Basic Neurochemistry - 7th Edition - ISBN: 9780120883974, 9780080472072

Basic Neurochemistry

7th Edition

Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects

Editors: Scott Brady George Siegel R. Wayne Albers Donald Price
eBook ISBN: 9780080472072
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 31st October 2005
Page Count: 1016
Tax/VAT will be calculated at check-out
64.99
80.95
107.00
103.00
Unavailable
File Compatibility per Device

PDF, EPUB, VSB (Vital Source):
PC, Apple Mac, iPhone, iPad, Android mobile devices.

Mobi:
Amazon Kindle eReader.

Institutional Access


Description

Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects, a comprehensive text on neurochemistry, is now updated and revised in its Seventh Edition. This well-established text has been recognized worldwide as a resource for postgraduate trainees and teachers in neurology, psychiatry, and basic neuroscience, as well as for graduate and postgraduate students and instructors in the neurosciences. It is an excellent source of information on basic biochemical processes in brain function and disease for qualifying examinations and continuing medical education.

Key Features

  • Completely updated with 60% new authors and material, and entirely new chapters
  • Over 400 fully revised figures in splendid color

Readership

Postgraduate trainees and teachers in neurology, psychiatry and basic neuroscience, as well as graduate and postgraduate students and instructors in the neurosciences.

Table of Contents

Section Editors

Contributors

Acknowledgments and History

Preface to the Seventh Edition

Pierre Morell, Ph.D. 1941–2003

PART I: Cellular Neurochemistry and Neural Membranes

Chapter 1: Neurocellular Anatomy

UNDERSTANDING NEUROANATOMY IS NECESSARY TO STUDY NEUROCHEMISTRY

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NEURON

CHARACTERISTICS OF NEUROGLIA

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 2: Cell Membrane Structures and Functions

PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYERS

MEMBRANE PROTEINS

BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES

Chapter 3: Lipids

PROPERTIES OF BRAIN LIPIDS

COMPLEX LIPIDS

ANALYSIS OF BRAIN LIPIDS

BRAIN LIPID BIOSYNTHESIS

GENES FOR LIPID-SYNTHESIZING ENZYMES

LIPIDS IN THE CELLULAR MILIEU

Chapter 4: Myelin Formation, Structure and Biochemistry

THE MYELIN SHEATH

CHARACTERISTIC COMPOSITION OF MYELIN

DEVELOPMENTAL AND METABOLIC ASPECTS OF MYELIN

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 5: Membrane Transport

INTRODUCTION

PRIMARY ION TRANSPORTERS

Ca2+ PUMPS

V0V1-PROTON PUMPS

ATP-BINDING CASSETTES

SECONDARY ACTIVE TRANSPORT

PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE NEUROTRANSMITTER TRANSPORTERS

CATION ANTIPORTERS

FACILITATORS

Chapter 6: Electrical Excitability and Ion Channels

MEMBRANE POTENTIALS AND ELECTRICAL SIGNALS IN EXCITABLE CELLS

ACTION POTENTIALS IN ELECTRICALLY EXCITABLE CELLS

FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF VOLTAGE-GATED ION CHANNELS

THE VOLTAGE-GATED ION CHANNEL SUPERFAMILY

THE MOLECULAR BASIS FOR ION CHANNEL FUNCTION

ION CHANNEL DIVERSITY

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 7: Cell Adhesion Molecules

OVERVIEW

THE IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENE SUPERFAMILY

THE CADHERIN FAMILY

CELL ADHESION MOLECULES AND AXONAL OUTGROWTH

CELL ADHESION MOLECULES IN MYELINATION

SUMMARY

Chapter 8: The Cytoskeleton of Neurons and Glia

MOLECULAR COMPONENTS OF THE NEURONAL CYTOSKELETON

ULTRASTRUCTURE AND MOLECULAR ORGANIZATION OF NEURONS AND GLIA

CYTOSKELETAL STRUCTURES IN THE NEURON HAVE COMPLEMENTARY DISTRIBUTIONS AND FUNCTIONS

CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 9: Intracellular Trafficking

GENERAL MECHANISMS OF INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANE TRAFFICKING IN MAMMALIAN CELLS INCLUDE BOTH UNIVERSAL AND HIGHLY SPECIALIZED PROCESSES

