Basic Medical Endocrinology

Basic Medical Endocrinology

4th Edition - August 15, 2008

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  • Authors: Elizabeth Holt, H. Maurice Goodman

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Basic Medical Endocrinology, Fourth Edition provides up-to-date coverage of rapidly unfolding advances in the understanding of hormones involved in regulating most aspects of bodily functions. Topics are approached from the perspective of a physiologist with over 40 years of teaching experience. This fourth edition is richly illustrated in full color with both descriptive schematic diagrams and laboratory findings obtained in clinical studies. Each of the fourteen chapters starts with an overview of the topic and ends with a Suggested Reading list. Initial chapters lay a foundation by presenting basic information and principles of hormone structure, secretion, and actions, and the physiological roles of the principal endocrine glands. Subsequent chapters address the role of the endocrine system in solving such physiological problems as the regulation of the volume and composition of body fluids in the face of changing environmental demands, and the regulation of short- and long-term energy balance. The final chapters deal with the indispensable role of hormones in growth, development and reproduction.

Key Features

  • Strikes an excellent balance between systems/organismal level of overview and cellular/molecular analysis
  • Richly illustrated with over 250 full color figures, descriptive schematic diagrams, and laboratory findings
  • All chapters have been thoroughly rewritten and updated, including new discussions of adrenal steroid biosynthesis, the parathyroid in osteoporosis, obesity and metabolism, as well as an entirely new chapter on gastrointestinal hormones
  • Editor has 45 years of experience teaching endocrinology and physiology to medical students at Harvard and UMass


Upper division undergraduate and graduate students in biology, physiology, zoology; medical students; researchers and professionals in endocrinology and bone/mineral research.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1 Introduction

    Biosynthesis of Hormones

    Storage and Secretion

    Hormones in Blood

    Hormone Degradation

    Mechanisms of Hormone Action


    Characteristics of Receptors

    Hormonal Actions Mediated by Intracellular Receptors

    Hormonal Actions Mediated by Surface Receptors

    The G-protein Coupled Receptors

    Receptors that Signal through Tyrosine Kinase

    Regulation of Hormone Secretion

    Negative Feedback

    Positive Feedback

    Feed Forward

    Measurement of Hormones


    Hormone Levels in Blood

    Suggested Reading

    Chapter 2 Pituitary Gland


    Physiology of the Anterior Pituitary Gland

    Glycoprotein Hormones

    Growth Hormone and Prolactin

    Adrenocorticotropin Family

    Development of the Anterior Pituitary Gland

    Regulation of Anterior Pituitary Function

    Hypophysiotropic Hormones

    Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH)

    Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone

    Control of GH Secretion

    Corticotropin Releasing Hormone

    Dopamine and control of Prolactin Secretion

    Secretion and Actions of Hypophysiotropic Hormones

    Feedback Control of Anterior Pituitary Function

    Physiology of the Posterior


    Regulation of Posterior Pituitary Function

    Suggested Reading

    Chapter 3 Thyroid Gland


    Thyroid Hormones


    Iodine Trapping

    Thyroglobulin Synthesis

    Incorporation of Iodine

    Hormone Storage


    Control of Thyroid Function

    Effects of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone

    Effects of the Thyroid-Stimulating Immunoglobulins

    Autoregulation of Thyroid Hormone Synthesis

    Thyroid Hormones in Blood

    Metabolism of Thyroid Hormones

    Physiological Effects of Thyroid Hormones

    Growth and Maturation

    Skeletal System

    Central Nervous System




    Oxidative Metabolism and Thermogenesis

    Carbohydrate Metaboliism

    Lipid Metabolism

    Nitrogen Metabolism

    Regulation of Thyroid Hormone Secretion

    Mechanism of Thyroid Hormone Action

    Suggested Reading

    Chapter 4 Adrenal Glands


    Adrenal Cortex

    Adrenocortical Hormones

    Control of Adrenocortical Hormone Synthesis

    Adrenal Steroid Hormones in Blood

    Postsecretory Metabolism of Adrenal Cortical Hormones

    Physiology of the Mineralocorticoids

    Effects of Aldosterone on the Kidney

    Regulation of Aldosterone Secretion

    Physiology of the Glucocorticoids

    Effects on Energy Metabolism

    Effects on Water Balance

    Effects on Lung DevelopmentGlucocorticoids and Responses to Injury

    Adrenocortical Function during Stress

    Mechanism of Action of Glucocorticoids

    Regulation of Glucocorticoid Secretion

    Adrenal Medulla

    Biosynthesis of the Medullary Catecholamines

    Storage, Release, and Metabolism of Medullary Hormones

    Physiological Actions of Medullary Hormones

    Regulation Of Adrenal Medullary Function

    Suggested Reading

    Chapter 5 Principles of Hormonal Integration

    Integration of Hormonal Signals at the Cellular and Molecular Level

    Augmentation, Antagonism, and Synergy


    Maintaining Signal Fidelity

    Modulation of Responding Systems

    Sensitivity and Capacity

    Spare Receptors

    Hormonal Integration at the Whole Animal Level



    Push–Pull Mechanisms

    Chapter 6 Hormones of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Functional Anatomy of the GI Tract

