Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124055292, 9780124055346

Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection, and Aging

1st Edition

Volume 3 - Role in Specific Diseases

Editors: M. Hayat
eBook ISBN: 9780124055346
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124055292
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 31st January 2014
Page Count: 432
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Description

Understanding the importance and necessity of the role of autophagy in health and disease is vital for the studies of cancer, aging, neurodegeneration, immunology, and infectious diseases. Comprehensive and up-to-date, this book offers a valuable guide to these cellular processes whilst encouraging researchers to explore their potentially important connections.


Volume 3 explores the role of autophagy in specific diseases and developments, including: Crohn’s Disease, Gaucher Disease, Huntington’s Disease, HCV infection, osteoarthritis, and liver injury. A full section is devoted to in-depth exploration of autophagy in tumor development and cancer. Finally, the work explores the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis, with attention to the ways in which autophagy regulates apoptosis, and the ways in which autophagy has been explored in Lepidoptera, elucidating the use of larval midgut as a model for such exploration.  From these well-developed foundations, researchers, translational scientists, and practitioners may work to better implement more effective therapies against some of the most devastating human diseases.

 

Volumes in the Series

Volume 1: Molecular Mechanisms. Elucidates autophagy’s association with numerous biological processes, including cellular development and differentiation, cancer, immunity, infectious diseases, inflammation, maintenance of homeostasis, response to cellular stress, and degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson's, Huntington's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and prion diseases.
Volume 2: Role in General Diseases. Describes the various aspects of the complex process of autophagy in a myriad of devastating human diseases, expanding from a discussion of essential autophagic functions into the role of autophagy in proteins, pathogens, immunity, and general diseases. 
Volume 3: Role in Specific Diseases. Explores the role of autophagy in specific diseases and developments, including: Crohn’s Disease, Gaucher Disease, Huntington’s Disease, HCV infection, osteoarthritis, and liver injury, with a full section devoted to in-depth exploration of autophagy in tumor development and cancer, as well as the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis.
Volume 4: Mitophagy. Presents detailed information on the role of mitophagy, the selective autophagy of mitochondria, in health and disease, by delivering an in-depth treatment of the molecular mechanisms involved in mitophagy initiation and execution, as well as the role of mitophagy in Parkinson Disease, cardiac aging, and skeletal muscle atrophy.
Volume 5: Role in Human Diseases. Comprehensively describes the role of autophagy in human diseases, delivering coverage of the antitumor and protumor roles of autophagy; the therapeutic inhibition of autophagy in cancer; and the duality of autophagy’s effects in various cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disorders.
Volume 6: Regulation of Autophagy and Selective Autophagy. Provides coverage of the mechanisms of regulation of autophagy; intracellular pathogen use of the autophagy mechanism; the role of autophagy in host immunity; and selective autophagy.
Volume 7: Role of Autophagy in Therapeutic Applications. Provides coverage of the latest developments in autophagosome biogenesis and regulation; the role of autophagy in protein quality control; the role of autophagy in apoptosis; autophagy in the cardiovascular system; and the relationships between autophagy and lifestyle. 
Volume 8: Autophagy and Human Diseases. Reviews recent advancements in the molecular mechanisms underlying a large number of genetic and epigenetic diseases and abnormalities, and introduces new, more effective therapeutic strategies, in the development of targeted drugs and programmed cell death, providing information that will aid on preventing detrimental inflammation.
Volume 9: Necrosis and Inflammation in Human Diseases. Emphasizes the role of Autophagy in necrosis and inflammation, explaining in detail the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the formation of autophagosomes, including the progression of Omegasomes to autophagosomes.

Key Features

  • Brings together oncologists, neurosurgeons, physicians, research scientists, and pathologists in the field of autophagy to discuss cutting-edge developments in this rapidly-advancing field
  • Builds upon recent advances in genome-scale approaches and computational tools to discuss the advances in regulation of autophagy at the systems level
  • Organized for readers into easy-to-access sections: molecular mechanisms; role of autophagy in disease; role of autophagy in cancer; and autophagy and apoptosis
  • Explores exciting new developments, including the measurement of autophagic flux; the molecular role of the Atg12-Atg5-Atg16 complex; and the molecular bases of autophagosome formation in yeast

Table of Contents

Dedication

Preface

Contributors

Abbreviations and Glossary

Autophagy: Volume 1–Contributions

Autophagy: Volume 2–Contributions

List of Contributions Projected in Volume 4

Chapter 1. Introduction to Autophagy: Cancer, Other Pathologies, Inflammation, Immunity, Infection and Aging, Volumes 1–4

Introduction

Specific Functions of Autophagy (A Summary)

Autophagy in Normal Mammalian Cells

Major Types of Autophagies

Selective Autophagies

Autophagosome Formation

Autophagic Lysosome Reformation

Autophagic Proteins

Monitoring Autophagy

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)