FUNDAMENTALS OF MEMBRANE TRAFFICKING ARE BASED ON A SET OF COMMON PRINCIPLES

THE BIOSYNTHETIC SECRETORY PATHWAY INCLUDES SYNTHETIC, PROCESSING, TARGETING AND SECRETORY STEPS

THE ENDOCYTIC PATHWAY PLAYS MULTIPLE ROLES IN CELLS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

SYNAPTIC VESICLE TRAFFICKING IS A SPECIALIZED FORM OF REGULATED SECRETION AND RECYCLING OPTIMIZED FOR SPEED AND EFFICIENCY

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

PART II: Intercellular Signaling

Chapter 10: Synaptic Transmission and Cellular Signaling: An Overview

SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION

CELLULAR SIGNALING MECHANISMS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 11: Acetylcholine

CHEMISTRY OF ACETYLCHOLINE

ORGANIZATION OF THE CHOLINERGIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF CHOLINERGIC NEUROTRANSMISSION

SYNTHESIS, STORAGE AND RELEASE OF ACETYLCHOLINE

ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE AND THE TERMINATION OF ACETYLCHOLINE ACTION

NICOTINIC RECEPTORS

MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS

Chapter 12: Catecholamines

INTRODUCTION

BIOSYNTHESIS OF CATECHOLAMINES

STORAGE AND RELEASE OF CATECHOLAMINES

ANATOMY OF CATECHOLAMINERGIC SYSTEMS

CATECHOLAMINE RECEPTORS

DOPAMINE RECEPTORS

ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS

DYNAMICS OF CATECHOLAMINE RECEPTORS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 13: Serotonin

SEROTONIN, THE NEUROTRANSMITTER

SEROTONIN RECEPTORS

Chapter 14: Histamine

HISTAMINE: THE MESSENGER AND THE MOLECULE

HISTAMINERGIC CELLS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: ANATOMY AND MORPHOLOGY

DYNAMICS OF HISTAMINE IN THE BRAIN

MOLECULAR SITES OF HISTAMINE ACTION

H1-linked intracellular messengers.

HISTAMINE ACTIONS ON THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

SIGNIFICANCE OF BRAIN HISTAMINE FOR DRUG ACTION

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 15: Glutamate

THE AMINO ACID GLUTAMATE IS THE MAJOR EXCITATORY NEUROTRANSMITTER IN THE BRAIN

BRAIN GLUTAMATE IS DERIVED FROM BLOOD-BORNE GLUCOSE AND AMINO ACIDS THAT CROSS THE BLOOD–BRAIN BARRIER

GLUTAMINE IS AN IMPORTANT IMMEDIATE PRECURSOR FOR GLUTAMATE: THE GLUTAMINE CYCLE

SYNAPTIC VESICLES ACCUMULATE TRANSMITTER GLUTAMATE BY VESICULAR GLUTAMATE TRANSPORTERS

IS ASPARTATE A NEUROTRANSMITTER?

LONG-TERM POTENTIATION OR DEPRESSION OF GLUTAMATERGIC SYNAPSES MAY UNDERLIE LEARNING

THE NEURONAL PATHWAYS OF THE HIPPOCAMPUS ARE ESSENTIAL STRUCTURES FOR MEMORY FORMATION

IONOTROPIC AND METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS ARE PRINCIPAL PROTEINS AT THE POSTSYNAPTIC DENSITY

THREE CLASSES OF IONOTROPIC GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS ARE IDENTIFIED

GLUTAMATE PRODUCES EXCITATORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIALS

METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS MODULATE SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION

GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS DIFFER IN THEIR POSTSYNAPTIC DISTRIBUTION

PROTEINS OF THE POSTSYNAPTIC DENSITY MEDIATE INTRACELLULAR EFFECTS OF GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR ACTIVATION

SMALL GTP-BINDING PROTEINS (GTPases) MEDIATE CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION UPON NMDA RECEPTOR ACTIVATION

DENDRITIC SPINES ARE MOTILE, CHANGING THEIR SHAPE AND SIZE IN RESPONSE TO SYNAPTIC ACTIVITY WITHIN MINUTES

SODIUM-DEPENDENT SYMPORTERS IN THE PLASMA MEMBRANES CLEAR GLUTAMATE FROM THE EXTRACELLULAR SPACE

SODIUM-DEPENDENT GLUTAMINE TRANSPORTERS IN PLASMA MEMBRANES MEDIATE THE TRANSFER OF GLUTAMINE FROM ASTROCYTES TO NEURONS

EXCESSIVE GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR ACTIVATION MAY MEDIATE CERTAIN NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS

