Basic Neurochemistry

Basic Neurochemistry

Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects

7th Edition - October 31, 2005
There is a Newer Edition Available
  • Editors: Scott Brady, George Siegel, R. Wayne Albers, Donald Price
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080472072

Purchase options

Purchase options
DRM-free (EPub, PDF, Mobi)
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order

Description

Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects, a comprehensive text on neurochemistry, is now updated and revised in its Seventh Edition. This well-established text has been recognized worldwide as a resource for postgraduate trainees and teachers in neurology, psychiatry, and basic neuroscience, as well as for graduate and postgraduate students and instructors in the neurosciences. It is an excellent source of information on basic biochemical processes in brain function and disease for qualifying examinations and continuing medical education.

Key Features

  • Completely updated with 60% new authors and material, and entirely new chapters
  • Over 400 fully revised figures in splendid color

Readership

Postgraduate trainees and teachers in neurology, psychiatry and basic neuroscience, as well as graduate and postgraduate students and instructors in the neurosciences.

Table of Contents

  • Section Editors

    Contributors

    Acknowledgments and History

    Preface to the Seventh Edition

    Pierre Morell, Ph.D. 1941–2003

    PART I: Cellular Neurochemistry and Neural Membranes

    Chapter 1: Neurocellular Anatomy

    UNDERSTANDING NEUROANATOMY IS NECESSARY TO STUDY NEUROCHEMISTRY

    CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NEURON

    CHARACTERISTICS OF NEUROGLIA

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    Chapter 2: Cell Membrane Structures and Functions

    PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYERS

    MEMBRANE PROTEINS

    BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES

    Chapter 3: Lipids

    PROPERTIES OF BRAIN LIPIDS

    COMPLEX LIPIDS

    ANALYSIS OF BRAIN LIPIDS

    BRAIN LIPID BIOSYNTHESIS

    GENES FOR LIPID-SYNTHESIZING ENZYMES

    LIPIDS IN THE CELLULAR MILIEU

    Chapter 4: Myelin Formation, Structure and Biochemistry

    THE MYELIN SHEATH

    CHARACTERISTIC COMPOSITION OF MYELIN

    DEVELOPMENTAL AND METABOLIC ASPECTS OF MYELIN

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    Chapter 5: Membrane Transport

    INTRODUCTION

    PRIMARY ION TRANSPORTERS

    Ca2+ PUMPS

    V0V1-PROTON PUMPS

    ATP-BINDING CASSETTES

    SECONDARY ACTIVE TRANSPORT

    PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE NEUROTRANSMITTER TRANSPORTERS

    CATION ANTIPORTERS

    FACILITATORS

    Chapter 6: Electrical Excitability and Ion Channels

    MEMBRANE POTENTIALS AND ELECTRICAL SIGNALS IN EXCITABLE CELLS

    ACTION POTENTIALS IN ELECTRICALLY EXCITABLE CELLS

    FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF VOLTAGE-GATED ION CHANNELS

    THE VOLTAGE-GATED ION CHANNEL SUPERFAMILY

    THE MOLECULAR BASIS FOR ION CHANNEL FUNCTION

    ION CHANNEL DIVERSITY

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    Chapter 7: Cell Adhesion Molecules

    OVERVIEW

    THE IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENE SUPERFAMILY

    THE CADHERIN FAMILY

    CELL ADHESION MOLECULES AND AXONAL OUTGROWTH

    CELL ADHESION MOLECULES IN MYELINATION

    SUMMARY

    Chapter 8: The Cytoskeleton of Neurons and Glia

    MOLECULAR COMPONENTS OF THE NEURONAL CYTOSKELETON

    ULTRASTRUCTURE AND MOLECULAR ORGANIZATION OF NEURONS AND GLIA

    CYTOSKELETAL STRUCTURES IN THE NEURON HAVE COMPLEMENTARY DISTRIBUTIONS AND FUNCTIONS

    CONCLUSIONS

    Chapter 9: Intracellular Trafficking

    GENERAL MECHANISMS OF INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANE TRAFFICKING IN MAMMALIAN CELLS INCLUDE BOTH UNIVERSAL AND HIGHLY SPECIALIZED PROCESSES

