Avian Immunology - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780123969651, 9780123972729

Avian Immunology

2nd Edition

Editors: Karel Schat Bernd Kaspers Pete Kaiser
eBook ISBN: 9780123972729
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123969651
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 31st July 2013
Page Count: 456
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The second edition of Avian Immunology provides an up-to-date overview of the current knowledge of avian immunology. From the ontogeny of the avian immune system to practical application in vaccinology, the book encompasses all aspects of innate and adaptive immunity in chickens. In addition, chapters are devoted to the immunology of other commercially important species such as turkeys and ducks, and to ecoimmunology summarizing the knowledge of immune responses in free-living birds often in relation to reproductive success.

The book contains a detailed description of the avian innate immune system, encompassing the mucosal, enteric, respiratory and reproductive systems. The diseases and disorders it covers include immunodepressive diseases and immune evasion, autoimmune diseases, and tumors of the immune system. Practical aspects of vaccination are examined as well. Extensive appendices summarize resources for scientists including cell lines, inbred chicken lines, cytokines, chemokines, and monoclonal antibodies.

The world-wide importance of poultry protein for the human diet, as well  as the threat of avian influenza pandemics like H5N1 and heavy reliance on vaccination to protect commercial flocks makes this book a vital resource. This book provides crucial information not only for poultry health professionals and avian biologists, but also for comparative and veterinary immunologists, graduate students and veterinary students with an interest in avian immunology.

Key Features

  • With contributions from 33 of the foremost international experts in the field, this book provides the most up-to-date review of avian immunology so far
  • Contains a detailed description of the avian innate immune system reviewing constitutive barriers, chemical and cellular responses; it includes a comprehensive review of avian Toll-like receptors
  • Contains a wide-ranging review of the "ecoimmunology" of free-living avian species, as applied to studies of population dynamics, and reviews methods and resources available for carrying out such research


Immunologists, cell biologists, pathologists, poultry scientists, vaccinologists and veterinarians. Also zoologists, ecologists, ornithologists and evolutionary biologists interested in using immunological parameters as selection traits for studies on survival and evolution

Table of Contents




List of Contributors

Chapter 1. The Importance of the Avian Immune System and its Unique Features

1.1 Introduction

1.2 The Contribution of Avian Lymphocytes

1.3 The Contribution of the Bursa of Fabricius

1.4 The Contribution of the Chicken MHC

1.5 The Contributions to Vaccinology

1.6 Conclusions


Chapter 2. Structure of the Avian Lymphoid System

2.1 Introduction

2.2 The Thymus

2.3 The Bursa of Fabricius

2.4 Germinal Center of the Peripheral Lymphoid Organs

2.5 The Spleen

2.6 Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue

2.7 Harderian and Conjuctiva-Associated Lymphoid Tissue

2.8 Mural Lymph Node

2.9 Ectopic Lymphatic Tissue and Pineal Gland

2.10 Bone Marrow

2.11 Blood


Chapter 3. Development of the Avian Immune System

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Origins and Migration Routes of Hematopoietic Cells Using Quail–Chick Complementary Chimeras

3.3 Aortic Clusters as the Intra-Embryonic Source of Definitive Hematopoiesis

3.4 Formation of the Aorta: A Dorsal Angioblastic Lineage and a Ventral Hemangioblastic Lineage

3.5 The Avian Thymus and T Cell Development

3.6 The Bursa of Fabricius, B-Cell Ontogeny and Immunoglobulins

3.7 Lymphocyte-Differentiating Hormones

3.8 Development of the Immune Responses

3.9 Conclusions



Chapter 4. B Cells, the Bursa of Fabricius and the Generation of Antibody Repertoires

4.1 Introduction

4.2 The Generation of Avian Antibody Repertoires

4.3 The Development of Avian B Cells


Chapter 5. Avian T Cells: Antigen Recognition and Lineages

5.1 Introduction

5.2 TCR Structure and Lineages

5.3 CD3 Signaling Complex

5.4 CD4 and CD8

5.5 Co-Stimulatory Molecules

5.6 T Cell Lineages

5.7 Perspectives


Chapter 6. Structure and Evolution of Avian Immunoglobulins

6.1 The Basic Structure of Immunoglobulins

6.2 Avian Immunoglobulins

6.3 Ig Half-Life

6.4 Natural Antibodies

6.5 Maternal Antibodies

6.6 Fc Receptors

6.7 Avian Antibody Responses

6.8 The Chicken Egg as a Source of Antibodies

6.9 Avian Antibodies as Tools for Research


Chapter 7. Innate Immune Responses

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Constitutive Barriers

7.3 Cells of the Innate Immune System

7.4 Pattern Recognition Receptors


Chapter 8. The Avian MHC

8.1 Introduction

8.2 The Classical Chicken MHC is Small, Simple and Rearranged

8.3 The Classical Chicken MHC Encodes Single Dominantly Expressed Classical Class I and II Molecules

8.4 The Properties of Single Dominantly Expressed Class I and II Molecules Can Explain Responses to Pathogens and Vaccines