Chapter 16: GABA and Glycine

GABA SYNTHESIS, UPTAKE AND RELEASE

GABA RECEPTOR PHYSIOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF GABA RECEPTORS

GLYCINE AS A CENTRAL NEUROTRANSMITTER: GLYCINE SYNTHESIS, UPTAKE AND DEGRADATION

GLYCINE RECEPTOR PHYSIOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY

GLYCINE RECEPTORS: STRUCTURE, PATHOLOGY AND LOCALIZATION

GABA AND GLYCINE ARE THE MAJOR RAPIDLY ACTING INHIBITORY NEUROTRANSMITTERS IN BRAIN

Chapter 17: Purinergic Systems

NOMENCLATURE OF PURINES AND PYRIMIDINES

PURINE RELEASE AND METABOLISM

PURINERGIC RECEPTORS

EFFECTS OF PURINES IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: ADENOSINE RECEPTORS

EFFECTS OF PURINES IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: ATP RECEPTORS

Chapter 18: Peptides

NEUROPEPTIDES

NEUROPEPTIDE RECEPTORS

NEUROPEPTIDE FUNCTIONS AND REGULATION

PEPTIDERGIC SYSTEMS IN DISEASE

PART III: Intracellular Signaling

Chapter 19: G Proteins

HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS

SMALL G PROTEINS

OTHER FEATURES OF G PROTEINS

Chapter 20: Phosphoinositides

THE INOSITOL LIPIDS

THE INOSITOL PHOSPHATES

DIACYLGLYCEROL

PHOSPHOINOSITIDES AND CELL REGULATION

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 21: Cyclic Nucleotides in the Nervous System

INTRODUCTION: THE SECOND MESSENGER HYPOTHESIS

ADENYLYL CYCLASES

GUANYLYL CYCLASE

PHOSPHODIESTERASES

FUNCTIONAL ROLES FOR CYCLIC cAMP AND CYCLIC cGMP

FUTURE PERSPECTIVES

Chapter 22: Calcium

THE CONCEPT OF Ca2+ AS A CELLULAR SIGNAL

MEASUREMENT OF CELLULAR Ca2+ CONCENTRATIONS AND MOVEMENTS

Ca2+ REGULATION AT THE PLASMA MEMBRANE

Ca2+ STORES AND Ca2+ POOLS

Ca2+ SIGNALING

Ca2+-REGULATED PROCESSES

Chapter 23: Serine and Threonine Phosphorylation

PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION IS OF FUNDAMENTAL IMPORTANCE IN BIOLOGICAL REGULATION

PROTEIN SERINE–THREONINE KINASES

PROTEIN SERINE–THREONINE PHOSPHATASES

NEURONAL PHOSPHOPROTEINS

PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION MECHANISMS IN DISEASE

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Chapter 24: Tyrosine Phosphorylation

TYROSINE PHOSPHORYLATION IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASES

PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASES

ROLE OF TYROSINE PHOSPHORYLATION IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

PART IV: Growth, Development and Differentiation

Chapter 25: Development

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS UNIFYING DEVELOPMENTAL DIVERSITY

GENERAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

DEVELOPMENTAL PROCESSES: ENVIRONMENTAL FORCES MOLDING GENETIC POTENTIAL

MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF DEVELOPMENT

CELL LINEAGES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 26: Transcription Factors in the Central Nervous System

THE TRANSCRIPTIONAL PROCESS

REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION BY TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS

GLUCOCORTICOID AND MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTORS AS TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS

CYCLIC AMP REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION

TRANSCRIPTION AS A TARGET FOR DRUG DEVELOPMENT

Chapter 27: Growth Factors

GROWTH FACTORS ARE ESSENTIAL FOR NERVOUS SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION

CLASSES OF GROWTH FACTORS ACTING IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

GROWTH FACTORS ACT COMBINATORIALLY AND SEQUENTIALLY TO REGULATE NERVOUS SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT

Chapter 28: Axonal Transport

NEURONAL ORGANELLES IN MOTION

DISCOVERY AND CONCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF FAST AND SLOW AXONAL TRANSPORT

FAST AXONAL TRANSPORT

SLOW AXONAL TRANSPORT

MOLECULAR MOTORS: KINESIN, DYNEIN AND MYOSIN

AXONAL TRANSPORT AND NEUROPATHOLOGY

CONCLUSION

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 29: Stem Cells in the Nervous System

STEM CELLS ARE MULTIPOTENT AND SELF-RENEWING

STEM CELLS CONTRIBUTE TO THE DEVELOPING NERVOUS SYSTEM

NEUROGENESIS OCCURS IN THE ADULT BRAIN

STEM CELLS OFFER THE POTENTIAL FOR REPAIR IN THE ADULT NERVOUS SYSTEM

STEM CELL TRANSPLANTS FOR NEURAL REPAIR

EXPANDING ENDOGENOUS NEURAL STEM CELLS FOR REPAIR

COMMON STEM CELL THERAPY CHALLENGES

CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 30: Axonal Growth in the Adult Mammalian Nervous System: Regeneration and Compensatory Plasticity

REGENERATION IN THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

REGENERATION IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INJURY AND COMPENSATORY PLASTICITY

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

PART V: Metabolism

Chapter 31: Energy Metabolism of the Brain

INTRODUCTION

SUBSTRATES FOR CEREBRAL ENERGY METABOLISM

AGE AND DEVELOPMENT INFLUENCE CEREBRAL ENERGY METABOLISM

REGULATION OF THE CEREBRAL METABOLIC RATE

METABOLISM IN THE BRAIN IS HIGHLY COMPARTMENTALIZED

GLYCOGEN IS ACTIVELY SYNTHESIZED AND DEGRADED IN BRAIN, PROVIDING A DYNAMIC SOURCE OF CARBOHYDRATE

GLYCOLYSIS: CONVERSION OF GLUCOSE TO PYRUVATE OR LACTATE

THE PENTOSE PHOSPHATE SHUNT IS ACTIVE IN BRAIN

GLYCEROL PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE IS AN NADH OXIDIZING ENZYME RELATED TO GLYCOLYSIS

THE MALATE–ASPARTATE SHUTTLE HAS A KEY ROLE IN BRAIN METABOLISM

THERE IS DYNAMIC METABOLISM OF LACTATE IN BRAIN

THE COMPLETE OXIDATION OF GLUCOSE REQUIRES TRICARBOXYLIC ACID CYCLE ACTIVITY

ENERGY OUTPUT AND OXYGEN CONSUMPTION ARE ASSOCIATED WITH TCA CYCLE ACTIVITY

MANY TCA CYCLE ENZYMES AND COMPONENTS OF OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION ARE DIFFERENTIALLY DISTRIBUTED IN NEURONAL AND GLIAL MITOCHONDRIA

GLUTAMATE/GLUTAMINE METABOLISM IS LINKED TO ENERGY METABOLISM

HOW COMPARTMENTALIZED BRAIN METABOLISM IS STUDIED

RELATION OF ENERGY METABOLISM TO PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN THE BRAIN

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Chapter 32: Hypoxic–Ischemic Brain Injury and Oxidative Stress

HYPOXIA–ISCHEMIA AND BRAIN INFARCTION

MICROVASCULAR INJURY IN HYPOXIA–ISCHEMIA

EXCITOTOXIC INJURY IN HYPOXIA–ISCHEMIA

ISCHEMIC APOPTOSIS

FREE RADICALS IN HYPOXIA–ISCHEMIA

NEUROPROTECTIVE STRATEGIES FOR HYPOXIC–ISCHEMIC INJURY

Chapter 33: Eicosanoids, Docosanoids, Platelet-Activating Factor and Inflammation

STORAGE OF LIPID MESSENGERS IN NEURAL MEMBRANE PHOSPHOLIPIDS

PHOSPHOLIPASE A2

EICOSANOIDS

PLATELET-ACTIVATING FACTOR

CYCLOOXYGENASES

DIACYLGLYCEROL KINASES

LIPID SIGNALING PATHWAYS AND NEUROINFLAMMATION

DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID

LIPID PEROXIDATION AND OXIDATIVE STRESS

NEUROPROTECTIN D1: A DOCOSAHEXAENOIC-ACID-DERIVED MEDIATOR

THE FUTURE OF LIPID SIGNALING IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

