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Basic Medical Endocrinology - 4th Edition - ISBN: 9780123739759, 9780080920559

Basic Medical Endocrinology

4th Edition

Authors: Elizabeth Holt H. Maurice Goodman
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123739759
Paperback ISBN: 9781493301065
eBook ISBN: 9780080920559
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 15th August 2008
Page Count: 344
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Basic Medical Endocrinology, Fourth Edition provides up-to-date coverage of rapidly unfolding advances in the understanding of hormones involved in regulating most aspects of bodily functions. Topics are approached from the perspective of a physiologist with over 40 years of teaching experience.

This fourth edition is richly illustrated in full color with both descriptive schematic diagrams and laboratory findings obtained in clinical studies. Each of the fourteen chapters starts with an overview of the topic and ends with a Suggested Reading list. Initial chapters lay a foundation by presenting basic information and principles of hormone structure, secretion, and actions, and the physiological roles of the principal endocrine glands. Subsequent chapters address the role of the endocrine system in solving such physiological problems as the regulation of the volume and composition of body fluids in the face of changing environmental demands, and the regulation of short- and long-term energy balance. The final chapters deal with the indispensable role of hormones in growth, development and reproduction.

Key Features

  • Strikes an excellent balance between systems/organismal level of overview and cellular/molecular analysis
  • Richly illustrated with over 250 full color figures, descriptive schematic diagrams, and laboratory findings
  • All chapters have been thoroughly rewritten and updated, including new discussions of adrenal steroid biosynthesis, the parathyroid in osteoporosis, obesity and metabolism, as well as an entirely new chapter on gastrointestinal hormones
  • Editor has 45 years of experience teaching endocrinology and physiology to medical students at Harvard and UMass


Upper division undergraduate and graduate students in biology, physiology, zoology; medical students; researchers and professionals in endocrinology and bone/mineral research.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction

Biosynthesis of Hormones

Storage and Secretion

Hormones in Blood

Hormone Degradation

Mechanisms of Hormone Action


Characteristics of Receptors

Hormonal Actions Mediated by Intracellular Receptors

Hormonal Actions Mediated by Surface Receptors

The G-protein Coupled Receptors

Receptors that Signal through Tyrosine Kinase

Regulation of Hormone Secretion

Negative Feedback

Positive Feedback

Feed Forward

Measurement of Hormones


Hormone Levels in Blood

Suggested Reading

Chapter 2 Pituitary Gland


Physiology of the Anterior Pituitary Gland

Glycoprotein Hormones

Growth Hormone and Prolactin

Adrenocorticotropin Family

Development of the Anterior Pituitary Gland

Regulation of Anterior Pituitary Function

Hypophysiotropic Hormones

Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH)

Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone

Control of GH Secretion

Corticotropin Releasing Hormone

Dopamine and control of Prolactin Secretion

Secretion and Actions of Hypophysiotropic Hormones

Feedback Control of Anterior Pituitary Function

Physiology of the Posterior


Regulation of Posterior Pituitary Function

Suggested Reading

Chapter 3 Thyroid Gland


Thyroid Hormones


Iodine Trapping

Thyroglobulin Synthesis

Incorporation of Iodine

Hormone Storage


Control of Thyroid Function

Effects of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone

Effects of the Thyroid-Stimulating Immunoglobulins

Autoregulation of Thyroid Hormone Synthesis

Thyroid Hormones in Blood

Metabolism of Thyroid Hormones

Physiological Effects of Thyroid Hormones

Growth and Maturation

Skeletal System

Central Nervous System




Oxidative Metabolism and Thermogenesis

Carbohydrate Metaboliism

Lipid Metabolism

Nitrogen Metabolism

Regulation of Thyroid Hormone Secretion

Mechanism of Thyroid Hormone Action

Suggested Reading

Chapter 4 Adrenal Glands


Adrenal Cortex

Adrenocortical Hormones

Control of Adrenocortical Hormone Synthesis

Adrenal Steroid Hormones in Blood

Postsecretory Metabolism of Adrenal Cortical Hormones

Physiology of the Mineralocorticoids

Effects of Aldosterone on the Kidney

Regulation of Aldosterone Secretion

Physiology of the Glucocorticoids

Effects on Energy Metabolism

Effects on Water Balance

Effects on Lung DevelopmentGlucocorticoids and Responses to Injury

Adrenocortical Function during Stress

Mechanism of Action of Glucocorticoids

Regulation of Glucocorticoid Secretion

Adrenal Medulla

Biosynthesis of the Medullary Catecholamines

Storage, Release, and Metabolism of Medullary Hormones

Physiological Actions of Medullary Hormones

Regulation Of Adrenal Medullary Function

Suggested Reading

Chapter 5 Principles of Hormonal Integration

Integration of Hormonal Signals at the Cellular and Molecular Level

Augmentation, Antagonism, and Synergy


Maintaining Signal Fidelity

Modulation of Responding Systems

Sensitivity and Capacity

Spare Receptors

Hormonal Integration at the Whole Animal Level



Push–Pull Mechanisms

Chapter 6 Hormones of the Gastrointestinal Tract

Functional Anatomy of the GI Tract

Overview of Digestion and Absorption

Hormones of the Gastrointestinal Tract

The Gastrin/Cholecystokinin Family

Physiological Actions of Gastrin

Regulation of Gastrin Secretion

Cholecystokinin (CCK)

