Basic Analytical Chemistry

Basic Analytical Chemistry

1st Edition - January 1, 1980

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  • Authors: L. Pataki, E. Zapp
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483280738

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Pergamon Series in Analytical Chemistry, Volume 2: Basic Analytical Chemistry brings together numerous studies of the vast expansion in the use of classical and instrumental methods of analysis. This book is composed of six chapters. After providing a theoretical background of analytical chemistry, this book goes on dealing with the fundamental principles of chemical equilibria in solution. The subsequent chapters consider the advances in qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses. These chapters present a unified view of these analyses based on the Bronsted-Lowry theory and the donor-acceptor principle. These topics are followed by discussions on instrumental analysis using various methods, including electrochemical, optical, spectroscopic, and thermal methods, as well as radioactive isotopes. The finals chapters examine the separation methods and the essential features of organic chemical analysis that are different from methods for inorganic compounds. This book is of value to analytical chemists and researchers.

Table of Contents

  • Introduction

    1 Chemical equilibria in solution

    1.1 Electrolytic dissociation

    1.1.1 Ions, ionic reactions

    1.1.2 The law of mass reaction, equilibrium constants, dissociation constants

    1.1.3 Activity, activity coefficient, ionic strength

    1.2 Acid-base reactions

    1.2.1 The Arrhenius-Ostwald theory

    1.2.2 The Bronsted-Lowry theory

    1.2.3 The Lewis theory

    1.2.4 The Pearson theory

    1.2.5 The Usanovich theory

    1.2.6 Autoprotolysis, ampholytes

    1.2.7 The concept of pR

    1.2.8 pH ranges in non-aqueous solutions

    1.2.9 The strength of acide and bases

    1.2.10 The general Bronsted equation

    1.3 Complex formation reactions

    1.3.1 Complexes and their stability constants

    1.3.2 Chelates

    1.4 Precipitate formation reactions

    1.4.1 Solubility of precipitates, solubility product

    1.4.2 Effects influencing the solubilities of precipitates

    1.5 Redox reactions

    1.5.1 Redox processes, redox potential

    1.5.2 The standard formal potential

    1.5.3 Redox potentials of dual redox systems

    1.5.4 The equilibrium constant for redox reactions

    1.5.5 Effects influencing the redox potential

    1.5.6 Redox buffer systems

    1.5.7 Redox exponent, rH

    1.6 Partition equilibria, solvent extraction

    1.6.1 Classification of extraction systems

    1.6.2 The partition coefficient

    1.6.3 The distribution ratio

    1.6.4 Extraction efficiency

    2 Qualitative chemical analysis

    2.1 The electronic structure of ions and their classification in qualitative analysis

    2.1.1 Ion potential and the properties of precipitates

    2.1.2 Classification of qualitative chemical analysis

    2.1.3 The characterization of analytical reactions

    2.1.4 Sensitivity of analytical reactions

    2.2 Group reactions of cations

    2.2.1 Acid groups

    2.2.2 Sulphide groups

    2.2.3 Hydroxide groups

    2.2.4 Carbonate group

    2.2.5 Phosphate group

    2.2.6 Chromate group

    2.2.7 Iodide group

    2.3 Group reactions of anione

    2.3.1 Hydrochloric and nitric acid groups

    2.3.2 Barium nitrate group

    2.3.3 Silver nitrate group

    2.4 The application of organic reagents in qualitative analysis

    2.5 Other types of reaction used in qualitative analysis

    2.5.1 Detection methods based on redox reactions

    2.5.2 Pyrochemical tests

    2.6 The most commonly used systems in qualitative analysis

    2.6.1 Classification of cations according to class reagents

    2.6.2 Classification of anione according to class reagents

    2.6.3 Other classifications of cations and anione

    2.7 Special methods of qualitative analysis

    2.7.1 Qualitative analysis of rare elements and of trace amounts

    2.7.2 Microcrystalloscopy

    2.7.3 Spot tests

    2.8 General procedure for chemical analysis

    2.8.1 Sampling

    2.8.2 Preliminary tests

    2.8.3 Preparation of solutions

    3 Quantitative chemical analysis

    3.1 Gravimetric analysis

    3.1.1 Theoretical basis of precipitation gravimetric methods

    3.1.2 Formation and treatment of precipitates

    3.1.3 Important methods in precipitation gravimetry

    3.2 Titrimetric analysis

    3.2.1 Acid-base titrations

    3.2.2 Titrimetric analysis based on complex formation

    3.2.3 Titrimetry based on precipitate formation

    3.2.4 Redox titrations

    3.2.5 The limits of application of titrimetric analysis

    4 Instrumental methods of analysis

    4.1 Electrochemical methods

    4.1.1 Voltammetry

    4.1.2 Electrogravimetry

    4.1.3 Coulometry

    4.1.4 Potentiometry

    4.1.5 Conductometry

    4.2 Optical and spectroscopic methods of analysis

    4.2.1 Optical methods

    4.2.2 Emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation

    4.2.3 Emission spectroscopy in the visible and ultraviolet region

    4.2.4 X-ray methods

    4.2.5 Absorption spectroscopy

    4.2.6 Molecular absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and visible region

    4.2.7 Infrared absorption spectroscopy

    4.2.8 Atomic absorption spectrometry

    4.3 Analytical methods based on magnetic phenomena

    4.4 Thermal methods of analysis

    4.4.1 Thermogravimetry

    4.4.2 Differential thermal analysis

    4.4.3 Enthalpimetry and thermometric titrations

    4.5 Applications of radioactive isotopes in analysis

    4.5.1 Radiometrie titrations

    4.5.2 Activation analysis

    4.5.3 Isotope dilution analysis

    4.5.4 Substoichiometry

    4.5.5 Measurements based on the absorption of ß-and y-radiation

    5 Separation methods

    5.1 Methods based on the separation of solid and liquid phases

    5.2 Separation of volatile components from solid and liquid phases

    5.2.1 Methods of gas analysis

    5.3 Analytical methods based on ion exchange equilibria

    5.4 Methods based on partition between two liquid phases: liquid-liquid extraction methods

    5.5 Chromatographie methods

    5.5.1 Gas-solid chromatography

    5.5.2 Liquid-solid chromatography

    5.5.3 Partition chromatography

    5.5.4 Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC)

    6 Analysis of organic compounds

    6.1 Methods of elementary analysis

    6.1.1 Determination of carbon and hydrogen

    6.1.2 Determination of oxygen

    6.1.3 Determination of nitrogen

    6.1.4 Determination of halogens

    6.1.5 Determination of other elements

    6.2 Functional group analysis

    6.2.1 Determination of carboxyl groups

    6.2.2 Determination of carbonyl groups

    6.2.3 Determination of hydroxyl groups

    6.2.4 Determination of nitrogen-containing functional groups

    6.2.5 Determination of sulphur-containing functional groups

    6.2.6 Determination of alkoxyl groups

    6.2.7 Characterization of unsaturated compounds


    Appendix I

    Appendix II

    Appendix III


    Subject index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 478
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1980
  • Published: January 1, 1980
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483280738

About the Authors

L. Pataki

E. Zapp

About the Editors

R. Belcher

D Betteridge

L Meites

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