Biochemistry of Taste and Olfaction

Biochemistry of Taste and Olfaction

1st Edition - January 1, 1981

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  • Editor: Robert Cagan
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323145916

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Biochemistry of Taste and Olfaction examines the biochemical aspects of taste and olfaction and their relevance to nutrition, medicine, and food science. More specifically, it considers the biological processes that influence dietary habits, nutritional status, and enjoyment of food, as well as other important social and biological phenomena. It also describes biochemical mechanisms at the peripheral receptor level in taste and olfaction, with emphasis on the role of the cell surface, along with neurotransmitters and other neurochemical aspects of the olfactory system. Organized into five sections comprised of 24 chapters, this book begins with an overview of biochemical approaches used in studying the phenomena of taste and olfaction. It then proceeds with a discussion of olfactory receptor mechanisms, the accessibility of odorant molecules to the receptors, the role of cilia in olfactory recognition, and the involvement of receptor proteins in vertebrate olfaction. Middle chapters focus on the chemosensation, major histocompatibility complex and olfactory receptors, taste receptor mechanisms, biochemistry of sugar reception in insects, intensity/time phenomena in sugar sweetness, and recognition of taste stimuli at the initial binding interaction. The reader is also introduced to the physicochemical principles of taste and olfaction, molecular mechanisms of transduction in chemoreception, biochemical mechanisms in vertebrate primary olfactory neurons, neurotransmitter biochemistry of the mammalian olfactory bulb, and chemical sensing by bacteria. Examples of chemical sensory systems are included. This book will be of interest to biochemists, physiologists, neurobiologists, neuroscientists, molecular biologists, food scientists, students, and specialists in psychology, neurophysiology, organic chemistry, and nutrition.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors



    Some Reflections on Biochemical Approaches to the Phenomena of Taste and Olfaction


    Part I Olfactory Receptor Mechanisms

    1 Biochemical Studies on the Boar Pheromones, 5α-Androst-16-en-3-one and 5α-Androst-16-en-3α-ol, and Their Metabolism by Olfactory Tissue

    I. Introduction

    II. Androst-16-enes

    III. Distribution of Tissues in the Porcine Nasal Cavity

    IV. Metabolism of [5α-3H]5α-Androstenone in Vitro by Porcine Nasal Epithelium and the Effect of 17β-Hydroxy-5α-androstan-3-one

    V. Subcellular Location and Co-factor Dependency of 3α- and 3β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases

    VI. Time Course of the Reduction of [5α-3H]5α-Androstenone in Porcine Nasal Tissues

    in Vitro

    VII. Measurement of Apparent Km Values for 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases in Porcine Nasal Tissues