The Secretin/Glucagon Superfamily

Secretin 114

GIP (Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide/Gastric Inhibitory Peptide)

Glucagon-like Peptides 1 and 2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2)

The Pancreatic Polypeptide Family


The Motilin/Ghrelin Family

Concluding Comments

Suggested Reading

Chapter 7 The Pancreatic Islets

Morphology of the Endocrine Pancreas


Biosynthesis, Secretion, and Metabolism

Physiological Actions of Glucagon

Glucose Production



Lipogenesis and Ketogenesis


Regulation of Glucagon Secretion


Biosynthesis, Secretion, and Metabolism

Physiological Actions of Insulin

Effects of Insulin Deficiency

Effects on Adipose Tissue

Effects on Muscle 138

Effects on Liver

Mechanism of Insulin Action

Regulation of Insulin Secretion


Other Circulating Metabolites

Hormonal and Neural Control

Cellular Events


Suggested Reading

Chapter 8 Hormonal Regulation of Fuel Metabolism

General Features of Energy Metabolism

Body Fuels





Problems Inherent in the Use of Glucose and Fat as Metabolic Fuels

Fuel Consumption

The Glucose Fatty Acid Cycle

AMP Activated Kinase (AMPK)

Overall Regulation of Blood Glucose Concentration

Short-term Regulation

Long-term Regulation

Integrated Actions of Metabolic Hormones

Adipose Issue



Pancreatic Islets

Regulation of Metabolism during Feeding and Fasting

Postprandial Period

Postabsorptive Period


Hormonal Interactions during Exercise

Short-Term Maximal Effort

Sustained Aerobic Exercise

Long-term Regulation of Fuel Storage


Hypothalamic Control of Appetite and Food Intake

Peripheral Input to Hypothalamic Feeding and Satiety Neurons

Adiposity Signals


Insulin as an Adiposity Signal


Satiety Signals


Suggested Reading

Chapter 9 Regulation of Salt and Water Balance

General Considerations

Salt and Water Balance

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

Antidiuretic Effect

Effects on Blood Pressure

Regulation of ADH Secretion

Plasma Osmolality

Blood Volume

Dysfunctional States

The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System

Actions of Angiotensin II

Actions on the Adrenal Cortex

Actions on the Kidney

Cardiovascular Effects

Central Nervous System Effects

Regulation of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System

Atrial Natriuretic Factor (ANF)

Physiological Actions

Cardiovascular Actions

Renal Actions

Effects on Aldosterone Secretion

Other Effects

Regulation of ANF Secretion

Integrated Compensatory Responses to Changes in Salt and Water Balance


Response of the Renin Angiotensin System

Response of the ADH System

Response of Aldosterone

Response of ANF


Salt Loading and Depletion

Suggested Reading

Chapter 10 Hormonal Regulation of Calcium Balance

General Features of Calcium Balance

Distribution of Calcium in the Body

Calcium Balance

Intestinal Absorption



Phosphorus Balance

Parathyroid Glands and Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

Biosynthesis, Storage, and Secretion of PTH

Mechanisms of Parathyroid Hormone Action

Physiological Actions Of PTH

Actions on Bone

Actions on Kidney

Effects on Intestinal Absorption

PTH Fragments

Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide (PTHRP)