    FUNDAMENTALS OF MEMBRANE TRAFFICKING ARE BASED ON A SET OF COMMON PRINCIPLES

    THE BIOSYNTHETIC SECRETORY PATHWAY INCLUDES SYNTHETIC, PROCESSING, TARGETING AND SECRETORY STEPS

    THE ENDOCYTIC PATHWAY PLAYS MULTIPLE ROLES IN CELLS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

    SYNAPTIC VESICLE TRAFFICKING IS A SPECIALIZED FORM OF REGULATED SECRETION AND RECYCLING OPTIMIZED FOR SPEED AND EFFICIENCY

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    PART II: Intercellular Signaling

    Chapter 10: Synaptic Transmission and Cellular Signaling: An Overview

    SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION

    CELLULAR SIGNALING MECHANISMS

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    Chapter 11: Acetylcholine

    CHEMISTRY OF ACETYLCHOLINE

    ORGANIZATION OF THE CHOLINERGIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

    FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF CHOLINERGIC NEUROTRANSMISSION

    SYNTHESIS, STORAGE AND RELEASE OF ACETYLCHOLINE

    ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE AND THE TERMINATION OF ACETYLCHOLINE ACTION

    NICOTINIC RECEPTORS

    MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS

    Chapter 12: Catecholamines

    INTRODUCTION

    BIOSYNTHESIS OF CATECHOLAMINES

    STORAGE AND RELEASE OF CATECHOLAMINES

    ANATOMY OF CATECHOLAMINERGIC SYSTEMS

    CATECHOLAMINE RECEPTORS

    DOPAMINE RECEPTORS

    ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS

    DYNAMICS OF CATECHOLAMINE RECEPTORS

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    Chapter 13: Serotonin

    SEROTONIN, THE NEUROTRANSMITTER

    SEROTONIN RECEPTORS

    Chapter 14: Histamine

    HISTAMINE: THE MESSENGER AND THE MOLECULE

    HISTAMINERGIC CELLS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: ANATOMY AND MORPHOLOGY

    DYNAMICS OF HISTAMINE IN THE BRAIN

    MOLECULAR SITES OF HISTAMINE ACTION

    H1-linked intracellular messengers.

    HISTAMINE ACTIONS ON THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

    SIGNIFICANCE OF BRAIN HISTAMINE FOR DRUG ACTION

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    Chapter 15: Glutamate

    THE AMINO ACID GLUTAMATE IS THE MAJOR EXCITATORY NEUROTRANSMITTER IN THE BRAIN

    BRAIN GLUTAMATE IS DERIVED FROM BLOOD-BORNE GLUCOSE AND AMINO ACIDS THAT CROSS THE BLOOD–BRAIN BARRIER

    GLUTAMINE IS AN IMPORTANT IMMEDIATE PRECURSOR FOR GLUTAMATE: THE GLUTAMINE CYCLE

    SYNAPTIC VESICLES ACCUMULATE TRANSMITTER GLUTAMATE BY VESICULAR GLUTAMATE TRANSPORTERS

    IS ASPARTATE A NEUROTRANSMITTER?

    LONG-TERM POTENTIATION OR DEPRESSION OF GLUTAMATERGIC SYNAPSES MAY UNDERLIE LEARNING

    THE NEURONAL PATHWAYS OF THE HIPPOCAMPUS ARE ESSENTIAL STRUCTURES FOR MEMORY FORMATION

    IONOTROPIC AND METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS ARE PRINCIPAL PROTEINS AT THE POSTSYNAPTIC DENSITY

    THREE CLASSES OF IONOTROPIC GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS ARE IDENTIFIED

    GLUTAMATE PRODUCES EXCITATORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIALS

    METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS MODULATE SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION

    GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS DIFFER IN THEIR POSTSYNAPTIC DISTRIBUTION

    PROTEINS OF THE POSTSYNAPTIC DENSITY MEDIATE INTRACELLULAR EFFECTS OF GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR ACTIVATION

    SMALL GTP-BINDING PROTEINS (GTPases) MEDIATE CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION UPON NMDA RECEPTOR ACTIVATION

    DENDRITIC SPINES ARE MOTILE, CHANGING THEIR SHAPE AND SIZE IN RESPONSE TO SYNAPTIC ACTIVITY WITHIN MINUTES

    SODIUM-DEPENDENT SYMPORTERS IN THE PLASMA MEMBRANES CLEAR GLUTAMATE FROM THE EXTRACELLULAR SPACE

    SODIUM-DEPENDENT GLUTAMINE TRANSPORTERS IN PLASMA MEMBRANES MEDIATE THE TRANSFER OF GLUTAMINE FROM ASTROCYTES TO NEURONS

    EXCESSIVE GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR ACTIVATION MAY MEDIATE CERTAIN NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS

    Chapter 16: GABA and Glycine

    GABA SYNTHESIS, UPTAKE AND RELEASE

    GABA RECEPTOR PHYSIOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY

    STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF GABA RECEPTORS

    GLYCINE AS A CENTRAL NEUROTRANSMITTER: GLYCINE SYNTHESIS, UPTAKE AND DEGRADATION

    GLYCINE RECEPTOR PHYSIOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY

    GLYCINE RECEPTORS: STRUCTURE, PATHOLOGY AND LOCALIZATION

    GABA AND GLYCINE ARE THE MAJOR RAPIDLY ACTING INHIBITORY NEUROTRANSMITTERS IN BRAIN

    Chapter 17: Purinergic Systems

    NOMENCLATURE OF PURINES AND PYRIMIDINES

    PURINE RELEASE AND METABOLISM

    PURINERGIC RECEPTORS

    EFFECTS OF PURINES IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: ADENOSINE RECEPTORS

    EFFECTS OF PURINES IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: ATP RECEPTORS

    Chapter 18: Peptides

    NEUROPEPTIDES

    NEUROPEPTIDE RECEPTORS

    NEUROPEPTIDE FUNCTIONS AND REGULATION

    PEPTIDERGIC SYSTEMS IN DISEASE

    PART III: Intracellular Signaling

    Chapter 19: G Proteins

    HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS

    SMALL G PROTEINS

    OTHER FEATURES OF G PROTEINS

    Chapter 20: Phosphoinositides

    THE INOSITOL LIPIDS

    THE INOSITOL PHOSPHATES

    DIACYLGLYCEROL

    PHOSPHOINOSITIDES AND CELL REGULATION

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    Chapter 21: Cyclic Nucleotides in the Nervous System

    INTRODUCTION: THE SECOND MESSENGER HYPOTHESIS

    ADENYLYL CYCLASES

    GUANYLYL CYCLASE

    PHOSPHODIESTERASES

    FUNCTIONAL ROLES FOR CYCLIC cAMP AND CYCLIC cGMP

    FUTURE PERSPECTIVES

    Chapter 22: Calcium

    THE CONCEPT OF Ca2+ AS A CELLULAR SIGNAL

    MEASUREMENT OF CELLULAR Ca2+ CONCENTRATIONS AND MOVEMENTS

    Ca2+ REGULATION AT THE PLASMA MEMBRANE

    Ca2+ STORES AND Ca2+ POOLS

    Ca2+ SIGNALING

    Ca2+-REGULATED PROCESSES

    Chapter 23: Serine and Threonine Phosphorylation

    PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION IS OF FUNDAMENTAL IMPORTANCE IN BIOLOGICAL REGULATION

    PROTEIN SERINE–THREONINE KINASES

    PROTEIN SERINE–THREONINE PHOSPHATASES

    NEURONAL PHOSPHOPROTEINS

    PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION MECHANISMS IN DISEASE

    ACKNOWLEDGMENT

    Chapter 24: Tyrosine Phosphorylation

    TYROSINE PHOSPHORYLATION IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

    PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASES

    PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASES

    ROLE OF TYROSINE PHOSPHORYLATION IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