Mammalian Target of Rapamycin

Role of Autophagy in Tumorigenesis and Cancer

Role of Autophagy in Immunity

Role of Autophagy in Viral Defense and Replication

Role of Autophagy in Intracellular Bacterial Infection

Role of Autophagy in Heart Disease

Role of Autophagy in Neurodegenerative Diseases

Cross-Talk between Autophagy and Apoptosis

Autophagy and Ubiquitination

Autophagy and Necroptosis

Pexophagy

Mitophagy

Mitochondrial Fusion and Fission

References

Part I: Molecular Mechanisms

Chapter 2. Autophagic Flux, Fusion Dynamics, and Cell Death

Introduction

The Current Conception of Autophagic Flux and its Measurement

Putting a Number to Autophagic Flux

What is not Autophagic Flux: Pitfalls and Cautions

Flux, Fusion, and Trafficking Determine Autophagic Function

Fusion Affects Autophagic Flux

Trafficking Affects Autophagic Flux

Physics Modeling of Autophagy

Tuning Autophagic Flux: Driving Cellular Fate

Future Outlook

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 3. Architecture of the Atg12–Atg5–Atg16 Complex and its Molecular Role in Autophagy

Introduction

Structure of Atg5

Structure of Atg16

Atg5–Atg16 Interaction and its Significance in Autophagy

Structure of the Atg12–Atg5 Conjugate and its Interaction with Atg3

Molecular Role of the Atg12–Atg5–Atg16 Complex in Autophagy

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 4. The Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Autophagosome Formation in Yeast

Introduction

Hierarchical Assembly of Atg Proteins

Atg1 Kinase and its Regulators

Atg9 Exists on Unique Vesicles Essential for Autophagy

The Atg14-Containing PI3K Complex is Involved in Autophagosome Formation

The Atg2–Atg18 Complex

Two Ubiquitin-Like Conjugation Systems

Fine Mapping of the Atg Proteins on the Isolation Membrane

Concluding Remarks

References

Part II: Role of Autophagy in Disease

Chapter 5. Role of Autophagy in Cell Survival in Liver Injury

Introduction

Clearance of Intracellular Protein Aggregates

Lipid Metabolism

Viral Infection

Liver Tumorigenesis

Drug-Induced Liver Injury

Conclusion and Closing Remarks

References

Chapter 6. Polymorphisms in Autophagy-Related Genes in Crohn’s Disease: Impact on Intracellular Bacteria Persistence and Inflammatory Response

Introduction

Host Genetic Susceptibility to IBD

Microbial Trigger in CD Etiology

CD-Associated Risk Polymorphisms in Autophagy-Related Genes

Handling of CD-Associated Bacteria by Autophagy

Deregulation of IRGM-Dependent Xenophagy in CD

CD-Associated Mutation Thr300Ala in ATG16L1 Impairs Xenophagy and Antimicrobial Response

Impaired Autophagy Activation in Cells Expressing CD-Associated NOD2 L1007fsinsC Mutation

IRGM-, ATG16L1-, and NOD2-Associated Defective Autophagy Leads to Dysregulated Inflammatory Response

Conclusion

References

Chapter 7. Functional Relevance of Autophagins in Life and Disease

Introduction

The Atg8 Conjugation System: Role of the Cysteine Proteinase ATG4

Autophagins: The Mammalian Orthologues of Atg4

Autophagins in Life and Disease

Conclusions and Perspectives

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 8. Strategies to Block Autophagy in Tumor Cells

Introduction

Strategies to Block Autophagy

Conclusions and Future Perspectives

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 9. Autophagic Dysfunction in Gaucher Disease and its Rescue by Cathepsin B and D Proteases

Introduction

Saposin C Deficiency: A Lysosomal Storage Disorder

Autophagic Dysfunction in Saposin C-Deficient Fibroblasts

Discussion

References

Chapter 10. Cargo Recognition Failure Underlies Macroautophagy Defects in Huntington’s Disease

Introduction

Protein Degradation in Huntington’s Disease

Inefficient Autophagic Elimination of Cytosolic Components Associated with HD

Therapeutic Strategies for HD Targeting Autophagy

References

Chapter 11. Hepatitis C Virus Infection, Autophagy, and Innate Immune Response

Introduction

Autophagy in HCV Infection

Innate Immune Response in HCV Infection

Pathogen Recognition Receptor Mediated-Signaling in HCV Infection

HCV-Induced Autophagy and Innate Immunity

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 12. Geranylgeranoic Acid Induces Incomplete Autophagy but Leads to the Accumulation of Autophagosomes in Human Hepatoma Cells

Introduction

Induction of Autophagy By GGA

Impairment of Autolysosome Formation

Discussion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 13. Defense Against Proteotoxic Stress in the Heart: Role of p62, Autophagy, and Ubiquitin–Proteasome System