Regulation Of PTH Secretion


Cells of Origin

Biosynthesis, Secretion, and Metabolism

Physiological Actions of Calcitonin

Actions on Bone

Actions on Kidney

Regulation of Secretion

The Vitamin D-Endocrine System

Synthesis and Metabolism

Physiological Actions of 1,25(OH)2D3

Actions on Intestine

Actions on Bone

Actions on Kidney

Actions on Parathyroid Glands

Regulation Of 1,25(OH)2D3 Production

Calcium Regulation of Plasma Calcium Concentrations

Integrated Actions of Calcitropic Hormones

Response to a Hypocalcemic Challenge

Response to a Hypercalcemic Challenge

Other Hormones That Influence Calcium Balance

Suggested Reading

Chapter 11 Hormonal Control of Growth

Growth Hormone

Synthesis, Secretion, and Metabolism

Mode of Action

Physiological Actions of Growth Hormone

Effects on Skeletal Growth

Effects of GH/IGF-I on Body Composition

Regulation of GH Secretion

Effects of Age

Regulators of GH Secretion

Actions Of GHRH, Somatostatin, IGF-I, and GH Relin on the Somatotrope

Thyroid Hormones

Dependence of GH Synthesis and Secretion on T3

Importance of T3 for Expression Of GH Actions


Gonadal Hormones

Effects of Estrogens on Epiphyseal Growth Plates

Effects on Growth Hormone Secretion and Action

Effects of Androgens


Suggested Reading

Chapter 12 Hormonal Control of Reproduction in the Male

Morphology of the Testes

Leydig Cells and Seminiferous Tubules

Male Reproductive Tract

Control of Testicular Function

Leydig Cells

Germinal Epithelium


Secretion and Metabolism

Mechanism of Action

Effects on the Male Genital Tract

Effects on Secondary Sexual Characteristics

Sexual Differentiation

Development of Internal Reproductive Ducts and Their Derivatives

Development of the External Genitalia

Testicular Descent into the Scrotum

Postnatal Development

Anomalies of Sexual Differentiation

Regulation of Testicular Function

Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone and the Hypothalamic Pulse Generator

Negative Feedback Regulators

Inhibin and Testosterone



Suggested Reading

Chapter 13 Hormonal Control of Reproduction in the Female: The Menstrual Cycle

Female Reproductive Tract



Oviducts and Uterus

Ovarian Hormones


Progesterone Inhibin


Control of Ovarian Function

Effects of FSH and LH on the Developing Follicle

Estradiol Production

Follicular Development

Cellular Actions of FSH and LH

Effects on Ovulation

Effects on Corpus Luteum Formation

Effects on Oocyte Maturation

Effects on Corpus Luteal Function

Effects on Ovarian Blood Flow

Physiological Actions of Ovarian Steroid Hormones

Effects on the Reproductive Tract


Effects on the Mammary Glands

Other Effects of Ovarian Hormones

Mechanism of Action

Regulation of the Reproductive Cycle

Pattern of Hormones in Blood during the Ovarian Cycle

Regulation Of FSH And LH Secretion

Negative Feedback Aspects

Selection of the Dominant Follicle

Positive Feedback Aspects

Neural Control of Gonadotropin Secretion

Sites of Feedback Control

Timing of Reproductive Cycles

Suggested Reading

Chapter 14 Hormonal Control of Pregnancy and Lactation

Fertilization and Implantation

Gamete Transport

Role of the Oviducts

Implantation and the Formation of the Placenta

The Placenta

Placental Hormones

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)

Human Chorionic Somatomammotropin (HCS)



The Role of the Fetal Adrenal Cortex

The Role of Progesterone and Estrogens in Sustaining Pregnancy

Maternal Adaptations to Pregnancy

Cardiovascular Adaptations

Renal Adaptations

Osmoregulation and Thirst

Respiratory Adjustments

Gas Exchange

Metabolic Adjustments

Calcium Balance


The Role of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH)

The Role of Oxytocin


Growth and Development of the Mammary Glands

Milk Production

Lactation and Maternal Calcium Balance

Mechanism of Prolactin Action

Neuroendocrine Mechanisms

Milk Let-Down Reflex

Cellular Actions of Oxytocin

Control of Prolactin Secretion

Cellular Regulation of Prolactin Secretion

Prolactin in Blood

Lactation and Resumption of Ovarian Cycles

Suggested Reading



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© Academic Press 2008
15th August 2008
Academic Press
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About the Authors

Elizabeth Holt

Dr. Holt is the co-director of the Yale Endocrine Neoplasia Group; past president of the Connecticut Endocrine Society; and has been recognized many times as a top doctor by Connecticut magazine.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor of Medicine, Endocrinology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States

H. Maurice Goodman

Dr. Peery is a professor who has taught medical and graduate students at the Cumming School of Medicine at the University of Calgary as well as at professional schools in other universities in the United States and Canada. In addition, he is an Affiliate Assistant Professor in the Department of Bioengineering at the School of Medicine at the University of Washington, Seattle. He received his Bachelor of Science degree from Syracuse University, his MSc from Ohio State University, and his PhD from the University of Saskatchewan. At the University of Calgary, he is a member of the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and is an Associate Member of the Arnie Charbonneau Cancer Research Institute. He currently works in the lab of Dr. Karl Riabowol in the Cumming School of Medicine where he focuses his research on the pathogenesis of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, cancer biomarkers, and glioblastoma. He is one of the founding directors of The Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis Foundation, Inc., headquartered in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, and Arnie Charbonneau Cancer Research Institute, Laboratory of Dr. Karl Riabowol, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Department of Bioengineering, School of Medicine and College of Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; Faculty of Health Disciplines, Athabasca University, Athabasca, Alberta, Canada. Founding Director and Basic Science Director, Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis Foundation, Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

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