Bioaccumulation in Marine Organisms
Effect of Contaminants from Oil Well Produced Water
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Large volumes of produced water are generated and discharged to the coastal and ocean waters worldwide from offshore oil and gas production facilities. There is concern that the chemicals in the produced water may harm marine ecosystems. This book summarizes the bioavailability and marine ecotoxicology of metal and organic contaminants that may occur in oil well produced water at concentrations significantly higher than those in ambient seawater. The contaminants of concern include arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, radium isotopes, zinc, monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate.The first part of the book is a detailed discussion of the chemical composition of produced water from offshore oil wells worldwide and its fates following discharge to the ocean. The remaining chapters of the book summarize the current scientific literature on the sources and distributions in the ocean of each of the contaminants of concern and their bioaccumulation and toxicity to marine organisms.This book will be of value to: environmental scientists in the oil and gas industry; marine toxicologists and ecological risk assessors in academia, government, and industry; government regulatory agencies concerned with marine environmental protection.The book advances the concept that bioavailability evaluation must be included in all ecological risk assessments and other environmental assessments of chemical contaminants in marine and freshwater ecosystems.
Table of Contents
1. Produced water.
1.1 Composition of produced water.
1.2 Volumes of produced water discharged to the ocean.
1.3 Fate of chemicals from produced water in the ocean.
1.4 Toxicity of produced water.
2. Bioaccumulation mechanisms.
3. Arsenic in the ocean.
3.1 Arsenic in seawater.
3.2 Arsenic in marine sediments.
3.3 Bioaccumulation and biotransformation of arsenic.
3.4 Concentrations of arsenic in tissues of marine organisms.
3.5 Toxicity of arsenic to marine organisms.
3.6 Environmental effects of arsenic in produced water.
4. Barium in the ocean.
4.1 Barium in seawater.
4.2 Barium in marine sediments.
4.3 Bioaccumulation of barium by marine organisms.
4.4 Concentrations of barium in tissues of marine organisms.
4.5 Toxicity of barium to marine organisms.
4.6 Environmental effects of barium in produced water.
5. Cadmium in the ocean.
5.1 Cadmium in seawater.
5.2 Cadmium in marine sediments.
5.3 Bioaccumulation of cadmium by marine organisms.
5.4 Concentrations of cadmium in tissues of marine organisms.
5.5 Toxicity of cadmium to marine organisms.
5.6 Environmental effects of cadmium in produced water.
6. Mercury in the ocean.
6.1 Mercury in seawater.
6.2 Mercury in marine sediments.
6.3 Bioaccumulation of mercury by marine organisms.
6.4 Concentrations of mercury in tissues of marine organisms.
6.5 Toxicity of mercury to marine organisms.
6.6 Environmental effects of mercury in produced water.
7. Chromium in the ocean.
7.1 Chromium in seawater.
7.2 Chromium in marine sediments.
7.3 Bioaccumulation of chromium by marine organisms.
7.4 Concentrations of chromium in tissues of marine organisms.
7.5 Toxicity of chromium to marine organisms.
7.6 Environmental effects of chromium in produced water.
8. Copper in the ocean.
8.1 Copper in seawater.
8.2 Copper in marine sediments.
8.3 Bioaccumulation of copper by marine organisms.
8.4 Concentrations of copper in tissues of marine organisms.
8.5 Toxicity of copper to marine organisms.
8.6 Environmental effects of copper in produced water.
9. Lead in the ocean.
9.1 Lead in seawater.
9.2 Lead in marine sediments.
9.3 Bioaccumulation of lead by marine organisms.
9.4 Concentrations of lead in tissues of marine organisms.
9.5 Toxicity of lead to marine organisms.
9.6 Environmental effects of lead in produced water.
10. Zinc in the ocean.
10.1 Zinc in seawater.
10.2 Zinc in marine sediments.
10.3 Bioaccumulation of zinc by marine organisms.
10.4 Concentrations of zinc in tissues of marine organisms.
10.5 Toxicity of zinc to marine organisms.
10.6 Environmental effects of zinc in produced water.
11. Radium isotopes in the ocean.
11.1 Radium in seawater.
11.2 Radium in marine sediments.
11.3 Bioaccumulation of radium by marine organisms.
11.4 Concentrations of radium in tissues of marine organisms.
11.5 Toxicity of radium to marine organisms.
11.6 Environmental effects of radium in produced water.
12. Phenols in the ocean.
12.1 Phenols in seawater.
12.2 Phenols in marine sediments.
12.3 Bioaccumulation of phenols by marine organisms.
12.4 Concentrations of phenols in tissues of marine organisms.
12.5 Toxicity of phenols to marine organisms.
12.6 Environmental effects of phenols in produced water.
13. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in the ocean.
13.1 Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in seawater.
13.2 Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in marine sediments.
13.3 Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate by marine organisms.
13.4 Concentrations of Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in tissues of marine organisms.
13.5 Toxicity of Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate to marine organisms.
13.6 Environmental effects of Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in produced water.
14. Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ocean.
14.1 Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seawater.
14.2 Monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine sediments.
14.3 Degradation of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and sediments.
14.4 Bioaccumulation of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by marine organisms.
14.5 Concentrations of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tissues of marine organisms.
14.6 Toxicity of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to marine organisms.
14.7 Environmental effects of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in produced water.
15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ocean.
15.1 Sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the marine environment.
15.2 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seawater.
15.3 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine sediments.
15.4 Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
15.5 Bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by marine organisms.
15.6 Concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tissues of marine organisms.
15.7 Toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to marine organisms.
15.8 Environmental effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in produced water.
- No. of pages: 468
- Language: English
- Copyright: © Elsevier Science 2002
- Published: April 16, 2002
- Imprint: Elsevier Science
- eBook ISBN: 9780080527840
About the Author
Affiliations and Expertise
Battelle, Coastal Resources and Environmental Management, 397 Washington St., Duxbury, MA 02332, USA
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