    Overview of Digestion and Absorption

    Hormones of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    The Gastrin/Cholecystokinin Family

    Physiological Actions of Gastrin

    Regulation of Gastrin Secretion

    Cholecystokinin (CCK)

    The Secretin/Glucagon Superfamily

    Secretin 114

    GIP (Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide/Gastric Inhibitory Peptide)

    Glucagon-like Peptides 1 and 2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2)

    The Pancreatic Polypeptide Family


    The Motilin/Ghrelin Family

    Concluding Comments

    Suggested Reading

    Chapter 7 The Pancreatic Islets

    Morphology of the Endocrine Pancreas


    Biosynthesis, Secretion, and Metabolism

    Physiological Actions of Glucagon

    Glucose Production



    Lipogenesis and Ketogenesis


    Regulation of Glucagon Secretion


    Biosynthesis, Secretion, and Metabolism

    Physiological Actions of Insulin

    Effects of Insulin Deficiency

    Effects on Adipose Tissue

    Effects on Muscle 138

    Effects on Liver

    Mechanism of Insulin Action

    Regulation of Insulin Secretion


    Other Circulating Metabolites

    Hormonal and Neural Control

    Cellular Events


    Suggested Reading

    Chapter 8 Hormonal Regulation of Fuel Metabolism

    General Features of Energy Metabolism

    Body Fuels





    Problems Inherent in the Use of Glucose and Fat as Metabolic Fuels

    Fuel Consumption

    The Glucose Fatty Acid Cycle

    AMP Activated Kinase (AMPK)

    Overall Regulation of Blood Glucose Concentration

    Short-term Regulation

    Long-term Regulation

    Integrated Actions of Metabolic Hormones

    Adipose Issue



    Pancreatic Islets

    Regulation of Metabolism during Feeding and Fasting

    Postprandial Period

    Postabsorptive Period


    Hormonal Interactions during Exercise

    Short-Term Maximal Effort

    Sustained Aerobic Exercise

    Long-term Regulation of Fuel Storage


    Hypothalamic Control of Appetite and Food Intake

    Peripheral Input to Hypothalamic Feeding and Satiety Neurons

    Adiposity Signals


    Insulin as an Adiposity Signal


    Satiety Signals


    Suggested Reading

    Chapter 9 Regulation of Salt and Water Balance

    General Considerations

    Salt and Water Balance

    Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

    Antidiuretic Effect

    Effects on Blood Pressure

    Regulation of ADH Secretion

    Plasma Osmolality

    Blood Volume

    Dysfunctional States

    The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System

    Actions of Angiotensin II

    Actions on the Adrenal Cortex

    Actions on the Kidney

    Cardiovascular Effects

    Central Nervous System Effects

    Regulation of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System

    Atrial Natriuretic Factor (ANF)

    Physiological Actions

    Cardiovascular Actions

    Renal Actions

    Effects on Aldosterone Secretion

    Other Effects

    Regulation of ANF Secretion

    Integrated Compensatory Responses to Changes in Salt and Water Balance


    Response of the Renin Angiotensin System

    Response of the ADH System

    Response of Aldosterone

    Response of ANF


    Salt Loading and Depletion

    Suggested Reading

    Chapter 10 Hormonal Regulation of Calcium Balance

    General Features of Calcium Balance

    Distribution of Calcium in the Body

    Calcium Balance

    Intestinal Absorption



    Phosphorus Balance

    Parathyroid Glands and Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

    Biosynthesis, Storage, and Secretion of PTH

    Mechanisms of Parathyroid Hormone Action

    Physiological Actions Of PTH

    Actions on Bone

    Actions on Kidney

    Effects on Intestinal Absorption

    PTH Fragments

    Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide (PTHRP)