Chapter 34: Metabolic Encephalopathies

BRAIN ENERGY METABOLISM

METABOLIC ENCEPHALOPATHY DUE TO LACK OF ENERGY SUBSTRATE

HYPONATREMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY

HYPERCAPNIC ENCEPHALOPATHY

METABOLIC ENCEPHALOPATHY DUE TO PERIPHERAL ORGAN FAILURE

THIAMINE DEFICIENCY (WERNICKE’S) ENCEPHALOPATHY

PYRIDOXINE (VITAMIN B6) DEFICIENCY

COBALAMIN (VITAMIN B12) DEFICIENCY

Chapter 35: Apoptosis and Necrosis

DISTINGUISHING FEATURES OF APOPTOSIS AND NECROSIS

APOPTOSIS

NECROSIS

TARGETING APOPTOSIS AND NECROSIS IN NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS

PART VI: Inherited and Neurodegenerative Diseases

Chapter 36: Peripheral Neuropathy

INTRODUCTION: CLINICAL FEATURES OF NEUROPATHIES

FEATURES COMMON TO THE PERIPHERAL AND CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM IMPORTANT IN THE PATHOGENESIS AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF NEUROPATHIES

FEATURES OF PERIPHERAL NERVES THAT INFLUENCE THEIR VULNERABILITY TO DISEASE AND CAPACITY FOR REGENERATION

PATHOGENESIS OF NEUROPATHIES

HEREDITARY AND ACQUIRED DISEASES INVOLVING THE ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

Chapter 37: The Epilepsies: Phenotype and Mechanisms

EPILEPSY IS A COMMON NEUROLOGICAL DISORDER

MECHANISMS OF ANTISEIZURE DRUGS

GENETICS OF EPILEPSY

Chapter 38: Diseases Involving Myelin

GENERAL CLASSIFICATION

ACQUIRED ALLERGIC AND/OR INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF MYELIN

GENETICALLY DETERMINED DISORDERS OF MYELIN

TOXIC AND NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS OF MYELIN

DISORDERS PRIMARILY AFFECTING NEURONS WITH SECONDARY INVOLVEMENT OF MYELIN

REPAIR IN DEMYELINATING DISEASES

Chapter 39: Genetics of Neurodegenerative Diseases

GENETIC ASPECTS OF COMMON NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES

ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

PARKINSON’S DISEASE

LEWY BODY DEMENTIA

FRONTOTEMPORAL DEMENTIA

AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS

NEURODEGENERATIVE TRIPLET REPEAT DISORDERS

CREUTZFELDT–JAKOB DISEASE AND OTHER PRION DISEASES

CONCLUDING REMARKS

Chapter 40: Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism

INTRODUCTION

DISORDERS OF BRANCHED-CHAIN AMINO ACIDS: MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE

DISORDERS OF PHENYLALANINE METABOLISM: PHENYLKETONURIA

DISORDERS OF GLYCINE METABOLISM: NONKETOTIC HYPERGLYCINEMIA

DISORDERS OF SULFUR AMINO ACID METABOLISM: HOMOCYSTINURIA

THE UREA CYCLE DEFECTS

DISORDERS OF GLUTATHIONE METABOLISM

DISORDERS OF γ-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID METABOLISM

DISORDERS OF N-ACETYL ASPARTATE METABOLISM

Chapter 41: Lysosomal and Peroxisomal Diseases

LYSOSOMAL DISEASES

PEROXISOMAL DISORDERS

DIAGNOSIS OF LYSOSOMAL AND PEROXISOMAL DISORDERS

PATHOGENESIS OF LYSOSOMAL AND PEROXISOMAL DISORDERS

THERAPY OF LYSOSOMAL AND PEROXISOMAL DISORDERS

Chapter 42: Diseases of Carbohydrate, Fatty Acid and Mitochondrial Metabolism

DISEASES OF CARBOHYDRATE AND FATTY ACID METABOLISM IN MUSCLE

DISEASES OF CARBOHYDRATE AND FATTY ACID METABOLISM IN BRAIN

DISEASES OF MITOCHONDRIAL METABOLISM

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 43: Disorders of Muscle Excitability

