323151382

Biological Response Modifiers

1st Edition

New Approaches to Disease Intervention

Editors: Paul Torrence
eBook ISBN: 9780323151382
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 16th December 1985
Page Count: 416
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Description

Biological Response Modifiers: New Approaches to Disease Intervention focuses on biological response modifiers (BRMs) and the ways they provide novel approaches to disease control. It examines how BRMs act through an organism's own biological response mechanisms and how their mechanisms of action can be utilized to develop new modalities of chemotherapy. Organized into 15 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of specific agents and approaches to biological therapy, the basic concepts of immunity, and BRM screening. It then discusses interferons and their immunoregulatory functions; mechanism of interferon action; how nucleic acids and polynucleotides regulate the immune system; clinical applications of thymosins and other thymic hormones; the antibacterial and antineoplastic properties of tuftsin; and production and characterization of tumor necrosis factor. The reader is also introduced to detection and activity of colony-stimulating factor; the role of neuroendocrine hormones in the immune system; chalones and other endogenous inhibitors of cell proliferation; biochemistry of lymphotoxins; muramyl peptides as immunopharmacological response modifiers; biological activities of transfer factor in leukocyte dialysates; and requirements for activation and growth of human lymphocytes. This book is a valuable resource for immunologists, clinicians, biochemists, and organic/medicinal chemists.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Preface

1. Introduction

I. Biologicals and Biological Response Modifiers

II. Clinical Approaches

III. BRM Screening

IV. Biological Therapy: Specific Agents and Approaches

V. Perspectives

References

2. Basic Concepts of Immunity

I. Introduction

II. Cellular Participants in the Immune System

III. Basic Characteristics of the Immune Response

IV. Lymphocyte Subpopulations

V. Mechanisms of Cell-Cell Communication and Immune Regulation

VI. Immune Regulation

VII. Importance o f the MHC Proteins

VIII. Summary

References

3. Immunoregulatory Functions of Interferon

I. Introduction

II. Interferon Production by Lymphoid Cells

III. Interferon y and the Lymphokine Circuit

IV. Effects of Interferon on Immune Cells and Immune Responses

V. Interferon and Class II Antigen Expression

VI. Interferons in Immunologically Related Disorders

VII. Conclusions

References

4. How Interferon Works

I. Introduction

II. Mechanism of Interferon Action: The 2-5A System

III. Interferon-Induced Disease and 2-5A

IV. Interferon-Induced dsRNA-Activated Protein Kinase

V. Effects of Interferon Treatment on Methylation

VI. Effects of Interferon Treatment on Tryptophan Metabolism

VII. Effects of Interferon on the Cell Membrane

VIII. Miscellaneous Interferon Effects

IX. Summary

References

5. Regulation of the Immune System by Nucleic Acids and Polynucleotides

I. Introduction

II. Nucleic Acids as Immunomodulating Agents

III. Adjuvant Action of Synthetic Polynucleotide Complexes

IV. Immunotherapeutic Applications

References

6. Thymosins and Other Thymic Hormones

I. Introduction

II. Thymus Hormones

III. Clinical Applications of the Thymosins

IV. Conclusions

References

7. Tuftsin (Thr-Lys-Pro-Arg): A Natural Activator of Phagocytic Cells with Antibacterial and Antineoplastic Activity

I. Introduction

II. How Tuftsin Came About

III. Biochemistry of Tuftsin

IV. Biological Activity of Tuftsin

V. Tuftsin Receptors

VI. Tuftsin Toxicity

VII. Other Effects of Tuftsin

VIII. Tuftsin Assay

IX. Chemical Synthesis o f Tuftsin

X. Tuftsin Deficiency Syndromes

References

8. Tumor Necrosis Factor

I. Introduction

II. Historical Events

III. Production and Characterization of TNF

IV. TNF Assays

V. Role of TNF in Macrophage-Mediated Tumor Cell Killing

VI. Mechanisms of TNF Action

VII. Other Effects of TNF

VIII. Clinical Potential

Addendum

References

9. Colony-Stimulating Factor

I. Introduction

II. Detection and Activity o f CSF

III. Regulation of CSF Production and Activity

IV. Effect of CSF on Macrophage Effector Function

V. Macrophage Effector Functions Enhanced by CSF

References

10. Neuroendocrine Hormones and the Immune System

I. Introduction

II. Effect of Products of the Polyproteins Proopiomelanocortin and Proenkephalin on Immune Functions

III. Effect of Arginine Vasopressin, Oxytocin, and Related Peptides on Interferon Production

IV. Regulation of B-Cell Function by Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (Thyrotropin)

V. Common Immune Functions and Some Neuropeptides and Lymphokines

VI. Second-Messenger Signals for Lymphokines and Neuroendocrine Hormones

VII. Summary

References

11. Chalones and Other Endogenous Inhibitors of Cell Proliferation

I. Regulation of Cell Proliferation as an Interaction of Stimulators and Inhibitors

II. Properties of the Inhibitors

III. Possible Applications of Endogenous Inhibitors in Cancer Treatment

IV. Conclusions

References

12. Lymphotoxins: A Multicomponent Family of Cell-Lytic and Growth-Inhibitory Proteins

I. Introduction

II. Cells and Cellular Processes Involved in Lymphotoxin Release in Vitro

III. Biochemical Characterization of Lymphotoxins

IV. Effects of Lymphotoxins on Cells in Vitro

V. Synergy of Lymphotoxins with Interferons

VI. Antitumor Effects of Lymphotoxins in Vivo

VII. Conclusions

References

13. Muramyl Peptides as Immunopharmacological Response Modifiers

I. Introduction

II. Modification of Specific Immunity by Muramyl Peptides

III. Modification of Nonspecific Immunity by Muramyl Peptides

IV. Modification of Macrophages or Other Cell Responses by Muramyl Peptides

V. Modification of Temperature and Slow-Wave Sleep by Muramyl Peptides

VI. Discussion

References

14. Transfer Factor

I. Introduction

II. Biological Activities in Leukocyte Dialysates

III. Assays for Transfer Factor

IV. Properties of Transfer Factor

V. Possible Mechanisms of Action

VI. Summary and Conclusions

References

15. Human Lymphocyte Proliferation: Requirements for Activation and Growth

I. Introduction

II. Immunoregulation of B Lymphocytes

III. Immunoregulation of T Lymphocytes

IV. Cell Lineage Specificity of Growth Factors

V. Regulation of the Immune System by B Lymphocytes

VI. Summary

References

Index




Details

No. of pages:
416
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1985
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323151382

About the Editor

Paul Torrence