    PART IV: Growth, Development and Differentiation

    Chapter 25: Development

    FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS UNIFYING DEVELOPMENTAL DIVERSITY

    GENERAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

    DEVELOPMENTAL PROCESSES: ENVIRONMENTAL FORCES MOLDING GENETIC POTENTIAL

    MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF DEVELOPMENT

    CELL LINEAGES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

    CONCLUSIONS

    Chapter 26: Transcription Factors in the Central Nervous System

    THE TRANSCRIPTIONAL PROCESS

    REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION BY TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS

    GLUCOCORTICOID AND MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTORS AS TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS

    CYCLIC AMP REGULATION OF TRANSCRIPTION

    TRANSCRIPTION AS A TARGET FOR DRUG DEVELOPMENT

    Chapter 27: Growth Factors

    GROWTH FACTORS ARE ESSENTIAL FOR NERVOUS SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION

    CLASSES OF GROWTH FACTORS ACTING IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

    GROWTH FACTORS ACT COMBINATORIALLY AND SEQUENTIALLY TO REGULATE NERVOUS SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT

    Chapter 28: Axonal Transport

    NEURONAL ORGANELLES IN MOTION

    DISCOVERY AND CONCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT OF FAST AND SLOW AXONAL TRANSPORT

    FAST AXONAL TRANSPORT

    SLOW AXONAL TRANSPORT

    MOLECULAR MOTORS: KINESIN, DYNEIN AND MYOSIN

    AXONAL TRANSPORT AND NEUROPATHOLOGY

    CONCLUSION

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    Chapter 29: Stem Cells in the Nervous System

    STEM CELLS ARE MULTIPOTENT AND SELF-RENEWING

    STEM CELLS CONTRIBUTE TO THE DEVELOPING NERVOUS SYSTEM

    NEUROGENESIS OCCURS IN THE ADULT BRAIN

    STEM CELLS OFFER THE POTENTIAL FOR REPAIR IN THE ADULT NERVOUS SYSTEM

    STEM CELL TRANSPLANTS FOR NEURAL REPAIR

    EXPANDING ENDOGENOUS NEURAL STEM CELLS FOR REPAIR

    COMMON STEM CELL THERAPY CHALLENGES

    CONCLUSIONS

    Chapter 30: Axonal Growth in the Adult Mammalian Nervous System: Regeneration and Compensatory Plasticity

    REGENERATION IN THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

    REGENERATION IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

    CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INJURY AND COMPENSATORY PLASTICITY

    SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    PART V: Metabolism

    Chapter 31: Energy Metabolism of the Brain

    INTRODUCTION

    SUBSTRATES FOR CEREBRAL ENERGY METABOLISM

    AGE AND DEVELOPMENT INFLUENCE CEREBRAL ENERGY METABOLISM

    REGULATION OF THE CEREBRAL METABOLIC RATE

    METABOLISM IN THE BRAIN IS HIGHLY COMPARTMENTALIZED

    GLYCOGEN IS ACTIVELY SYNTHESIZED AND DEGRADED IN BRAIN, PROVIDING A DYNAMIC SOURCE OF CARBOHYDRATE

    GLYCOLYSIS: CONVERSION OF GLUCOSE TO PYRUVATE OR LACTATE

    THE PENTOSE PHOSPHATE SHUNT IS ACTIVE IN BRAIN

    GLYCEROL PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE IS AN NADH OXIDIZING ENZYME RELATED TO GLYCOLYSIS

    THE MALATE–ASPARTATE SHUTTLE HAS A KEY ROLE IN BRAIN METABOLISM

    THERE IS DYNAMIC METABOLISM OF LACTATE IN BRAIN

    THE COMPLETE OXIDATION OF GLUCOSE REQUIRES TRICARBOXYLIC ACID CYCLE ACTIVITY

    ENERGY OUTPUT AND OXYGEN CONSUMPTION ARE ASSOCIATED WITH TCA CYCLE ACTIVITY

    MANY TCA CYCLE ENZYMES AND COMPONENTS OF OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION ARE DIFFERENTIALLY DISTRIBUTED IN NEURONAL AND GLIAL MITOCHONDRIA