8.5 The Presence of a Single Dominantly Expressed Class I Molecule is Due To Co-Evolution with Tap and Tapasin

8.6 The Chicken MHC Provides Insights into the Primordial MHC and the Subsequent Evolution of the MHC


Chapter 9. Avian Antigen-Presenting Cells

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Avian Myeloid Cell Lines

9.3 Functional Properties of Chicken DCs

9.4 Migration

9.5 Concluding Remarks


Chapter 10. Avian Cytokines and Chemokines

10.1 Definitions

10.2 Description of Avian Cytokine and Chemokine Families

10.3 The Interleukins

10.4 The Interferons

10.5 The Transforming Growth Factor-β Family

10.6 Chemokines

10.7 Receptors

10.8 Available Reagents

10.9 Regulation of Cytokine Responses

10.10 Viral Proteins that Block Cytokine Action

10.11 Potential Use of Cytokines as Vaccine Adjuvants

10.12 Improved Vaccines Based on Viral Mutants Lacking Cytokine Antagonists


Chapter 11. Immunogenetics and the Mapping of Immunological Functions

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Selecting for Immunological Traits in the Chicken

11.3 Key Gene Loci for Immunological Traits

11.4 Statistical Approaches to Detect QTL

11.5 Statistical Procedures for QTL Detection

11.6 Strategies for the Use of Molecular Data in Selection

11.7 Systems Biology

11.8 Transgenic Animals

11.9 Future Directions for Systems Biology in Avian Immunology



Chapter 12. The Mucosal Immune System

12.1 Mucosal Immune System


Chapter 13. The Avian Enteric Immune System in Health and Disease

13.1 General Considerations

13.2 Gut Structure and Immune Compartments

13.3 Development of the Enteric Immune System

13.4 Viral Infections of the Gut

13.5 Bacterial Infections of the Gut

13.6 Parasitic Infections of the GUT

13.7 Concluding Remarks



Chapter 14. The Avian Respiratory Immune System

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Anatomy of the Respiratory Tract

14.3 The Paraocular Lymphoid Tissue

14.4 Nasal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue

14.5 The Contribution of the Trachea to Respiratory Tract Immune Responses

14.6 The Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue

14.7 The Immune System in the Gas Exchange Area

14.8 The Phagocytic System of the Respiratory Tract

14.9 Handling of Particles in the Respiratory Tract

14.10 The Secretory IgA System in the Respiratory Tract

14.11 Gene Expression Analysis as a Tool to Investigate Host–Pathogen Interactions


Chapter 15. The Avian Reproductive Immune System

15.1 Introduction

15.2 The Structure and Function of the Avian Reproductive Tract

15.3 Structure and Development of the Reproductive Tract-Associated Immune System in the Chicken

15.4 The Reproductive Tract Immune System and Infection

15.5 What do we Need to Know? Directions for Future Research


Chapter 16. Avian Immunosuppressive Diseases and Immunoevasion

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Immunosuppression

16.3 Mechanisms of Immunosuppression

16.4 Immunoevasion

16.5 Conclusions


Chapter 17. Factors Modulating the Avian Immune System

17.1 Endocrine Regulation of Immunity

17.2 Physiological States

17.3 Dietary Effects on Immunity

17.4 Assessment


Chapter 18. Autoimmune Diseases of Poultry

18.1 General Characteristics of Autoimmune Diseases

18.2 Autoimmune Vitiligo in Smyth-Line Chickens

18.3 Spontaneous Autoimmune (Hashimoto’s) Thyroiditis in Obese-Strain Chickens

18.4 Scleroderma in UCD 200/206 Chickens



Chapter 19. Tumors of the Avian Immune System

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Tumors of the Immune System

19.3 Oncogenic Mechanisms of Tumor Viruses

19.4 Immune Responses to Oncogenic Viruses

19.5 Anti-Tumor Responses

19.6 Conclusion


Chapter 20. Practical Aspects of Poultry Vaccination

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Immunology of Vaccination

20.3 Immune Response Polarization

20.4 Chicken Vaccine Adjuvants

20.5 Stimulating Memory and Longevity of Immune Responses

20.6 Development of the Neonatal Immune System

20.7 Maternal Antibodies

20.8 In ovo Vaccination



Chapter 21. Comparative Immunology of Agricultural Birds

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Innate Immunity

21.3 Cytokines

21.4 Chemokines

21.5 Cell Surface Antigens

21.6 Surface Immunoglobulin

21.7 Major Histocompatibility Complex

21.8 Secreted Antibodies

21.9 Cell Lines



Chapter 22. Ecoimmunology

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Assays to Assess Immune Function in Free-Living Birds

