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Basic Elements - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444414359, 9780080869711

Basic Elements, Volume 5A

1st Edition

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Serial Volume Editor: Multiple Contributors
eBook ISBN: 9780080869711
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 1st January 1981
Page Count: 280
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Table of Contents


List of Symbols

Preface to the Second Edition

Chapter 1. Composition of the Soil

1.1. Solid Phase Components

1.1.1. Inorganic Components

1.1.2. The Organic Components

1.2. The Liquid Phase

1.3. The Gas Phase

Chapter 2. Chemical Equilibria

2.1. The Condition for Equilibrium

2.2. Standard States and Activities

2.3. Activity Coefficients of Ions in Aqueous Solutions

2.3.1. Activity Coefficients in Mixed Aqueous Solutions at High Ionic Strength

2.4. Calculation of Equilibrium Constants from Thermodynamic Data

2.5. Some Thermodynamic Considerations

2.6. Illustrative Calculations

2.6.1. Calculation of the Thermodynamic Equilibrium Constant

2.6.2. Calculation of the Equilibrium Solution Composition at Low Electrolyte Level

2.6.3. Calculation of the Equilibrium Solution Composition at ‘High’ Electrolyte Level

2.7. Reactions Involving the Transfer of Protons and/or Electrons

2.7.1. Acid-Base Equilibria

2.7.2. Oxidation-Reduction Equilibria

2.7.3. The Electrometric Determination of pH and pe

2.8. Graphical Presentation of Solubility Equilibria

2.9. Surface Structure and Solubility

Literature Consulted

Chapter 3. Surface Interaction Between the Soil Solid Phase and the Soil Solution