ORGANIZATION OF THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION

EXCITATION AND CONTRACTION OF THE MUSCLE FIBER

GENETIC DISORDERS OF THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION

HEREDITARY DISEASES OF MUSCLE MEMBRANES

IMMUNE DISEASES OF MUSCLE EXCITABILITY

TOXINS AND METABOLITES THAT ALTER MUSCULAR EXCITATION

Chapter 44: Motor Neuron Diseases

AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS IS THE MOST COMMON ADULT ONSET MOTOR NEURON DISEASE

NON-TRANSGENIC, INDUCED MODELS OF MOTOR NEURON DISEASE

SELECTED GENETIC MODELS OF RELEVANCE TO AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 45: Neurodegenerative α-Synucleinopathies and Tauopathies

THE SYNUCLEIN FAMILY

PARKINSON’S DISEASE AND OTHER LEWY BODY DISEASES

MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY

SYNTHETIC α-SYNUCLEIN FILAMENTS

ANIMAL MODELS OF HUMAN α-SYNUCLEINOPATHIES

α-SYNUCLEINOPATHIES—OUTLOOK

TAU ISOFORMS AND THEIR INTERACTIONS WITH MICROTUBULES

TAU AND ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

SPORADIC TAUOPATHIES

MUTATIONS CAUSING TAUOPATHY—THE FTDP-17 SYNDROMES

RELEVANCE FOR THE SPORADIC TAUOPATHIES

SYNTHETIC TAU FILAMENTS

ANIMAL MODELS OF HUMAN TAUOPATHIES

TAUOPATHIES — OUTLOOK

Chapter 46: Neurotransmitters and Disorders of the Basal Ganglia

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE BASAL GANGLIA

DISORDERS THAT INVOLVE BASAL GANGLIA DYSFUNCTION

Chapter 47: Neurobiology of Alzheimer’s Disease

ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE IS THE MOST PREVALENT NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDER

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 48: Molecular Basis of Prion Diseases

INTRODUCTION

PRION DISEASES ARE BIOLOGICALLY UNIQUE

ANIMAL PRION DISEASES

HUMAN PRION DISEASES

PRION DISEASE PATHOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS

THE PROTEIN-ONLY HYPOTHESIS OF PRION PROPAGATION

CHARACTERIZATION OF PrPC

CHARACTERIZATION OF PrPSC

THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF PRION STRAIN DIVERSITY

PRION TRANSMISSION BARRIERS

CELL DEATH IN PRION DISEASE

FUTURE PERSPECTIVES

PART VII: Sensory Transduction

Chapter 49: Molecular Biology of Vision

PHYSIOLOGICAL BACKGROUND

PHOTORECEPTOR MEMBRANES AND VISUAL PIGMENTS

PHOTOTRANSDUCTION

COLOR BLINDNESS

RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA

AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

Chapter 50: Molecular Biology of Olfaction and Taste

OLFACTION

TASTE

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 51: Molecular Biology of Hearing and Balance

GENERAL FEATURES OF MECHANORECEPTORS

MODEL SYSTEMS

HAIR CELLS

DEAFNESS

CONCLUSIONS

PART VIII: Neural Processing and Behavior

Chapter 52: Endocrine Effects on the Brain and Their Relationship to Behavior

INTRODUCTION

BEHAVIORAL CONTROL OF HORMONAL SECRETION

CLASSIFICATION OF HORMONAL EFFECTS

BIOCHEMISTRY OF STEROID AND THYROID HORMONE ACTIONS

INTRACELLULAR STEROID RECEPTORS: PROPERTIES AND TOPOGRAPHY

MEMBRANE STEROID RECEPTORS AND SIGNALING PATHWAYS

BIOCHEMISTRY OF THYROID HORMONE ACTIONS ON BRAIN

DIVERSITY OF STEROID-HORMONE ACTIONS ON THE BRAIN

Chapter 53: Learning and Memory

BRIEF HISTORY OF MEMORY RESEARCH IN HUMANS

DIVISIONS OF MEMORY

MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF LEARNING

MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF MEMORY CONSOLIDATION AND STORAGE

FUTURE DIRECTIONS AND CHALLENGES

Chapter 54: The Neurochemistry of Schizophrenia

CLINICAL ASPECTS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

BRAIN IMAGING

CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR STUDIES

CONCLUSION

Chapter 55: Neurobiology of Severe Mood and Anxiety Disorders

MOOD DISORDERS

NEUROTRANSMITTER AND NEUROPEPTIDE SYSTEMS ARE IMPLICATED IN THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF BIPOLAR AND MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDERS

