Beta Nucleation of Polypropylene - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781455775453, 9781455775637

Beta Nucleation of Polypropylene

1st Edition

Properties, Technology, and Applications

Authors: Philip Jacoby
eBook ISBN: 9781455775637
Hardcover ISBN: 9781455775453
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 21st November 2013
Page Count: 148
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In Beta Nucleation of Polypropylene, Dr. Philip Jacoby, one of the world's leading experts in the beta nucleation of polypropylene and its related applications, provides insight about the benefits of the material. The book thoroughly covers the required processing know-how to achieve these benefits, as well as fundamental knowledge of beta-nucleated polypropylene, nucleating agents, examples of applications, and a clear differentiation between the properties and design characteristics of conventional and beta-nucleated polypropylene.

Beta-nucleated polypropylene has better strength and rigidity than conventional polypropylene, allowing for reduced weight and cost in applications and improved productivity through lowered cycle times. Applications include the automotive industry, electronics, packaging, household appliances, sport equipment, construction, textile, agriculture, and medical.

This book discusses these applications in detail, showing how beta nucleation has been used to add value or produce a new product. It also addresses the influence of processing conditions on optimizing properties and performance.

Key Features

  • Only comprehensive review of beta-nucleated polypropylene technology and applications available
  • The author is one of the world's leading experts in this field
  • Shows how to achieve cost savings and product improvements using beta nucleation technology compared to existing polypropylene fabrication practices and enables implementation of the technology


Engineers and technicians involved in processing of polypropylene, including engineers who do injection molding, rotomolding, extrusion, thermoforming, and film production. Various applications, including packaging, household appliances, automotive, construction, electrical, textile, agriculture and medical.

Table of Contents


Part One: Fundamentals of Nucleation

1. The Semicrystalline Morphology of Polypropylene

1.1 Introduction: The Hierarchal Crystal Structure of Polypropylene

1.2 Polymer Structure and Its Influence on Crystallinity

1.3 Spherulitic Structure of PP

1.4 Polymorphism

1.5 Characterizing Beta Crystallinity


2. Differences Between the Alpha and Beta Crystal Forms of PP

2.1 Thermal Property Differences

2.2 Mechanical Property Differences

2.3 The Effect of Processing Conditions on the Morphology and Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene

2.4 Morphology Effects

2.5 Mechanical Property Effects


3. The Use of Nucleating Agents in Polypropylene

3.1 How Nucleating Agents Function?

3.2 Beta Nucleation


4. Effect of Polymer Variables on Beta Nucleation

4.1 Molecular Weight

4.2 Effect of Molecular Weight Distribution

4.3 Beta Nucleation of ICP PP

4.4 Beta Nucleation of RCP PP

4.5 Influence of the Beta Nucleant Type


5. The Influence of Other Additives on Beta Nucleation

5.1 Effect of Additives on Nucleation

5.2 Additive Interference with Beta Nucleation

5.3 Overcoming the Interference of Alpha Nucleants in Beta-Nucleated Applications

5.4 Effect of Fillers on Beta Nucleation


Part Two: Applications and Advantages of Beta Nucleation

6. Microporous Film

6.1 Stretching of Nonnucleated Film

6.2 Cavitation Techniques Using Fillers

6.3 Extraction Techniques

6.4 Using Stretching Techniques on Beta Crystalline Extruded Sheet

6.5 Monoaxially Oriented Microporous Film

6.6 Biaxially Oriented Microporous Film


7. Extrusion and Thermoforming

7.1 Use of Beta Nucleation in Thermoforming

7.2 Microvoid Formation as a Function of Processing Condition

7.3 Improved Thickness Uniformity of Thermoformed Containers

7.4 Improved High-Temperature Dimensional Stability

7.5 Cycle Time Advantages Using Beta Nucleation

7.6 General Guidelines for Controlling and Optimizing Processing Conditions


8. Geogrids

8.1 Examples of Geogrids Produced with and without Beta Nucleation

8.2 Processing Issues Associated with the Production of Geogrids

8.3 Line Speed and Stretch Temperatures


9. Rotomolding


10. Injection Molding

10.1 The Use of Beta Nucleation to Improve the Impact Strength of PP Closures

10.2 Impact Strength of Filled PP Systems


11. Fiber Applications

11.1 Melt-Spun Fibers

11.2 Slit-Film Fibers


12. Pipe Applications


13. Welding and Heat-Sealing Applications

13.1 Thermal and Vibrational Welding

13.2 Use of Beta Nucleation to Produce PP–PP Composites




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© William Andrew 2014
William Andrew
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About the Author

Philip Jacoby

Affiliations and Expertise

Mayzo Corporation, USA