Biochemistry of the amino acids - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780123955234, 9780323161473

Biochemistry of the amino acids

2nd Edition

Authors: Alton Meister
eBook ISBN: 9780323161473
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1965
Page Count: 629
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Description

Biochemistry of the Amino Acids, Second Edition, Volume II focuses on the trends in research on amino acids and biochemistry. Given considerations are incorporation of amino acids into proteins, amino acid sequences, and discovery of amino acids. The first part of the book deals with intermediary metabolism of amino acids. Particularly noted are alanine, aspartic, adenylosuccinic, hydroxyaspartic acids, and asparagine. The book also has discussions on glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, serine, and sarcosine. The processes and syntheses involved in these acids are noted. Another part of the book focuses on the formation, degradation, reactions, and conversion of acids. The processes and experiments discussed are supported by numerical analysis, and the biosynthesis of acids in microorganisms is also considered. The book also notes some disorders of amino acid metabolism in humans. These disorders include cystinuria, glycinuria, ammonemia, prolinemia, maple syrup urine disease, and homocystinuria. Discussions focus on how these diseases develop and the symptoms associated with them. The book is a vital source of data for readers interested in the study of amino acids.

Table of Contents


Preface to the Second Edition

Acknowledgments

Contents of Volume I

Tables and Figures

Metabolism Summary Schemes

Chapter VI. Intermediary Metabolism of theamino Acids

A. General Considerations

B. Alanine

C. β-Alanine and β-Aminoisobutyric Acid

Biosynthesis

Degradation

D. Aspartic Acid and Asparagine

General Considerations

Asparagine

Convertion of Aspartate to Fumarate

β-Methylaspartic Acid

Adenylosuccinic Acid

Hydroxyaspartic Acid

Synthesis of the Pyrimidine Ring

Other Reaction of Aspartic Acid

E. Glutamic Acid and Glutamine

General Considirations

the Mesaconate Pathway

Metabolism of L-and D-Glutamic Acids in Animals

Glutathione

Glutamine

Degcarboxylation of Glutamic Acid

Synthesis of the Purine Ring

F. Glycine, Serine, and Sarcosine

Formation and Degradation of Glycine

Synthesis of Creatine and Creatinine

Porphyrin Synthesis

Glycine-Serine Interconversion; Folic Acid Derivatives

Biosynthesis of Serine from Carbohydrate

Relationships Between Serine, 2-Aminoethanol, Choline, and Sarcosine

Degradation of Serine

Sphingosine

Lombricine and Serine-Aminoethanol Phosphodiester

Other Reactions of Glycine and Serine

G. Threonine

Biosynthesis

Degradation

Threonine Dehydrases

Hydroxyamino Acid Aldolases

Conversion of Threonine to Aminoacetone

Incorporation of Threonine Carbon into Vitamin B12

H. Arginine, Ornithine, and Citrulline; Urea Synthesis

General Considerations

Formation of Arginine

Formation of Carbamyl Phosphate and Citrulline

Alternate Pathways of Urea Formation

Other Pathways of Carbamyl Phosphate Formation

Arginine Desimidase

Canavanine

Other Reactions of Arginine and Ornithine

I. Proline

Biosynthesis of Proline in Microorganisms

Biosynthesis of Ornithine in Microorganisms

Metabolism in Mammals

J. 4-Hydroxyproline

General Considerations

Conversion of Proline to Collagen Hydroxyproline

Degradation

K. Valine, Isoleucine, and Leucine

Biosynthesis of Valine and Isoleucine

Biosynthesis of Leucine

Degradation of Leucine

Conversion of Leucine to Isoprenoid Compounds

Degradation of Valine

Degradation of Isoleucine

Degradation of Straight-Chain Amino Acids

Conversion of Valine, Leucine, and Isoleucine to Other Product

L. Methionine and Cysteine

General Considerations

The Cystathionine Pathway

Transmethylation

Synthesis of Methionine

Other Reactions of Methionine

S-Methylcysteine

Biosynthesis of Cysteine

The Cysteine Desulfhydrase Reaction

Desulfuration and Transsulfuration of β-Mercaptopyruvic Acid

Alliinase

Cysteine and Glutathione Reductases

Conversion of Cysteine to Cysteinesulfinic Acid, Taurine, and Related Compounds

Thiosulfate Utilization and Formation

Other Products of Cysteine Metabolism

M. Histidine

Biosynthesis

Degradative Metabolism

The Urocanic Acid Pathway

Histamine

Other Products of Histidine Metabolism

N. Tryptophan

Biosynthesis

Metabolism

General Considerations

Conversion to Kynurenine, Nicotinic Acid, and Related Compounds

Other Reactions of Kynurenine and Derivatives

Metabolism of Anthranilic Acid

5-Hydroxytryptophan and its Metabolites

Utilization of Tryptophan for the Formation of Plant Growth Hormone

Other Products of Tryptophan Metabolism

O. Phenylalanine and Tyrosine

Biosynthesis in Microorganisms

Metabolic Transformation in Animals

Epinephrine and Related Compounds

Thyroxine and Related Compounds

Melanin

Other Reactions of Tyrosine and Phenylalanine

P. Lysine

Biosynthesis

Diaminopimelic Pathway

Aminoadipic Acid Pathway

Degradation

Other Reactions of Lysine

Hydroxylysine

References

Chapter VII. Some Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism in Man

A. Introduction

B. Aminoaciduria

Introduction

Cystinuria

Glycinuria

Generalized Aminoaciduria

Aminoaciduria of the "Overflow" Type

C. Excretion of β-Aminoisobutyric Acid

D. Disorders of Glycine and Glyoxylate Metabolism

Glycinemia

Hyperoxaluria

E. Phosphoaminoethanol Metabolism

Hypophosphatasia

F. Metabolism of Ammonia, Arginine, Citrulline, and Ornithine

Introduction

Argininosuccinic Aciduria

Ammonemia

Citrullinuria

G. Metabolism of Hydroxyproline and Proline

Hydroxyprolinemia

Prolinemia

H. Metabolism of Isoleucine, Leucine, and Valine

Maple Syrup Urine Disease

Propionate Metabolism

I. Methionine Metabolism

Cystathioninuria

Homocystinuria

J. Histidine Metabolism

Histidinemia

Cerebromacular Degeneration

Mastocytosis

K. Tryptophan Metabolism

Hartnup Diseas

Carcinoid

L. Phenylalanine and Tyrosine Metabolism

Alcaptonuria

Excretion of Tyrosine and p-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic Acid

Albinism

Pheochromocytoma and Neuroblastoma

Thyroid Hormones

Phenylpyruvic Oligophrenia

References

Author Index

Subject Index for Volumes I and II


Details

No. of pages:
629
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1965
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323161473

About the Author

Alton Meister

Affiliations and Expertise

Cornell University Medical College, New York, U.S.A.