3.1. The Surface Charge of the Solid Phase

3.2. Properties of the Liquid Layer Adjacent to the Solid Phase

3.2.1. The Extent of the Diffuse Double Layer at High Water Content

3.2.2. The Diffuse Double Layer at Low Liquid Content of the System

3.3. The Influence of the Interaction Between Solid and Liquid Phase on Soil Properties

Recommended Literature

Chapter 4. Adsorption of Cations by Soil

4.1. Qualitative Description of the Exchange Reaction

4.2. Experimental Approach

4.2.1. Interpretation of the Analysis-Data

4.2.2. Some Experimental Data

4.3. Model Considerations

4.4. The Exchange Equilibrium

4.4.1. Exchange Equations

4.4.2. Application of the Exchange Equations in Estimating Changes in Composition of Solution and Complex

4.5. Highly Selective Adsorption of Cations by Soil

4.5.1. Fixation of Cations in Clay Lattices

4.5.2. Complex Formation of Cations by Organic Matter Ligands

4.6. The Adsorption of H- and Al-Ions by Soil Constituents

4.6.1. Analysis of the Different Types of Adsorption Mechanisms

4.6.2. The Titration Curve of Soil Constituents

4.6.3. Correction of the Soil pH

4.6.4. Measurement of pH in Soil; The Suspension Effect

Illustrative Problems

Recommended Literature

Chapter 5. Adsorption of Anions by Soil

5.1. Anion Exclusion at Negatively Charged Surfaces

5.2. The Positive Adsorption of Anions

5.3. Phosphate ‘Fixation’

Illustrative Problems

Recommended Literature

Chapter 6. Common Solubility Equilibria in Soils

6.1. Carbonate Equilibria

6.1.1. The CO2-H2O System

6.1.2. Systems Containing CaCO3(s)

6.2. Iron Oxides and Hydroxides

6.2.1. Ferrous Compounds

6.2.2. Redox Reactions Involving Iron Compounds

6.2.3. pe-pH Diagams fo the System Hematite-Magnetite-Siderite-H2O

6.3. Aluminum

6.3.1. Al2O3-H2O System

6.3.2. Al2O3-SiO2-H2O System

6.4. Phosphorus

6.4.1. Solubility of Phosphates in Soils

6.4.2. Phosphate Solubility Diagram in the System Al2O3-Fe2O3-CaO-P2O5-H2O

6.5. Relevant Thermodynamic Data of the Systems Discussed

Illustrative Problems

Recommended and Consulted Literature

Chapter 7. Transport and Accumulation of Soluble Soil Components

7.1. Transport with and in the Liquid Phase

7.2. Solute Displacement in Soil

7.2.1. Displacement in Case of Complete Exchange

7.2.2. Displacement in Case of Incomplete Exchange

7.2.3. The Influence of the Exchange Isotherm on Solute Displacement

7.3. The Penetrating Solute Front

7.3.1. Influence of the Exchange Isotherm

7.3.2. Influence of Diffusion and Dispersion

7.3.3. Order of magnitude of the Front Spreading Effects

7.4. Some Practical Examples

7.4.1. Reclamation of Na-Soils

7.4.2. The Sodication Process

7.4.3. The Penetration of Trace Components Into Soil

7.5. Some Cautioning Remarks

Illustrative Problems

Chapter 8. Chemical Equilibria and Soil Formation

8.1. Introduction

8.1.1. Soil Formation and Soil Forming Factors

8.1.2. The Use of Water Analyses in the Study of Soil Formation

8.1.3. A Landscape Model

8.2. Weathering of Soil Minerals

8.2.1. Congruent and Incongruent Dissolution

8.2.2. Solubility and Stability Relationships

8.2.3. The Concept of Partial Equilibrium

8.2.4. Weathering Products

8.2.5. Decay of Organic Matter, Humification and Chelation

8.2.6. Composition of the Soil Solution

8.3. Soil Reduction and Oxidation

8.3.1. Environmental Requirements for Soil Reduction

8.3.2. The Sequential Appearance of Reduction Products Upon Flooding

8.3.3. Soil Reaction and Production of Alkalinity During Reduction

8.3.4. Water Regimes in Hydromorphic Soils

8.3.5. Weathering Under Seasonally Reduced Conditions

8.4. Reverse Weathering

8.4.1. Vertisols, Calcium Carbonate, Salinity and High pH

8.4.2. Absolute Accumulation of Iron Oxide

Illustrative Problems

Recommended Literature

Chapter 9. Saline and Sodic Soils

9.1. Chemical Characterization of Saline and Alkali Soils

9.2. Salinization of Soils Upon Irrigation

9.3. Sodication of Soils Upon Irrigation

9.4. Alkalinization Under Irrigation

9.5. Chemical Aspects of the Reclamation of Saline and Sodic Soils

Illustrative Problems

Consulted Literature

Recommended Literature

Chapter 10. Pollution of Soil

10.1. Soil as an Environmental Component

10.2. Recognition and Prediction of Soil Pollution

10.3. Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Soil

10.3.1. Pollution Effects Involving Nitrogen

10.3.2.Sources of (Excess) Nitrogen in Soil

10.3.3. Forms of Organic Nitrogen in Soil

10.3.4. Forms of Inorganic Nitrogen in Soil

10.3.5. The Pathway of Nitrogen Through Soil

10.3.6. Pollution Effects Involving Phosphates

10.3.7. Sources of Phosphates in Soil

10.3.8. The Interaction Between Phosphates and Soil

10.3.9. A Characteristic Phosphate Distribution Profile as Found on a Sewage Farm

10.4. Heavy Metals and Trace Elements

10.4.1. As, Arsenic

10.4.2. Cd, Cadmium

10.4.3. Co, Cobalt

10.4.4. Cr, Chromium

10.4.5. Cu, Copper

10.4.6. Hg, Mercury

10.4.7. Mo, Molybdenum

10.4.8. Ni, Nickel

10.4.9. Pb, Lead

10.4.10. Se, Selenium

10.4.11. V, Vanadium

10.4.12. Zn, Zinc

10.4.13. Chelation and Metal Mobility

10.5. Organic Pesticides in Soil

10.5.1. Bonding by Soil Constituents

10.5.2. Decomposition of Pesticides in Soil

10.6. Miscellaneous Soil Pollution Sources

10.6.1. Oil Spills and Oil Sludge Disposal

10.6.2. Gas Leakages

10.6.3. Sanitary Landfills

10.7. Positioning the Present Treatise with Respect to Adjacent Areas of Interest


Subject Index


Developments in Soil Science, 5A: Soil Chemistry: A: Basic Elements focuses on the advancements in the processes, methodologies, principles, and approaches involved in soil chemistry.

The selection first elaborates on the composition of the soil, chemical equilibria, and surface interaction between the soil solid phase and the soil solution. Topics include properties of the liquid layer adjacent to the solid phase, influence of the interaction between solid and liquid phase on soil properties, reactions involving the transfer of protons and/or electrons, calculation of equilibrium constants from thermodynamic data, solid phase components, and gas phase. The manuscript then takes a look at the adsorption of cations and anions by soil, common solubility equilibria in soils, and transport and accumulation of soluble soil components. Discussions focus on solute displacement in soil, transport with and in the liquid phase, iron oxides and hydroxides, carbonate equilibria, anion exclusion at negatively charged surfaces, and highly selective adsorption of cations by soil.

The text ponders on the pollution of soil, saline and sodic soils, and chemical equilibria and soil formation, including weathering and soil minerals, reverse weathering, sodication of soils upon irrigation, chemical aspects of the reclamation of saline and sodic soils, and recognition and prediction of soil pollution.

The selection is a valuable source of data for researchers wanting to study soil chemistry.


No. of pages:
© Elsevier Science 1976
1st January 1981
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:


@qu:This is one of the most valuable texts yet to appear on the topic of soil chemistry... I heartily recommend the book. @source: Geochimica and Cosmochimica Acta

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About the Serial Volume Editor

Multiple Contributors