Automation and Control in Transport

Automation and Control in Transport

1st Edition - January 1, 1973

Write a review

  • Author: F. T. Barwell
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483163796

Purchase options

Purchase options
DRM-free (PDF)
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order

Description

Automation and Control in Transport reviews the significant advances in transport automation and control. All the present and future foreseeable modes of transport, particularly railways, are treated mathematically. Topics range from dynamic systems to route capacity, vehicle spacing, traffic congestion and regulation, and traffic surveillance and control. Vehicle detection and identification, sorting and marshalling, control of acceleration and power, steering, and control of braking are also given consideration. This volume consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion of the dynamic behavior of a system (that is, how it responds to changing situations) from the point of view of control engineering. Open-loop systems, closed-loop systems, and the use of a phase-plane diagram to represent the response of a control system are described. The chapters that follow focus on the capacity of a transport system based on the laws for vehicle following, signaling as a means of controlling vehicle spacing in railways, and traffic regulation to address problems of congestion. The reader is also introduced to the use of computers to aid in traffic surveillance and control, means for detecting and identifying the presence of a vehicle, and communication of control signals to moving vehicles. The book concludes by assessing future prospects for transport automation and control. This book will be of interest to traffic engineers as well as students and practitioners of mechanical engineering.

Table of Contents


  • Foreword

    Preface

    Notation

    1. Dynamic Systems

    1.1 System Concepts

    1.2 Open-Loop Systems

    1.3 "Feedback"—Closed-Loop Systems

    1.4 The Phase-Plane Diagram

    2. Route Capacity—Laws for Vehicle Following

    2.1 Lane Capacity

    2.2 Car-Following Theory

    2.3 Automatic Vehicle Systems

    3. Control of Vehicle Spacing—Railway Signaling

    3.1 Necessity for Signaling on Railways

    3.2 The "Train-Order" System

    3.3 The "Block" System

    3.4 Lock and Block

    3.5 Multiple-Aspect Signaling

    4. Problems of Congestion—Traffic Regulation

    4.1 Random Events

    4.2 Queues—Poisson Arrivals—Constant Service Times

    4.3 Exponential Service Times

    4.4 Effect of Delays on Headway of Signaled Systems

    4.5 Statistical Aspects of Car-Following Behavior

    4.6 Traffic Waves

    5. Computer Aids to Operation—Traffic Surveillance and Control

    5.1 Application of Digital Computers

    5.2 Continuous Progress Control (C.P.C.), Dynamic Programming

    5.3 Optimum Train Sequence

    5.4 Traffic Surveillance and Control

    5.5 Control of Cascaded Vehicles

    5.6 System Flow Charts

    5.7 Train Describers

    6. Measurement of Power—Analogue Computing

    6.1 Mechanical Manipulation of Data

    6.2 Equivalent Mechanical and Electrical Quantities

    6.3 Potential and Flow

    6.4 Operational Amplifiers

    6.5 Vehicle Suspension Analogy

    6.6 Application to Strings of Vehicles

    6.7 Hybrid Computers

    6.8 Simulation of Service Environment

    7. Vehicle Detection

    7.1 Presence Detectors

    7.2 Track Circuits

    7.3 Jointless Track Circuits

    7.4 Guided Radar

    8. Vehicle Identification

    8.1 The "Identra" System

    8.2 Bus Electronic Scanning Indicator

    8.3 Automatic Wagon-Recording System

    9. Communication of Control Signals to Moving Vehicles

    9.1 Automatic Warning Systems—Cab Signaling

    9.2 The "Indusi" System

    9.3 The "Signum" System

    9.4 Beacon devices

    9.5 Coded Track Circuit

    9.6 Professor Poupe's System of Coded Track Circuits

    9.7 Use of Continuous Conductors in the Track

    9.8 Combination of Magnetic and Inductive Loop Systems

    10. Interlocking—Sequence Control

    10.1 Mechanical Interlocking

    10.2 Boolean Algebra

    11. Sorting and Marshalling

    11.1 The Hump Yard

    11.2 Automatic Retarders

    11.3 Dowty Retarders

    12 Control of Acceleration and Power

    12.1 Limitations

    12.2 Equations of Motion

    12.3 Values of Resistance Coefficient

    12.4 Estimation of Distance-Time Relationships

    12.5 Coasting

    12.6 Control of Engine Speed

    12.7 Automatic Transmissions

    12.8 Control of Electric Motive Power

    12.9 Use of Transductors in Power Control

    12.10 Application of Induction Motors

    12.11 Wheel-Slip Control

    12.12 Control of Diesel Power

    12.13 Adaptive Control

    12.14 Shock Factors in Acceleration

    13. Control of Braking

    13.1 Forms of Braking

    13.2 Physiological Aspects

    13.3 Control of Slip (Slow up)

    13.4 "On-Tread" Braking

    13.5 "Off-Tread" Braking

    13.6 Servo Actuation

    13.7 The Compressed-Air Brake

    13.8 The Electro-Pneumatic (E.P.) Brake

    13.9 The Vacuum Brake

    14. Steering—Directional Stability

    14.1 Steering

    14.2 Directional Stability

    14.3 Hertzian Contact

    14.4 Running of Coned Wheels

    14.5 Inscription within Sharp Curves—Steering by Flanges

    14.6 Oscillation of Bogies

    14.7 Motion on Curves at Speed

    14.8 Effect of Oscillation on Passengers

    15. Automatic Railways

    15.1 General Principles

    15.2 Analysis of Human Contribution under the Present System

    15.3 Possible Systems for Intensively Used Passenger Lines

    15.4 Existing Installations

    15.5 Systems for High-Speed Working

    16. Possibilities for the Future

    16.1 The Need for Development of New Transport Modes

    16.2 Possible Improvements in Control on the Highway

    16.3 High Capacity Systems—Effect of Station Stops

    16.4 Mono- and Duorails

    16.5 Transit Expressways

    16.6 Steerable Wheels

    16.7 Blake System

    16.8 Air-Cushion Support

    16.9 Linear Motors

    Appendix I

    Theory of Control

    1. Equivalence of Dynamic and Active Systems

    2. Literature Available

    3. The Laplace Transform-Transfer Function

    4. Effect of Time Delay

    5. Criteria for Stability

    6. Root Locus Plots

    7. Nyquist and Bode Representation

    8. Common forms of Non-Linearity

    9. The Describing Function

    10. Inverse Nyquist or Whitely Diagram

    11. Liapunov's Second Method

    12. Random Inputs

    13. On-Line Control—Sampled Data

    Appendix II

    The S.I. Units

    1. Advantages and Use of System

    2. Conversion Factors

    Name Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 272
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1973
  • Published: January 1, 1973
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483163796

About the Author

F. T. Barwell

Ratings and Reviews

Write a review

There are currently no reviews for "Automation and Control in Transport"