The Chemical Reactions Of Living Cells

1st Edition - April 18, 1970

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  • Author: David Metzler
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323141741

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Biochemistry: The Chemical Reactions of Living Cells is a 16-chapter reference source on chemical structures and reactions of living cells. The first three chapters of this book contain introductory material on cell structure, molecular architecture, and energetic. The subsequent chapters examine the allosteric effect of the binding structures of oligomeric enzymes, microtubules, viruses, and muscle. These chapters also describe the structures and chemical properties of membranes and of the surrounding cell coats. The discussions then shift to the general properties of enzymes, the kinetics of chemical reactions, and the various mechanisms employed in enzymatic catalysis. Considerable chapters are devoted to the reaction sequences found in metabolism. These chapters particularly examine the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; photosynthesis; and biosynthesis and catabolism of an enormous number of nitrogenous compounds. The final chapters highlight the genetic and hormonal control of metabolism, development, and brain function. Biochemistry teachers and students will find this book of great value.

Table of Contents

  • Preface


    1 The Scene of Action

    A. The Simplest Living Things

    B. Eukaryotic Cells

    C. The Evolution of Complex Organisms

    D. The Kingdom Protista

    E. Multicellular Organisms

    F. The Regulation of Cell Chemistry


    Study Questions

    2 The Molecules from Which We Are Made

    A. Structural Principles for Small Molecules

    B. The Proteins

    C. Sugars and Polysaccharides

    D. Nucleic Acids

    E. The Lipids

    F. Some Important Small Molecules and Ions

    G. The Chemical Composition of Cells

    H. How We Have Learned the Structures


    Study Questions

    3 Energetics of Biochemical Reactions

    A. Thermodynamics

    B. Tables of ΔG° Values for Biochemical Compounds

    C. Electrode Potentials and Free Energy Changes for Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

    D. Thermodynamics and Life Processes

    E. Linear Free Energy Relationships


    Study Questions

    4 How Molecules Stick Together

    A. Principle of Complementarity

    B Forces Acting between Molecules

    C The Quantitative Measurement of Binding

    D. How Macromolecules Pack Together

    E. Cooperative Changes in Conformation

    F. Muscle

    G. Self-Assembly of Macromolecular Structures


    Study Questions

    5 Membranes and Cell Coats

    A. The Structure of Membranes

    B. Membrane Metabolism and Function

    C. Cell Surface Antigens and Receptors

    D. Structure of Bacterial Cell Walls

    E. Plant Cell Walls


    Study Questions

    6 Enzymes: The Protein Catalysts of Cells

    A. Primer on Enzyme Kinetics

    B. Inhibition and Activation of Enzymes

    C. Growth Rates of Cells

    D. Specificity of Enzymatic Action

    E. Mechanisms of Catalysis

    F. The Regulation of Enzymatic Activity

    G. Classification of Enzymes


    Study Questions

    7 The Kinds of Reactions Catalyzed by Enzymes

    A. a Preview of Some Metabolic Pathways

    B. Classifying Enzymatic Reactions

    C. Nucleophilic Displacement Reactions (Reaction Type 1)

    D. Displacement Reactions on Carbonyl Groups

    E. Displacement on a Phosphorus Atom

    F. Multiple Displacement Reactions and the Coupling of ATP Cleavage to Endergonic Processes

    G. Transfer of Sulfate

    H. Addition and Elimination Reactions

    I. Enolic Intermediates in Isomerization Reactions

    J. Beta Cleavage and Condensation

    K. Some Isomerization and Rearrangement Reactions


    Study Questions

    8 Coenzymes—Nature's Special Reagents

    A. ATP and the Nucleotide "Handles"

    B. Coenzyme a and Phosphopantetheine

    C. Bound Biotin as a Prosthetic Group