Introduction into Protein Quality Control

PQC Insufficiency: A Common Feature of Cardiac Disorders

Insufficient UPS Function Contributes to Cardiac Disorders

Autophagy Protects the Heart Against Proteotoxic Stress

The Role of P62 in Cardiac PQC

Coordination of the UPS and Autophagy

Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 14. Elimination of Intracellular Bacteria by Autophagy

Introduction

Ubiquitin-Dependent Induction

Bacterial Sensor-Dependent Induction

Damaged Vacuole Sensing-Dependent Induction

Escape from Autophagy

Concluding Remarks and Perspective

References

Chapter 15. Protein Phosphatase 2A Has Positive and Negative Roles in Autophagy

Introduction

Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A)

PP2A: A Multifaceted Player in Autophagy

PP2A, Autophagy, and Disease

Discussion

Acknowledgments

References

Part III: Role of Autophagy in Cancer

Chapter 16. Erufosine Induces Autophagy and Apoptosis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Role of the Akt–mTOR Signaling Pathway

Introduction

Oral Cancer

Akt–mTOR Signaling Pathway

Alkylphosphocholines

Discussion

References

Chapter 17. Emerging Role of Hypoxia-Induced Autophagy in Cancer Immunotherapy

Introduction

Role of Hypoxia in Tumor Response to Immune Cells

Autophagy Modulates the Antitumor Immune Response Under Hypoxia

Perspectives for Improving the Antitumor Immune Response

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 18. Involvement of Autophagy and Apoptosis in Studies of Anticancer Drugs

Introduction

Autophagy and Cancer

Apoptosis and Cancer

Autophagic and Apoptotic Drugs in Breast Cancer

Autophagic and Apoptotic Drugs in Lung Cancer

Autophagic and Apoptotic Drugs in Gastric Cancer

Autophagic and Apoptotic Drugs in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Autophagic and Apoptotic Drugs in Colorectal Cancer

Autophagic and Apoptotic Drugs in Cervical Cancer

Autophagic and Apoptotic Drugs in Esophagus Cancer

Autophagic and Apoptotic Drugs in other Cancers

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 19. Autophagy-Based Protein Biomarkers for In Vivo Detection of Cardiotoxicity in the Context of Cancer Therapy

Introduction

Cancer Chemotherapeutic Agents and Cardiotoxicity

Autophagy-Based Biomarkers to Detect Cardiotoxicity

Autophagy-Based Therapeutic Approach for Cancer Treatment and Cardioprotection

Current Gaps in Knowledge and Opportunities for Future Studies

Disclosures

References

Chapter 20. Inhibition of mTOR Pathway and Induction of Autophagy Block Lymphoma Cell Growth: Role of AMPK Activation

Introduction

Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK)

AMPK: A Therapeutic Target of Lymphoma

Acknowledgments

References

Part IV: Autophagy and Apoptosis

Chapter 21. Autophagy Regulates Osteoarthritis-Like Gene Expression Changes: Role of Apoptosis and Reactive Oxygen Species

Introduction

Autophagy in Human Articular Cartilage Tissues and Human Chondrocytes

The State of Autophagy in Normal Chondrocytes Under Catabolic Stresses

The Roles of Autophagy in the Il-1β-Induced Gene Expression Changes

The Roles of Autophagy in Apoptosis of Human Chondrocytes

Reactive Oxygen Species

Reactive Oxygen Species and Osteoarthritis

The Effect of Rapamycin on the Intracellular ROS Level in Human Chondrocytes

The Roles of Autophagy in an Experimental OA Model

Discussion

References

Chapter 22. The Key Role of Autophagy and its Relationship with Apoptosis in Lepidopteran Larval Midgut Remodeling

Introduction

Autophagy and Apoptosis in Lepidoptera

The Midgut of Lepidoptera

Conclusions and Future Perspectives

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 23. Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 Regulates both Autophagy and Apoptosis in Splenocytes during Sepsis

Introduction

Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 (IRF-1)

Immune Cell Apoptosis in Sepsis

Immune Cell Autophagy in Sepsis

Conclusion

References

Chapter 24. The Interplay between Autophagy and Apoptosis

Introduction

Dual-Function Proteins Regulate Autophagy and Apoptosis

Cleavage of Atg Proteins by Caspases and Calpains

Degradation of Apoptosis-Related Proteins by Autophagy

Discussion

Acknowledgments

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
432
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780124055346
Hardcover ISBN:
9780124055292

About the Editor

M. Hayat

Dr. Hayat has published extensively in the fields of microscopy, cytology, immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, and antigen retrieval methods. He is Distinguished Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, Kean University, Union, New Jersey, USA.

Affiliations and Expertise

Distinguished Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, Kean University, Union, NJ, USA