    GLUTAMATE/GLUTAMINE METABOLISM IS LINKED TO ENERGY METABOLISM

    HOW COMPARTMENTALIZED BRAIN METABOLISM IS STUDIED

    RELATION OF ENERGY METABOLISM TO PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN THE BRAIN

    ACKNOWLEDGMENT

    Chapter 32: Hypoxic–Ischemic Brain Injury and Oxidative Stress

    HYPOXIA–ISCHEMIA AND BRAIN INFARCTION

    MICROVASCULAR INJURY IN HYPOXIA–ISCHEMIA

    EXCITOTOXIC INJURY IN HYPOXIA–ISCHEMIA

    ISCHEMIC APOPTOSIS

    FREE RADICALS IN HYPOXIA–ISCHEMIA

    NEUROPROTECTIVE STRATEGIES FOR HYPOXIC–ISCHEMIC INJURY

    Chapter 33: Eicosanoids, Docosanoids, Platelet-Activating Factor and Inflammation

    STORAGE OF LIPID MESSENGERS IN NEURAL MEMBRANE PHOSPHOLIPIDS

    PHOSPHOLIPASE A2

    EICOSANOIDS

    PLATELET-ACTIVATING FACTOR

    CYCLOOXYGENASES

    DIACYLGLYCEROL KINASES

    LIPID SIGNALING PATHWAYS AND NEUROINFLAMMATION

    DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID

    LIPID PEROXIDATION AND OXIDATIVE STRESS

    NEUROPROTECTIN D1: A DOCOSAHEXAENOIC-ACID-DERIVED MEDIATOR

    THE FUTURE OF LIPID SIGNALING IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

    Chapter 34: Metabolic Encephalopathies

    BRAIN ENERGY METABOLISM

    METABOLIC ENCEPHALOPATHY DUE TO LACK OF ENERGY SUBSTRATE

    HYPONATREMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY

    HYPERCAPNIC ENCEPHALOPATHY

    METABOLIC ENCEPHALOPATHY DUE TO PERIPHERAL ORGAN FAILURE

    THIAMINE DEFICIENCY (WERNICKE’S) ENCEPHALOPATHY

    PYRIDOXINE (VITAMIN B6) DEFICIENCY

    COBALAMIN (VITAMIN B12) DEFICIENCY

    Chapter 35: Apoptosis and Necrosis

    DISTINGUISHING FEATURES OF APOPTOSIS AND NECROSIS

    APOPTOSIS

    NECROSIS

    TARGETING APOPTOSIS AND NECROSIS IN NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS

    PART VI: Inherited and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Chapter 36: Peripheral Neuropathy

    INTRODUCTION: CLINICAL FEATURES OF NEUROPATHIES

    FEATURES COMMON TO THE PERIPHERAL AND CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM IMPORTANT IN THE PATHOGENESIS AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF NEUROPATHIES

    FEATURES OF PERIPHERAL NERVES THAT INFLUENCE THEIR VULNERABILITY TO DISEASE AND CAPACITY FOR REGENERATION

    PATHOGENESIS OF NEUROPATHIES

    HEREDITARY AND ACQUIRED DISEASES INVOLVING THE ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

    Chapter 37: The Epilepsies: Phenotype and Mechanisms

    EPILEPSY IS A COMMON NEUROLOGICAL DISORDER

    MECHANISMS OF ANTISEIZURE DRUGS

    GENETICS OF EPILEPSY

    Chapter 38: Diseases Involving Myelin

    GENERAL CLASSIFICATION

    ACQUIRED ALLERGIC AND/OR INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF MYELIN