ABNORMALITIES OF SLEEP RHYTHMS IN MOOD DISORDERS

NEUROANATOMICAL AND NEUROPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF MOOD DISORDERS

STRESS, GLUCOCORTICOIDS AND NEUROPLASTICITY IN THE PATHOLOGY OF MOOD DISORDERS

INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PATHWAYS INTEGRATE ENVIRONMENTAL AND GENETIC CUES INVOLVED IN MOOD

INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM SIGNALING STUDIES IN BIPOLAR DISORDER

ANXIETY DISORDERS

INTRACELLULAR TARGETS FOR ANXIETY DISORDERS

FUTURE DIRECTIONS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL THERAPEUTICS

Chapter 56: Addiction

GENERAL PRINCIPLES

NEURONAL CIRCUITRY OF ADDICTION

OPIATES

PSYCHOMOTOR STIMULANTS

CANNABINOIDS (MARIJUANA)

NICOTINE

ETHANOL, SEDATIVES AND ANXIOLYTICS

HALLUCINOGENS AND DISSOCIATIVE DRUGS

ADDICTION AND NEURONAL PLASTICITY SHARE COMMON CELLULAR MECHANISMS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 57: Pain

INTRODUCTION: THE PAIN PATHWAY

PRIMARY SENSORY NEURONS

DORSAL HORN

THE BRAIN

CLINICAL PAIN

INFLAMMATORY PAIN

NEUROPATHIC PAIN

CONCLUSION

Chapter 58: Neuroimaging

MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI)

MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY (MRS)

POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY (PET) AND SINGLE PHOTON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (SPECT)

APPLICATIONS OF PET AND SPECT FOR BRAIN FUNCTION

CNS DRUG DESIGN AND PRECLINICAL/CLINICAL DRUG DEVELOPMENT

CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF PET AND SPECT

APPENDIX

Glossary

Index

Details

No. of pages:
1016
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2006
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780080472072

About the Editor

Scott Brady

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Illinois, Chicago IL

George Siegel

Affiliations and Expertise

Loyola University, Chicago, IL, USA

R. Wayne Albers

OBITUARY FOR R. WAYNE ALBERS, August 5, 1928 - September 28, 2013

R. Wayne Albers, Ph.D., Scientist Emeritus, Chief of Section on Enzyme Chemistry (retired), Laboratory of Neurochemistry in the NINDS, NIH, Bethesda, MD, is a world-recognized neuroscientist most noted for his research in the field of membrane cation transport and neuronal excitability in the nervous system. Dr. Albers and physiologist R.L. Post performed the principal experiments leading to their now widely-held Albers-Post model for the mechanism of the cation transport enzyme, sodium-potassium-activated ATPase. Dr. Albers was one of the founding co-editors of the comprehensive text, Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects, first published in 1972, continuing as co-editor for 8 editions, the latest having been published in 2012. After receiving his PhD at Washington University School of Medicine in 1954, Dr. Albers embarked on a distinguished career of research at the NIH, being a founding investigator in the first Laboratory of Neurochemistry.

Dr. Albers was one of the first members of the American Society for Neurochemistry at its inception, serving on its Council and its Committees on Publications and Education and on Electronic Publications. He has served as Professor of Biochemistry at George Washington University, Faculty Member of the NIH Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences, Associate Editor of the Journal of Neurochemistry and of Experimental Neurology, and on the editorial boards of several journals.

Dr. Albers passed away on September 28, 2013. He was 85 years old and is survived by his former wife, Frances Albers, their children Gail Morrell, Belinda Caron and Patricia Steinhoff, 6 grandchildren, and 8 great-grandchildren. He also had a son, the late Jonathan Albers.

Dr. Albers was considered a gentleman, an excellent scientific colleague with a keen intellect and friend by all who worked with him. He will be sorely missed, not only by his family, but also by the entire neurochemistry community.

George J. Siegel

October 1, 2013

Affiliations and Expertise

National Institutes of Health, Bethesda MD, USA

Donald Price

Affiliations and Expertise

The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore MD

Reviews

"This textbook is an extremely comprehensive statement of the current status of neurochemistry. The editors and the authors are recognized authorities in every field is covered by individuals who can be considered international authorities in the area." --NEUROSURGERY QUATERLY (2006)