Automatic Controls for Heating and Air Conditioning

Automatic Controls for Heating and Air Conditioning

Principles and Applications

1st Edition - January 1, 1981

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  • Author: K. M. Letherman
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483188621

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International Series in Heating and Ventilation, Volume 15: Automatic Controls for Heating and Air Conditioning: Principles and Applications details the relationship between theory and practice in implementing an automated system for thermal regulation. The title first deals with the sensors and methods for quantifying the two variables mainly of interest in building services systems, temperature and humidity. Next, the selection covers the application of controls to a number of specific areas of building environmental services. The text also discusses controller mechanisms and circuits, along with controller characteristics. The fifth chapter deals with basic theory of linear automatic control, while the sixth chapter talks about the analysis of non-linear systems. The book will be of great interest to engineers and technicians who deal with cooling and heating systems.

Table of Contents

  • List of Symbols

    Chapter 1 Sensors and Instrumentation

    1.1 Temperature Sensing and Instrumentation

    1.1.1 Non-electric Methods

    1.1.2 Electrical Thermometers-Thermocouples

    1.1.3 Electrical Resistance Thermometry

    1.2 Humidity

    1.2.1 Psychrometers

    1.2.2 Non-electric Humidity Sensors

    1.2.3 Electric Humidity Sensors

    Chapter 2 Applications

    2.1 Final Control Elements

    2.1.1 Pneumatic and Electric Actuators. Positioners

    2.1.2 Valves

    2.1.3 Dampers

    2.2 Domestic Heating Controls

    2.3 Boiler and Chiller Controls

    2.4 Air-conditioning Controls

    2.4.1 Zoning

    2.5 Solar Collector System Controls

    2.6 Building Automation Systems

    2.7 Plant and Room Transfer Functions

    Chapter 3 Controller Mechanisms and Circuits

    3.1 Pneumatic Control - Air Supply

    3.1.1 Continuous-bleed Proportional Controller

    3.1.2 Non-bleed Proportional Controller

    3.1.3 Three-term Pneumatic Controller

    3.2 Electric Controllers

    3.3 Electronic Control

    3.3.1 The Wheatstone Bridge as an Error Detector

    3.3.2 Electronic Proportional Controller

    3.4 Switching Thermostats and Humidistats

    3.5 Step Controllers

    3.6 Time Switches

    3.6.1 Optimum Start Controllers

    3.7 Thermostatic Radiator Valves

    Chapter 4 Controller Characteristics

    4.1 Proportional Control

    4.2 Steady-state Responses in Proportional Control

    4.3 Three-term Controllers; Proportional, Integral and Derivative Actions

    4.4 Stability Limits with Continuous Controllers

    4.5 Empirical Choice of Controller Settings

    4.6 On/off Controllers

    4.6.1 Thermostat with Zero Hysteresis, Controlling a Single Time Constant Process

    4.6.2 Thermostat with Non-zero Hysteresis

    Chapter 5 Basic Theory of Linear Automatic Control

    5.1 Introduction to Closed-loop Negative Feedback Control

    5.2 Transfer Function Description of Linear Systems

    5.3 Laplace Transforms

    5.3.1 Inverse Transformation

    5.3.2 Complex Zeros

    5.3.3 Transform Theorems

    5.4 Application of Laplace Transforms to the Analysis of a Heat Exchanger

    5.4.1 Heat Exchanger Response - without Controller

    5.4.2 Heat Exchanger Response - with Controller

    5.5 First-order Step Response

    5.5.1 Time Constants of Simple Thermometer Bulbs

    5.6 Second-order Step Response

    5.6.1 Dynamic Response of Second-order Transfer Function

    5.6.2 The Effects of Gain on Steady-state Response

    5.6.3 Second-order Step Response Performance Specifications

    5.7 Higher-order Systems and Stability

    5.8 Routh's Criterion

    5.9 Roots of Polynomial Equations

    5.9.1 Root-Locus Plots

    5.9.2 Distance-velocity Lag; Pade Approximation

    5.10 Frequency Response Plots

    5.10.1 Asymptotic Approximations in Bode Plots

    5.11 The Nyquist Criterion

    5.11.1 The Nyquist Criterion Using the Bode and Nichols Plots

    5.11.2 Phase and Gain Margins

    Chapter 6 Analysis of Non-linear Systems

    6.1 Introduction to Non-linear Control

    6.2 The Step Response Method

    6.3 The Describing Function Method

    6.3.1 Ideal Relay

    6.3.2 Relay with Hysteresis h

    6.4 Tsypkin's Method

    6.4.1 Switching Conditions

    6.4.2 Analysis of Steady Cycling

    6.4.3 Constructing the Tsypkin Locus T(ω) from the Nyquist Locus L(jω)

    6.4.4 Amplitude of the Oscillation

    6.5 Comparison of the Three Methods





Product details

  • No. of pages: 250
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1981
  • Published: January 1, 1981
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483188621

About the Author

K. M. Letherman

About the Editor

N. S. Billington

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