    VIII. Possible Significance of 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases in Porcine Nasal Epithelium


    2 Accessibility of Odorant Molecules to the Receptors

    I. Introduction

    II. Odorant Access

    III. Mucosa/Air Partitioning of Odorants

    IV. Odorant Removal

    V. Limitation of the Radioisotope Procedures

    VI. Further Considerations

    VII. Conclusion


    3 Role of Cilia in Olfactory Recognition

    I. Introduction

    II. Cilia in Sensory Organs

    III. Morphology of Olfactory Cilia

    IV. Experimental Basis for Role of Cilia in Olfaction

    V. Odorant Interactions Studied Biochemically

    VI. Isolation and Biochemical Characterization of Olfactory Cilia

    VII. Isolation of Plasma Membranes from Cilia

    VIII. Future Prospects


    4 Receptor Proteins in Vertebrate Olfaction

    I. Introduction

    II. Olfactory Receptor Proteins

    III. Research Needs


    5 Chemosensation: An Aspect of the Uniqueness of the Individual



    6 The Major Histocompatibility Complex and Olfactory Receptors

    I. Introduction

    II. Self, Non-Self, and Olfaction

    III. Monoclonal Antibody Production

    IV. Experimental Study of Relationships between Olfactory Receptors and the MHC

    V. Future Prospects


    Part I Discussion

    Part II Taste Receptor Mechanisms

    7 Comparative Study of Sweet Taste Specificity

    I. Introduction

    II. Specificity of Sugar Taste Response

    III. Nonsugar Sweeteners

    IV. Receptor Site Models

    V. Research Needs


    8 Biochemical Aspects of Sugar Reception in Insects

    I. Introduction

    II. General Features of Taste Hairs

    III. Specificity of the Sugar Receptor

    IV. Transduction

    V. The Pharmacological Approach

    VI. Glucosidases as Possible Receptor Proteins of the Pyranose Site


    9 A Molecular Approach to Intensity/Time Phenomena in Sugar Sweetness

    I. Introduction

    II. Measurements and Observations in Intensity/Time Relationships

    III. Significance of Time in Models of Chemoreception and Transduction

    IV. Intensity/Time and the Sweet Pharmacophore

    V. Conclusions and Future Prospects


    10 Recognition of Taste Stimuli at the Initial Binding Interaction

    I. Introduction

    II. Sweet Taste Receptors

    III. Glutamate Taste Receptors

    IV. Catfish Taste Receptors and the Role of the Plasma Membrane

    V. Taste Receptor Site Antagonist

    VI. Covalent Labeling and Isolation of a Taste-Receptor Macromolecule

    VII. Research Needs


    Part II Discussion

    Part III Physicochemistry and Transduction

    11 Physicochemical Principles in Taste and Olfaction

    I. Introduction

    II. Mass Transport in Chemoreception

    III. A Generalized Response Function

    IV. Surface Activity and Taste

    V. Research Needs


    12 Transduction through Receptor State Transitions

    I. Introduction

    II. Study of Biochemical Events in Taste Reception without Isolating Receptor Tissue

    III. Dynamics of Receptor Activation by Sodium and Potassium Salts

    IV. Research Needs


    13 Molecular Mechanisms of Transduction in Chemoreception

    I. Introduction

    II. Comparison of Chemoreceptive Function in Various Organisms

    III. Reaction Scheme for Initial Process of Chemoreception

    IV. Structural Changes of Receptor Membranes

    V. Membrane Potential Changes in Response to Chemical Stimuli

    VI. Transduction Mechanisms

    VII. Research Needs


    14 Intracellular Calcium and Taste Cell Transduction

    I. Introduction

    II. Structural Aspects of Taste Cells

    III. Plasma Membrane and Mitochondria as Calcium Regulators

    IV. Models of Taste Receptor Transduction

    V. Monitoring of Mitochondrial Activity

    VI. Monitoring of NADH and Flavoprotein during Taste Stimulation

    VII. Research Needs


    15 Isolation, Separation, and Analysis of Cells from Olfactory Epithelium

    I. Introduction

    II. Olfactory Cell Separation

    III. Pharmacological Studies of the Olfactory Epithelium

    IV. Conclusions and Suggestions for Future Research


    16 Biochemical Mechanisms in Vertebrate Primary Olfactory Neurons

    I. Molecular Mechanisms in Olfaction

    II. Transduction and Coding in Primary Neurons

    III. Olfactory Mechanisms—Experimental Strategies

    IV. Prospects for Future Studies


    Part III Discussion

    Part IV Neurotransmitters in Taste and Olfaction

    17 Neurotransmitter Biochemistry of the Mammalian Olfactory Bulb

    I. Introduction

    II. Anatomical Organization

    III. Transmitter Biochemistry

    IV. Summary and Future


    18 Neurochemical Studies of the γ-Aminobutyric Acid System in the Olfactory Bulb

    I. Introduction

    II. GABA in the Olfactory Bulb

    III. Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase

    IV. Dendrodendritic Synaptosomes

    V. Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase in Dendrodendritic Synaptosomes

    VI. GABA Binding to Membranes from Dendrodendritic Synaptosomes

    VII. Future Prospects


    19 Neurochemistry of the Olfactory Tubercle

    I. Introduction

    II. Anatomy and Biochemistry

    III. Physiology

    IV. Pharmacology

    V. Pathology


    20 Quantitative Histochemistry of Gustatory and Olfactory Cholinergic Pathways

    I. Introduction

    II. Quantitive Histochemical Methodology

    III. Summary


    Part IV Discussion

    Part V Analogous Chemoreceptors

    21 Chemical Sensing by Bacteria

    I. Introduction

    II. Brief Description of the Bacterial System

    III. The Receptors

    IV. The Proteins of the Processing System

    V. The Reversible Methylation System

    VI. The Response Regulator Model

    VII. Summary and Conclusions


    22 Biology and Physical Chemistry of Feeding Response of Hydra

    I. Introduction

    II. Biology and Quantification of Glutathione-Activated Feeding Behavior

    III. Other Feeding Activators in Cnidarians

    IV. Integration of GSH Receptor-Effector System with Other Sensory Systems of Hydra

    V. Properties of the GSH Receptor

    VI. Structure-Activity and Conformational Relationships of GSH and Its Analogs to the Receptor

    VII. Concluding Remarks


    23 Sealed Membrane Vesicles from Torpedo Electroplax as a Model System for Synaptic Transmission

    I. Introduction

    II. Cholingergic Ligand-Binding Studies

    III. Agonist-Induced Ion Flux: Loading of Solutes into Vesicles by Osmotic Shock

    IV. Osmotic Properties of Purified AcChR-Containing Vesicles

    V. Effects of Agonists

    VI. Correlation of Polypeptide Composition and AcChR Cation Transport


    24 From Receptors to Brain Circuitry

    I. Introduction

    II. Brain Receptors

    III. Identical Stereoselectivity, Diverse Functional Significance Depending on Anatomical


    IV. From Receptors to Brain Circuitry


    Part V Discussion


Product details

  • No. of pages: 564
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1981
  • Published: January 1, 1981
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323145916

About the Editor

Robert Cagan

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