22.3 The Major Histocompatibility Complex

22.4 Development of the Immune System in Free-Living Birds

22.5 Factors Causing Variation in Immune Responses

22.6 Immune Function as a Life History Trait

22.7 Immune Function in an Evolutionary Context

22.8 Priorities for Future Research



Appendix A. Genetic Stocks for Immunological Research

A.1 Introduction

A.2 Major Histocompatibility Complex Lines

A.3 Notes on the Tables



Appendix B. Resources for Studying Avian Immunology

B.1 Introduction





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About the Editor

Karel Schat

Professor Emeritus K.A. (Ton) Schat received his veterinary degree from the University of Utrecht, The Netherlands in 1970 and his PhD degree in Virology from Cornell University, Ithaca, NY in 1978. He joined the faculty at the College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University in 1978, where he remained until his retirement in 2011. His research focused on the immunology and pathogenesis of viral diseases of poultry, especially Marek’s disease and chicken infectious anemia. He has published over 165 papers in peer-reviewed journals and more than 30 book chapters. His contributions to avian disease research were recognized with the Upjohn Achievement Award of the AAAP in1986, the Dr. Bart Rispens Research Award of the WVPA in 1987, the Pfizer Award for Excellence in Poultry Research of the AVMA in 1999, and the Merck Award for Achievement in Poultry Science of the PSA in 2005. In 2010 he was recognized by his peers with a special award for outstanding research in the field of Marek’s disease. He is a founding member of the Hall of Honour of the World Veterinary Poultry Association.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA

Bernd Kaspers

Bernd Kaspers graduated as a veterinarian in 1986 at the University of Munich and completed his doctoral thesis (Doctor of Veterinary Medicine) in 1989. He subsequently worked as a post-doc at the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Livestock and Poultry Sciences Institute, Beltsville, MD, USA and returned to the University of Munich in 1992 where he became a full Professor for Animal Physiology in 1997.

Since his dissertation he has focused on avian immuno-physiology investigating B-lymphocyte biology, cytokines and the mucosal immune system in chickens. This work included studies on a range of infection models such as avian coccidiosis, avian influenza, Marek’s Disease and Salmonella infections. His research is documented in more than 85 publications in peer-reviewed journals, several reviews and book chapters.

His work is funded by grants from the German Research Foundation, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, the European Union and through several co-operations with the poultry and vaccine industry.

Bernd Kaspers is member of the German Society for Immunology and as such has been speaker of the Veterinary Immunology Study Group of the society for the last 6 years. In 2004 he hosted together with Thomas Goebel the 8th Avian Immunology Research Group Meeting in Munich with more than 120 participants.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Munich, Germany

Pete Kaiser

Professor Pete Kaiser is Head of the Division of Infection and Immunity and Chair in Animal Infectious Diseases at The Roslin Institute & R(D)SVS, University of Edinburgh. He is also Head of the newly established National Avian Research Facility at Roslin.

He has published over 130 primary research papers and holds 3 patents, primarily in avian immunology and genetics, and is currently supported by grants from the BBSRC, EU, industry and charities. He has won competitive funding totalling over £5M since joining The Roslin Institute in 2010. He holds visiting appointments at the Universities of Queensland and Liverpool and is on the Editorial Boards of 6 journals. He is a trustee of the Houghton Trust and serves on several BBSRC working and advisory groups. In 2009 he was awarded the Houghton Lecture at the World Veterinary Poultry Association meeting in Morocco. Industrial collaborators include Zoetis Animal Health, CEVA Sante Animale, HyLine, Cobb-Vantress and Aviagen.

Affiliations and Expertise

The Roslin Institute & R(D)SVS, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian EH25 9RG, UK


"This book provides foundational and more advanced knowledge on avian immunology… Appendices provide resources for researchers including genetic stocks and monoclonal antibodies and cytokines. This book is a very useful tool for anyone interested in conducting research on the topic or as an advanced introduction to avian immunology." --BTO.org, January-February 2014

"This book is an introduction to the field, beginning with an overview of avian immune system, its unique features and its importance to business and research. Further chapters focus on specific details of avian immune system…Extensive lists of genetic stocks for immunological research and further study resources make this book both a foundational reference and a stepping stone towards more advanced research subjects." --ProtoView.com, January 2014

"This book would serve as reference that all can resort to for old and new information. This field lacks such a resource and I personally have used the first version extensively whether as refresher or to acquire new knowledge. Much of the classical discoveries in this area are not readily available to the public and this book will afford access to such information. The appendices are especially helpful as many scientists are not aware of the resources available." --Dr. Rami A. Dalloul, Associate Professor, Dept. of Animal & Poultry Sciences, Virginia Tech, USA