    D. Thiamine Diphosphate

    E. Pyridoxal Phosphate

    F. Keto Acids and Other Unusual Electrophilic Centers

    G. Hydrogen Transfer Coenzymes

    H. Pyridine Nucleotide Coenzymes and Dehydrogenases

    I. The Flavin Coenzymes

    J. Lipoic Acid and the Oxidative Decarboxylation of α-Keto Acids

    K. Tetrahydrofolic Acid and Other Pterin Coenzymes

    L. Vitamin B12 Coenzymes


    Study Questions

    9 Organization of Metabolism: Catabolic Pathways

    A. The Oxidation of Fatty Acids

    B. The Citric Acid Cycle

    C. Oxidative Pathways Related to the Citric Acid Cycle

    D. Catabolism of Propionyl Coenzyme a and Propionate

    E. Catabolism of Sugars

    F. Fermentation: "Life Without Oxygen"


    Study Questions

    10 How Oxygen Meets the Electrons with Generation of ATP and Other Stories

    A. Historical Notes

    B. Heme Protiens

    C. Nonheme Iron Proteins

    D. Quinones as Hydrogen Carriers

    E. The Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation

    E. Energy from Inorganic Reactions

    G. Oxygenases and Hydroxylases


    Study Questions

    11 Biosynthesis: How New Molecules Are Put Together

    A. Metabolic Loops and Biosynthetic Families

    B. Harnessing the Energy of ATP

    C. Reducing Agents for Biosynthesis

    D. Assembling the Monomer Units

    E. Biosynthesis and Modification of Polymers

    F. Regulation of Biosynthetic Pathways


    Study Questions

    12 Some Specific Pathways of Metabolism of Carbohydrates and Lipids

    A. Interconversions of Monosaccharides

    B. Synthesis and Utilization of Oligosaccharides

    C. Synthesis of Polysaccharides

    D. The Intracellular Breakdown of Polysaccharides and Glycolipids

    E. Specific Aspects of Fatty Acid Metabolism

    F. Metabolism of Triglycerides, Phospholipids, and Glycolipids

    G. The Polyketides

    H. Polyprenyl (Isoprenoid) Compounds

    I. Steroid Compounds


    Study Questions

    13 Light in Biology

    A. Properties of Light

    B. Absorption of Light by Matter

    C. Fluorescence and Phosphorescence

    D. Photochemistry

    E. Photosynthesis

    F. Vision

    G. Other Light Responses

    H. Bioluminescence


    Study Questions

    14 The Metabolism of Nitrogen-Containing Compounds

    A. Fixation of N2 and Other Reactions of Inorganic Nitrogen Compounds

    B. Incorporation of NH3 into Amino Acids and Proteins

    C. Synthesis and Catabolism of the Glutamic Acid Family of Compounds

    D. Compounds Derived from Aspartate

    E. Alanine and the Branched Chain Amino Acids

    F. Serine and Glycine

    G. Cysteine and Sulfur Metabolism

    H. Metabolism of Aromatic Compounds

    I. The Metabolism of Tryptophan and the Synthesis of NAD

    J. The Metabolism of Histidine

    K. The Metabolism of Pyrimidines and Purines

    L. Folic Acid, Flavins, and Dimethylbenzimidazole


    Study Questions

    15 Biochemical Genetics and the Synthesis of Nucleic Acids and Proteins

    A. How the Present Concepts Emerged

    B. The Transcription of RNA Molecules

    C. Translation of the Genetic Message: Protein Synthesis

    D. Genetic Methods

    E. Replication of DNA

    F. Restriction and Modification of DNA

    G. Recombination, Integration, and Excision

    H. Mutations, Cancer and Genetic Engineering

    I. The Eukaryotic Chromosome and Its Control


    Study Questions

    16 Growth, Differentiation, and Chemical Communication between Cells

    A. The Hormones

    B. Neurochemistry

    C. Differentiation and Developmental Biology

    D. Ecological Matters (Author's Personal Postscript


    Study Questions

    Appendix. The Construction of Molecular Model

    A. Ball-and-Stick Models

    B. Space-Filling Models

    C. Cardboard Models

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1164
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1977
  • Published: April 18, 1970
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323141741

About the Author

David Metzler

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