    Regulation Of PTH Secretion


    Cells of Origin

    Biosynthesis, Secretion, and Metabolism

    Physiological Actions of Calcitonin

    Actions on Bone

    Actions on Kidney

    Regulation of Secretion

    The Vitamin D-Endocrine System

    Synthesis and Metabolism

    Physiological Actions of 1,25(OH)2D3

    Actions on Intestine

    Actions on Bone

    Actions on Kidney

    Actions on Parathyroid Glands

    Regulation Of 1,25(OH)2D3 Production

    Calcium Regulation of Plasma Calcium Concentrations

    Integrated Actions of Calcitropic Hormones

    Response to a Hypocalcemic Challenge

    Response to a Hypercalcemic Challenge

    Other Hormones That Influence Calcium Balance

    Suggested Reading

    Chapter 11 Hormonal Control of Growth

    Growth Hormone

    Synthesis, Secretion, and Metabolism

    Mode of Action

    Physiological Actions of Growth Hormone

    Effects on Skeletal Growth

    Effects of GH/IGF-I on Body Composition

    Regulation of GH Secretion

    Effects of Age

    Regulators of GH Secretion

    Actions Of GHRH, Somatostatin, IGF-I, and GH Relin on the Somatotrope

    Thyroid Hormones

    Dependence of GH Synthesis and Secretion on T3

    Importance of T3 for Expression Of GH Actions


    Gonadal Hormones

    Effects of Estrogens on Epiphyseal Growth Plates

    Effects on Growth Hormone Secretion and Action

    Effects of Androgens


    Suggested Reading

    Chapter 12 Hormonal Control of Reproduction in the Male

    Morphology of the Testes

    Leydig Cells and Seminiferous Tubules

    Male Reproductive Tract

    Control of Testicular Function

    Leydig Cells

    Germinal Epithelium


    Secretion and Metabolism

    Mechanism of Action

    Effects on the Male Genital Tract

    Effects on Secondary Sexual Characteristics

    Sexual Differentiation

    Development of Internal Reproductive Ducts and Their Derivatives

    Development of the External Genitalia

    Testicular Descent into the Scrotum

    Postnatal Development

    Anomalies of Sexual Differentiation

    Regulation of Testicular Function

    Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone and the Hypothalamic Pulse Generator

    Negative Feedback Regulators

    Inhibin and Testosterone



    Suggested Reading

    Chapter 13 Hormonal Control of Reproduction in the Female: The Menstrual Cycle

    Female Reproductive Tract



    Oviducts and Uterus

    Ovarian Hormones


    Progesterone Inhibin


    Control of Ovarian Function

    Effects of FSH and LH on the Developing Follicle

    Estradiol Production

    Follicular Development

    Cellular Actions of FSH and LH

    Effects on Ovulation

    Effects on Corpus Luteum Formation

    Effects on Oocyte Maturation

    Effects on Corpus Luteal Function

    Effects on Ovarian Blood Flow

    Physiological Actions of Ovarian Steroid Hormones

    Effects on the Reproductive Tract


    Effects on the Mammary Glands

    Other Effects of Ovarian Hormones

    Mechanism of Action

    Regulation of the Reproductive Cycle

    Pattern of Hormones in Blood during the Ovarian Cycle

    Regulation Of FSH And LH Secretion

    Negative Feedback Aspects

    Selection of the Dominant Follicle

    Positive Feedback Aspects

    Neural Control of Gonadotropin Secretion

    Sites of Feedback Control

    Timing of Reproductive Cycles

    Suggested Reading

    Chapter 14 Hormonal Control of Pregnancy and Lactation

    Fertilization and Implantation

    Gamete Transport

    Role of the Oviducts

    Implantation and the Formation of the Placenta

    The Placenta

    Placental Hormones

    Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)

    Human Chorionic Somatomammotropin (HCS)



    The Role of the Fetal Adrenal Cortex

    The Role of Progesterone and Estrogens in Sustaining Pregnancy

    Maternal Adaptations to Pregnancy

    Cardiovascular Adaptations

    Renal Adaptations

    Osmoregulation and Thirst

    Respiratory Adjustments

    Gas Exchange

    Metabolic Adjustments

    Calcium Balance


    The Role of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH)

    The Role of Oxytocin


    Growth and Development of the Mammary Glands

    Milk Production

    Lactation and Maternal Calcium Balance

    Mechanism of Prolactin Action

    Neuroendocrine Mechanisms

    Milk Let-Down Reflex

    Cellular Actions of Oxytocin

    Control of Prolactin Secretion

    Cellular Regulation of Prolactin Secretion

    Prolactin in Blood

    Lactation and Resumption of Ovarian Cycles

    Suggested Reading


Product details

  • No. of pages: 344
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2008
  • Published: August 15, 2008
  • Imprint: Academic Press

About the Authors

Elizabeth Holt

Dr. Holt is the co-director of the Yale Endocrine Neoplasia Group; past president of the Connecticut Endocrine Society; and has been recognized many times as a top doctor by Connecticut magazine.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor of Medicine, Endocrinology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States

H. Maurice Goodman

Dr. Peery is a professor who has taught medical and graduate students at the Cumming School of Medicine at the University of Calgary as well as at professional schools in other universities in the United States and Canada. In addition, he is an Affiliate Assistant Professor in the Department of Bioengineering at the School of Medicine at the University of Washington, Seattle. He received his Bachelor of Science degree from Syracuse University, his MSc from Ohio State University, and his PhD from the University of Saskatchewan. At the University of Calgary, he is a member of the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and is an Associate Member of the Arnie Charbonneau Cancer Research Institute. He currently works in the lab of Dr. Karl Riabowol in the Cumming School of Medicine where he focuses his research on the pathogenesis of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, cancer biomarkers, and glioblastoma. He is one of the founding directors of The Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis Foundation, Inc., headquartered in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, and Arnie Charbonneau Cancer Research Institute, Laboratory of Dr. Karl Riabowol, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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