Biochemistry of Characterised Neurons - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080215037, 9781483145532

Biochemistry of Characterised Neurons

1st Edition

Editors: Neville N. Osborne
eBook ISBN: 9781483145532
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1978
Page Count: 334
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Description

Biochemistry of Characterised Neurons provides a report on the progress made in the analysis of the biology of specific neurons in the central nervous system. This book emphasizes the biochemical, morphological, and functional aspects of characterized neurons, including ways and sophisticated techniques of isolating them. This publication is divided into 11 chapters. The first chapter evaluates the relevance of working with single neurons. Chapters 2 to 6 discuss specific, characterized, invertebrate neurons containing one of the putative neurotransmitter substances. Chapter 7 deals with the biochemistry of a unique vertebrate (Torpedo) cholinergic system that enables pure cholinergic neuronal cell bodies and endings to be analyzed separately. The sensitive radiochemical procedures used to analyze transmitter substances and transmitter enzymes, and how they can be adapted to map the distribution of transmitters in individual neurons of Aplysia, are discussed in Chapter 8. Chapter 9 describes methods for the analysis of specific cells in the retina, while Chapters 10 and 11 focus on the analysis of proteins within defined neurons. This text is beneficial to biochemists and students interested in analyzing neurons.

Table of Contents


Abbreviations

Preface

Foreword

Chapter 1 Validity of Single Neuron Chemical Analysis

1. An Old Question: Why Single Cells?

2. The New Micro-tools

3. New Applications and Trends of Microchemistry in Neurobiology

3.1. Studies on Developing Neurons

3.2. Studies on Tissue Cultures of Neurons

4. Presence of Several Neurotransmitters in the Same Neuron

5. The Future: New Applications of Microchemistry in Neurobiology

5.1. Measurement of Neurotransmitter Levels in Single Vertebrate Neurons

5.2. Measurement of Neurotransmitter Levels in the Synaptic Endings of Identified Neurons

5.3. Measurement of the Neurotransmitter Turnover and Biosynthesis in Single Neurons In Vitro

5.4. Measurement of the Rate of Axonal Transport in Single Axons of Identified Neurons

5.5. Measurement of Selective Uptake Mechanisms by Cell Body and Endings of Identified Neurons

5.6. Measurement of Parameters Suggested at Points 5.1.-5.5. Performed Under Special Experimental Conditions

5.7. Study of the Influence of Behavioral and Synaptic Input on the Regulation of Specific Protein Synthesis

5.8. Study of the Problem of Gene Expression and Protein Metabolism in Individual Neurons

References

Chapter 2 The Retzius Cell of the Leech Hirudo Medicinalis

1. Introduction

2. Histochemical Studies of the Retzius Cells

3. Sub-cellular Location of 5-HT in the Retzius Cells

4. Analysis of 5-HT in Isolated Retzius Cell Bodies

5. Origin of 5-HT in the Retzius Cells

6. The Role of 5-HT in the Leech Nervous System

6.1. Action of 5-HT on the Retzius Cells

6.2. The Effect of 5-HT on the Leech Body Wall Muscle

6.3. Control of Mucus Release by the Retzius Cells

7. The Determination of 5-HT in the Retzius Cells by Gas Chromatography—Mass Spectrometry

7.1. Principles of Gas Chromatography—Mass Spectrometry

7.2. Analysis of Putative Neurotransmitters in the Leech by GC-MS

8. Summary

References

Chapter 3 The Neurobiology of a Serotonergic Neuron

1. Introduction

2. Morphology and Histology of the GSC in Helix Pomatia

2.1. Microscopical Observations

2.2. Electron Microscopy of the GSC Perikaryon

2.3. Fine Structure of the Axon and Endings of the GSC

3. Serotonin and Other Transmitter Candidates in the GSC

3.1. Isolation of Neuronal Perikarya

3.2. Analysis of GSC's Transmitter

4. Factors Affecting the Serotonin Level of GSCs

5. Metabolism of Serotonin by the GSC

6. Axonal Transport and Compartmentation of Serotonin in the GSCs: Injection of 3H-Serotonin

7. Uptake of Serotonin by the GSCs

8. Synaptic Release of Serotonin from the GSCs

9. Glucose Metabolism in the GSCs: Effect of Stimulation

10. A Functional Role for the GSC

11. Summary

References

Chapter 4 The Characterized Dopamine Neuron in Planorbis Crneus

1. Introduction

2. Anatomy of the Dopamine Neuron

2.1. Methodology

2.2. The Cell Body of the Dopamine Neuron

2.3. Axon Distribution of the Dopamine Neuron

2.4. Electron Microscope Observations of the Terminal Processes

3. Dopamine Content and Metabolism

