Balancing Greenhouse Gas Budgets

Balancing Greenhouse Gas Budgets

Accounting for Natural and Anthropogenic Flows of CO2 and other Trace Gases

1st Edition - May 5, 2022

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  • Editors: Benjamin Poulter, Joseph Canadell, Daniel Hayes, Rona Thompson
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128149539
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128149522

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Description

Balancing Greenhouse Gas Budgets: Accounting for Natural and Anthropogenic Flows of CO2 and other Trace Gases provides a synthesis of greenhouse gas budgeting activities across the world. Organized in four sections, including background, methods, case studies and opportunities, it is an interdisciplinary book covering both science and policy. All environments are covered, from terrestrial to ocean, along with atmospheric processes using models, inventories and observations to give a complete overview of greenhouse gas accounting. Perspectives presented give readers the tools necessary to understand budget activities, think critically, and use the framework to carry out initiatives.

Key Features

  • Written by a combination of experts across career stages, presenting an integrated perspective for graduate students and professionals alike
  • Includes sections authored by those involved in both early and later IPCC assessments
  • Provides an interdisciplinary resource that spans many topics and methodologies in oceanic, land and atmospheric processes

Readership

Scientists from academic and research institutions working on greenhouse gas budgeting at a national, sub-national or regional scale; scientists and policy-makers associated with NGO and governmental activities related to greenhouse gas

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contributors
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Section A: Background
  • Chapter 1: Balancing greenhouse gas sources and sinks: Inventories, budgets, and climate policy
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgment
  • 1: The human perturbation of the carbon cycle and other biogeochemical cycles
  • 2: Inventories of anthropogenic GHG: The foundation of the Kyoto protocol and the Paris agreement
  • 3: GHG budgets: Constraining GHG sources and sinks
  • 4: Supporting the global stocktake and the net-zero emissions policy goals
  • 5: A new generation of technologies and observations to constrain global and regional GHG budgets
  • 6: Extending the carbon budget and accounting frameworks to meet broader policy information needs
  • References
  • Section B: Methods
  • Chapter 2: CO2 emissions from energy systems and industrial processes: Inventories from data- and proxy-driven approaches
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Overview of inventory approaches
  • 3: Uncertainty
  • 4: Examples of emission estimates and products
  • 5: Summary
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Chapter 3: Bottom-up approaches for estimating terrestrial GHG budgets: Bookkeeping, process-based modeling, and data-driven methods
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction to bottom-up (BU) approaches
  • 2: Bottom-up methodologies
  • 3: Relevance to Stock-Change and flux-based accounting
  • 4: Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 4: Top-down approaches
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Measurements of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere
  • 3: Atmospheric modeling
  • 4: Inversion concepts
  • 5: Application to land biosphere CO2 fluxes (NEE)
  • 6: Application to fossil fuel emissions of CO2
  • 7: Application to CH4 fluxes
  • 8: Application to other GHG fluxes
  • 9: Sources of error
  • 10: Validation of flux estimates from inversions
  • 11: Summary and conclusions
  • References
  • Section C: Case Studies
  • Chapter 5: Current knowledge and uncertainties associated with the Arctic greenhouse gas budget
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1: Introduction and background: Arctic ecosystems
  • 2: Methodologies
  • 3: Uncertainty and reducing uncertainty
  • 4: Perspective and future opportunities
  • References
  • Chapter 6: Boreal forests
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1: Carbon in boreal forests
  • 2: Estimating carbon stocks and fluxes in boreal forests
  • 3: Carbon accounting in boreal forests
  • 4: Regional-scale modeling
  • 5: Synthesis
  • References
  • Chapter 7: State of science in carbon budget assessments for temperate forests and grasslands
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction and background
  • 2: Methodologies for flux estimations in temperate regions
  • 3: Review of the carbon budget of temperate forests and grasslands
  • 4: Uncertainties in carbon fluxes
  • 5: Perspective and future opportunities for policy decision-making
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Tropical ecosystem greenhouse gas accounting
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1: Introduction and background: Tropical ecosystems
  • 2: GHG budget in the tropics
  • 3: Uncertainty and reducing uncertainty
  • 4: Perspective and future opportunities
  • References
  • Chapter 9: Semiarid ecosystems
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgment
  • 1: Introduction and background: Global drylands and semiarid ecosystems
  • 2: Methodologies
  • 3: Future perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 10: Urban environments and trans-boundary linkages
  • Abstract
  • 1: From science to policy for urban carbon accounting
  • 2: Four carbon accounting approaches for individual cities
  • 3: Accounting biogenic carbon from land use and land-use change in individual cities
  • 4: From individual cities to initiatives for all urban areas’ carbon accounting
  • References
  • Chapter 11: Agricultural systems
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Carbon stocks, flows, and emissions in agricultural systems
  • 3: Methodologies
  • 4: Improving regional GHG inventories for agriculture
  • 5: Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 12: Greenhouse gas balances in coastal ecosystems: Current challenges in “blue carbon” estimation and significance to national greenhouse gas inventories
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1: Background
  • 2: What limits traditional AFOLU estimation approaches in coastal ecosystems?
  • 3: IPCC guidelines for national-scale estimation of coastal wetland carbon
  • 4: Improving application of the IPCC NGGI guidelines in the United States
  • 5: Implications for the scale of GHG estimation
  • 6: Implications for carbon cycle science on coastlines
  • 7: Final thoughts
  • References
  • Chapter 13: Ocean systems
  • Abstract
  • 1: Summary
  • 2: The ocean as a sink/source of GHGs to the atmosphere
  • 3: Preindustrial (or natural) carbon budget based on inverse estimates
  • 4: Anthropogenic perturbations and the contemporary global carbon sink
  • 5: Regional marine carbon sink
  • 6: Storage of anthropogenic carbon
  • 7: Variability of the ocean GHG uptake
  • 8: Future outlook
  • References
  • Section D: Forward Looking
  • Chapter 14: Applications of top-down methods to anthropogenic GHG emission estimation
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction
  • 2: Using inverse estimates of non-CO2 GHG emissions in national reporting
  • 3: Methane emissions detection at facility and basin scale
  • 4: Large point source emission monitoring using satellite observations
  • 5: Precision and sampling requirements for future satellite observations
  • 6: Developing global high-resolution transport modeling capability for analysis of the satellite and ground-based observations of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission
  • 7: Developing high-resolution emission inventories for inverse modeling
  • 8: Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 15: Earth system perspective
  • Abstract
  • 1: Introduction and background: What is an earth system model?
  • 2: Carbon cycle modeling in the context of earth system models
  • 3: Data assimilation in earth system models
  • 4: Future direction for carbon cycle science, earth system modeling, and DA applications
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 530
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2022
  • Published: May 5, 2022
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128149539
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128149522