    GENETICALLY DETERMINED DISORDERS OF MYELIN

    TOXIC AND NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS OF MYELIN

    DISORDERS PRIMARILY AFFECTING NEURONS WITH SECONDARY INVOLVEMENT OF MYELIN

    REPAIR IN DEMYELINATING DISEASES

    Chapter 39: Genetics of Neurodegenerative Diseases

    GENETIC ASPECTS OF COMMON NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES

    ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

    PARKINSON’S DISEASE

    LEWY BODY DEMENTIA

    FRONTOTEMPORAL DEMENTIA

    AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS

    NEURODEGENERATIVE TRIPLET REPEAT DISORDERS

    CREUTZFELDT–JAKOB DISEASE AND OTHER PRION DISEASES

    CONCLUDING REMARKS

    Chapter 40: Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism

    INTRODUCTION

    DISORDERS OF BRANCHED-CHAIN AMINO ACIDS: MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE

    DISORDERS OF PHENYLALANINE METABOLISM: PHENYLKETONURIA

    DISORDERS OF GLYCINE METABOLISM: NONKETOTIC HYPERGLYCINEMIA

    DISORDERS OF SULFUR AMINO ACID METABOLISM: HOMOCYSTINURIA

    THE UREA CYCLE DEFECTS

    DISORDERS OF GLUTATHIONE METABOLISM

    DISORDERS OF γ-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID METABOLISM

    DISORDERS OF N-ACETYL ASPARTATE METABOLISM

    Chapter 41: Lysosomal and Peroxisomal Diseases

    LYSOSOMAL DISEASES

    PEROXISOMAL DISORDERS

    DIAGNOSIS OF LYSOSOMAL AND PEROXISOMAL DISORDERS

    PATHOGENESIS OF LYSOSOMAL AND PEROXISOMAL DISORDERS

    THERAPY OF LYSOSOMAL AND PEROXISOMAL DISORDERS

    Chapter 42: Diseases of Carbohydrate, Fatty Acid and Mitochondrial Metabolism

    DISEASES OF CARBOHYDRATE AND FATTY ACID METABOLISM IN MUSCLE

    DISEASES OF CARBOHYDRATE AND FATTY ACID METABOLISM IN BRAIN

    DISEASES OF MITOCHONDRIAL METABOLISM

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    Chapter 43: Disorders of Muscle Excitability

    ORGANIZATION OF THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION

    EXCITATION AND CONTRACTION OF THE MUSCLE FIBER

    GENETIC DISORDERS OF THE NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION

    HEREDITARY DISEASES OF MUSCLE MEMBRANES

    IMMUNE DISEASES OF MUSCLE EXCITABILITY

    TOXINS AND METABOLITES THAT ALTER MUSCULAR EXCITATION

    Chapter 44: Motor Neuron Diseases

    AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS IS THE MOST COMMON ADULT ONSET MOTOR NEURON DISEASE

    NON-TRANSGENIC, INDUCED MODELS OF MOTOR NEURON DISEASE

    SELECTED GENETIC MODELS OF RELEVANCE TO AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    Chapter 45: Neurodegenerative α-Synucleinopathies and Tauopathies

    THE SYNUCLEIN FAMILY

    PARKINSON’S DISEASE AND OTHER LEWY BODY DISEASES

    MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY

    SYNTHETIC α-SYNUCLEIN FILAMENTS

    ANIMAL MODELS OF HUMAN α-SYNUCLEINOPATHIES

    α-SYNUCLEINOPATHIES—OUTLOOK

    TAU ISOFORMS AND THEIR INTERACTIONS WITH MICROTUBULES

    TAU AND ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

    SPORADIC TAUOPATHIES

    MUTATIONS CAUSING TAUOPATHY—THE FTDP-17 SYNDROMES

    RELEVANCE FOR THE SPORADIC TAUOPATHIES

    SYNTHETIC TAU FILAMENTS

    ANIMAL MODELS OF HUMAN TAUOPATHIES

    TAUOPATHIES — OUTLOOK

    Chapter 46: Neurotransmitters and Disorders of the Basal Ganglia

    ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE BASAL GANGLIA

    DISORDERS THAT INVOLVE BASAL GANGLIA DYSFUNCTION

    Chapter 47: Neurobiology of Alzheimer’s Disease

    ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE IS THE MOST PREVALENT NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDER

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    Chapter 48: Molecular Basis of Prion Diseases

    INTRODUCTION

    PRION DISEASES ARE BIOLOGICALLY UNIQUE

    ANIMAL PRION DISEASES

    HUMAN PRION DISEASES

    PRION DISEASE PATHOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS

    THE PROTEIN-ONLY HYPOTHESIS OF PRION PROPAGATION

    CHARACTERIZATION OF PrPC

    CHARACTERIZATION OF PrPSC

    THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF PRION STRAIN DIVERSITY

    PRION TRANSMISSION BARRIERS

    CELL DEATH IN PRION DISEASE

    FUTURE PERSPECTIVES

    PART VII: Sensory Transduction

    Chapter 49: Molecular Biology of Vision

    PHYSIOLOGICAL BACKGROUND

    PHOTORECEPTOR MEMBRANES AND VISUAL PIGMENTS

    PHOTOTRANSDUCTION

    COLOR BLINDNESS

    RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA

    AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

    Chapter 50: Molecular Biology of Olfaction and Taste

    OLFACTION

    TASTE

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    Chapter 51: Molecular Biology of Hearing and Balance

    GENERAL FEATURES OF MECHANORECEPTORS

    MODEL SYSTEMS

    HAIR CELLS

    DEAFNESS

    CONCLUSIONS

    PART VIII: Neural Processing and Behavior

    Chapter 52: Endocrine Effects on the Brain and Their Relationship to Behavior

    INTRODUCTION

    BEHAVIORAL CONTROL OF HORMONAL SECRETION

    CLASSIFICATION OF HORMONAL EFFECTS

    BIOCHEMISTRY OF STEROID AND THYROID HORMONE ACTIONS

    INTRACELLULAR STEROID RECEPTORS: PROPERTIES AND TOPOGRAPHY

    MEMBRANE STEROID RECEPTORS AND SIGNALING PATHWAYS

    BIOCHEMISTRY OF THYROID HORMONE ACTIONS ON BRAIN

    DIVERSITY OF STEROID-HORMONE ACTIONS ON THE BRAIN

    Chapter 53: Learning and Memory

    BRIEF HISTORY OF MEMORY RESEARCH IN HUMANS

    DIVISIONS OF MEMORY

    MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF LEARNING

    MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF MEMORY CONSOLIDATION AND STORAGE

    FUTURE DIRECTIONS AND CHALLENGES

    Chapter 54: The Neurochemistry of Schizophrenia

    CLINICAL ASPECTS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA

    BRAIN IMAGING

    CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR STUDIES

    CONCLUSION

    Chapter 55: Neurobiology of Severe Mood and Anxiety Disorders

    MOOD DISORDERS

    NEUROTRANSMITTER AND NEUROPEPTIDE SYSTEMS ARE IMPLICATED IN THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF BIPOLAR AND MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDERS

    ABNORMALITIES OF SLEEP RHYTHMS IN MOOD DISORDERS

    NEUROANATOMICAL AND NEUROPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF MOOD DISORDERS

    STRESS, GLUCOCORTICOIDS AND NEUROPLASTICITY IN THE PATHOLOGY OF MOOD DISORDERS

    INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PATHWAYS INTEGRATE ENVIRONMENTAL AND GENETIC CUES INVOLVED IN MOOD

    INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM SIGNALING STUDIES IN BIPOLAR DISORDER

    ANXIETY DISORDERS

    INTRACELLULAR TARGETS FOR ANXIETY DISORDERS

    FUTURE DIRECTIONS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL THERAPEUTICS

    Chapter 56: Addiction

    GENERAL PRINCIPLES

    NEURONAL CIRCUITRY OF ADDICTION

    OPIATES

    PSYCHOMOTOR STIMULANTS

    CANNABINOIDS (MARIJUANA)

    NICOTINE

    ETHANOL, SEDATIVES AND ANXIOLYTICS

    HALLUCINOGENS AND DISSOCIATIVE DRUGS

    ADDICTION AND NEURONAL PLASTICITY SHARE COMMON CELLULAR MECHANISMS

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    Chapter 57: Pain

    INTRODUCTION: THE PAIN PATHWAY

    PRIMARY SENSORY NEURONS

    DORSAL HORN

    THE BRAIN

    CLINICAL PAIN

    INFLAMMATORY PAIN

    NEUROPATHIC PAIN

    CONCLUSION

    Chapter 58: Neuroimaging

    MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI)

    MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY (MRS)

    POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY (PET) AND SINGLE PHOTON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (SPECT)

    APPLICATIONS OF PET AND SPECT FOR BRAIN FUNCTION

    CNS DRUG DESIGN AND PRECLINICAL/CLINICAL DRUG DEVELOPMENT

    CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF PET AND SPECT

    APPENDIX

    Glossary

    Index

Product details

  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2005
  • Published: October 31, 2005
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080472072

About the Editors

Scott Brady

Affiliations and Expertise

Head, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois, USAUniversity of Illinois, Chicago, IL, USA

George Siegel

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor of Neruology, Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine; Chief of Neurology Service (retired), Edward Hines, Jr. Veterans Affairs Hospital, Chicago, IL, USA

R. Wayne Albers

R. Wayne Albers

OBITUARY FOR R. WAYNE ALBERS, August 5, 1928 - September 28, 2013

R. Wayne Albers, Ph.D., Scientist Emeritus, Chief of Section on Enzyme Chemistry (retired), Laboratory of Neurochemistry in the NINDS, NIH, Bethesda, MD, is a world-recognized neuroscientist most noted for his research in the field of membrane cation transport and neuronal excitability in the nervous system. Dr. Albers and physiologist R.L. Post performed the principal experiments leading to their now widely-held Albers-Post model for the mechanism of the cation transport enzyme, sodium-potassium-activated ATPase. Dr. Albers was one of the founding co-editors of the comprehensive text, Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects, first published in 1972, continuing as co-editor for 8 editions, the latest having been published in 2012. After receiving his PhD at Washington University School of Medicine in 1954, Dr. Albers embarked on a distinguished career of research at the NIH, being a founding investigator in the first Laboratory of Neurochemistry.

Dr. Albers was one of the first members of the American Society for Neurochemistry at its inception, serving on its Council and its Committees on Publications and Education and on Electronic Publications. He has served as Professor of Biochemistry at George Washington University, Faculty Member of the NIH Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences, Associate Editor of the Journal of Neurochemistry and of Experimental Neurology, and on the editorial boards of several journals.

Dr. Albers passed away on September 28, 2013. He was 85 years old and is survived by his former wife, Frances Albers, their children Gail Morrell, Belinda Caron and Patricia Steinhoff, 6 grandchildren, and 8 great-grandchildren. He also had a son, the late Jonathan Albers.

Dr. Albers was considered a gentleman, an excellent scientific colleague with a keen intellect and friend by all who worked with him. He will be sorely missed, not only by his family, but also by the entire neurochemistry community.

George J. Siegel

October 1, 2013

Affiliations and Expertise

National Institutes of Health, Bethesda MD, USA

Donald Price

Affiliations and Expertise

The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore MD

About the Editor in Chief

Scott Brady

Affiliations and Expertise

Head, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois, USAUniversity of Illinois, Chicago, IL, USA