4. Synaptic Connexions Made by the Dopamine Neuron

4.1. Methods

4.2. Postsynaptic Responses to Stimulation of the Dopamine Neuron

4.3. Electrotonic Coupling Among Inhibitory Postsynaptic Neurons

4.4. Ionic Mechanisms of the Postsynaptic Potentials

5. Pharmacology of Transmission

5.1. Specific Antagonists of Inhibitory Responses

5.2. Specific Antagonists of Excitatory Responses

5.3. Specific Effects of Drugs on Biphasic Potentials

5.4. Effects of Phenothiazine and Butyrophenone Drugs

5.5. Effects of Apomorphine — Are There Three Types of DA Receptor in Planorbis?

5.6. Possible Role of Cyclic-AMP

6. Conclusions

7. Summary

References

Chapter 5 Octopamine Neurons in the Lobster

1. Introduction

2. Localization of Octopamine Cells

3. Description of Preparation

4. Analysis of Neuronal Properties

4.1. Morphological Studies

4.2. Physiological Studies

4.3. Biochemical Properties

4.4. Properties of Octopamine Release

5. Octopamine Studies in Other Invertebrates

5.1. Insects

5.2. Mollusc's

6. Conclusion

7. Summary

References

Chapter 6 Histamine-Containing Neurons in Aplysia

1. Introduction

2. Organization and Identification of Neurons in the Cerebral Ganglia

3. Isolation of Nerve Cell Bodies

4. Chemical Techniques

5. Distribution of Histamine in the Nervous System of Aplysia

6. Location of Histamine Cells

7. Endogenous Levels of Histamine in Single Nerve Cell Bodies

8. Synthesis of Radio-labeled Histamine in Individual Neurons

9. Histidine Decarboxylase Activity in Single Nerve Cell Bodies

10. Cellular Histidine Concentration in Aplysia Neurons

11. Discussion

12. Summary

References

Chapter 7 The Biochemistry of Torpedo Cholinergic Neurons

1. Introduction

2. The Electromotor System of Torpedo

2.1. Anatomical and Physiological Aspects

2.2. Biochemical Features

3. Cytobiochemistry of the Torpedo Electric System as Revealed by Sub-cellular Fractionation Studies

3.1. Synaptic Vesicles

3.2. Synaptosomes (T-sacs)

3.3. Cell Bodies

3.4. Micro-Sacs from the Effector Cell

4. Concluding Remarks

5. Summary

References

Chapter 8 Micro-assay of Biogenic Amines in Neurons of Aplysia: The Coexistence of More than One Transmitter Molecule in a Neuron

1. Introduction

2. Methodology

2.1. Tissue Dissection

2.2. Enzymatic-Isotopic Micro-methods

3. Results

3.1. Distribution of Biogenic Amines in Aplysia Ganglia and Nerves

3.2. Biogenic Amines in Aplysia Single, Identified Cells

4. Discussion

4.1. Evidence for a Role of Biogenic Amines as Neurotransmitters in Aplysia

4.2. Significance of the Coexistence of Several Putative Neurotransmitters in Single Aplysia Cells

5. Summary

References

Chapter 9 Physiological and Biochemical Studies of Identified Cells in the Vertebrate Retina

1. Introduction

2. Experimental Procedures

2.1. Media and Radioactive Precursors

2.2. Cell Dissociation

2.3. Separation of Dissociated Cells

2.4. Electrophysiological Recordings of Isolated Horizontal Cells

2.5. Morphology of Dissociated Cells

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Morphology of Dissociated Retinal Cells

3.2. Transmitter Candidates of Retinal Cells

3.3. Photoreceptors

3.4. Horizontal Cells

3.5. Intracellular Recordings of Isolated Horizontal Cells

4. Conclusions

5. Summary

References

Chapter 10 Gene Expression and Protein Metabolism in Individual Neurons of Aplysia

1. Introduction

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Animal

2.2. Radioactive Labeling

2.3. Salt Solutions

2.4. Single Cell Dissection

2.5. Sample Preparation for One-Dimensional Electrophoresis

2.6. One-Dimensional Electrophoresis

2.7. Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis

3. Neuron Specificity: Differences in Gene Expression Among Identified Neurons

4. Stability of Gene Expression in Identified Neurons

5. The Control of Protein Processing in R15

6. High-Resolution, Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis of Proteins from Individual Neurons

7. Conclusions and Summary

References

Chapter 11 Function and Metabolism of Neuronal Proteins: Comparisons Among the Identified Neurons of Aplysia

1. Introduction

2. Methodology

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Structural Studies

3.2. Functional Correlates

3.3. Metabolic Studies

3.4. Transport and Axonal Processing

3.5. Significance of the Cleavage Sequence

3.6. Remaining Problems

4. Summary

References

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
334
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1978
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483145532

About the Editor

Neville N. Osborne