About the Editors

Benjamin Poulter

Dr Ben Poulter is a Research Scientist in the Earth Sciences Division at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. He is an expert in using remote sensing and dynamic global vegetation models to quantify and monitor terrestrial ecosystem carbon stocks and the fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane. He has contributed to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Reports (AR5 and AR6), the United States State of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR-2), and has published numerous manuscripts on forest and wetland dynamics in response to natural disturbances, land-use change, changing climate and rising atmospheric CO2.

Affiliations and Expertise

Biospheric Sciences Lab, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, University of Maryland College Park

Joseph Canadell

Dr Josep G. Canadell is the Executive Director of the Global Carbon Project and a chief research scientist at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization in Australia. His work focuses on collaborative and integrative research to study the human perturbation of the carbon cycle and the global budgets of carbon, methane and nitrous oxide. Additional interest is on assessing the size and vulnerability of earth’s carbon pools and pathways to decarbonization. He has contributed to the last three Assessment Reports of the IPCC and publishes in the field of global ecology and earth system sciences.

Affiliations and Expertise

Executive Director of the Global Carbon Project and Senior Principal Research Scientist CSIRO

Daniel Hayes

Dr Dan Hayes is Associate Professor in the School of Forest Resources at the University of Maine. He teaches, does research and performs outreach on the use of remote sensing for forest inventory and ecosystem studies. He studies the role of climate change and disturbance in the dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems, with a focus on Arctic and Boreal regions. He has contributed to various regional, continental and global carbon budget modeling and synthesis efforts and publishes on the methods and results of multi-disciplinary, ecosystem-scale scientific investigations.

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Professor, Forest Resources, University of Maine

Rona Thompson

Dr Rona Thompson is a senior research scientist at the Norwegian Institute for Air Research. Her research focuses on the modelling of atmospheric transport and composition, especially greenhouse gases, and improving knowledge of the sources and sinks of various atmospheric species using statistical optimization methods. She was a contributing author to the last two Assessment Reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and has published numerous articles on the emissions and atmospheric transport of greenhouse gases.

Affiliations and Expertise

Research Scientist, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, CICERO

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