Autoimmune Neurology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444634320, 9780444634467

Autoimmune Neurology, Volume 133

1st Edition

Series Volume Editors: Sean Pittock Angela Vincent
eBook ISBN: 9780444634467
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444634320
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 2016
Page Count: 568
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Table of Contents

  • Handbook of Clinical Neurology 3rd Series
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • SECTION 1: Introduction
    • Chapter 1: Introduction to autoimmune neurology
      • Abstract
      • Autoimmune neurology: a new subspecialty
      • Neural antibodies resulting from the body's immune response to cancer
      • Some autoantibodies targeting intracellular antigens are not closely linked to tumors
      • Pathogenic autoantibodies
      • New associations and challenges
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
  • SECTION 2: Basic neurobiology
    • Chapter 2: Signaling molecules of the CNS as targets of autoimmunity
      • Abstract
      • Basic principles of neuronal signaling
      • Excitatory neurotransmission
      • Inhibitory neurotransmission
    • Chapter 3: The blood–brain barrier
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Characteristics of CSF and the blood–CSF barrier
      • The blood–brain barrier from an evolutionary point of view
      • Multicellular structure and function of the neurovascular unit
      • Potential roles of the BBB in autoimmune neurologic disease
      • Concluding remarks
    • Chapter 4: Overview of the immune system
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Innate mechanisms of immunity
      • Key players and their roles in adaptive immunity
      • Antigen-driven B-cell differentiation and antibody production
      • B-cell antigen encounter and BCR signaling
      • The germinal center reaction
      • Antibody isotypes
      • Overview of TH cells in peripheral B-cell maturation
      • B cells as orchestrators of immunity
      • CD4 + T cells in autoimmune disease
      • CD8 + T cells in autoimmune disease
      • The immune system gone awry, leading to autoimmune disease
      • Emerging therapeutic modalities for treatment of autoimmune disease
    • Chapter 5: Cellular, synaptic, and circuit effects of antibodies in autoimmune CNS synaptopathies
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Establishing a pathogenic role for antibodies targeting synaptic proteins
      • Cellular and synaptic mechanisms mediated by antibodies
      • Homeostatic plasticity in response to antibody-mediated decrease of receptor levels
      • In vivo effects of antireceptor antibodies on circuits and behavior: insights from animal models and patients
      • Source and brain access of autoantibodies
      • Conclusions and future directions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 6: Immunopathology: autoimmune glial diseases and differentiation from multiple sclerosis
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Neuromyelitis optica
      • Other putative autoimmune gliopathies
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 7: Neuropathology of autoimmune encephalitides
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Neuropathologic features and immune mechanisms
      • Summary and future perspectives
    • Chapter 8: Neurologic autoimmunity: mechanisms revealed by animal models
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The neuromuscular junction
      • Autonomic ganglia and peripheral nerves
      • Central nervous system
      • Concluding remarks
  • SECTION 3: Clinical: autoimmune neurological disorders
    • Chapter 9: Detection methods for neural autoantibodies
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Antibody assays
      • Indirect immunohistochemistry
      • Biomarker assays: western blot or line blot
      • Native antigens
      • Radioimmunoprecipitation assays
      • Fluorescence immunoprecipitation assay
      • Primary cultures
      • Cell-based assays
      • Specificity of secondary antibodies
      • Cut-off for quantitative assays
      • Which body fluid to test in autoimmune neurology?
      • Conclusions
      • Disclosures
    • Chapter 10: Paraneoplastic and idiopathic autoimmune neurologic disorders: approach to diagnosis and treatment
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The diagnostic evaluation
      • Treatment
      • Acute therapy – diagnostic test
      • Future direction
    • Chapter 11: Voltage-gated potassium channel–complex autoimmunity and associated clinical syndromes
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Peripheral nerve hyperexcitability
      • Morvan's syndrome
      • Diagnostic evaluation
      • Investigations
      • Differential diagnosis
      • Pathophysiology and immunopathology
      • Therapeutic approach
      • Future therapies
      • Future directions
    • Chapter 12: Anti-NMDAR encephalitis and other glutamate and GABA receptor antibody encephalopathies
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Epidemiology of Anti-NMDAR encephalitis
      • Clinical course and prognosis of Anti-NMDAR encephalitis
      • Epidemiology and clinical features associated with other antibodies
      • Diagnostic evaluation
      • Pathophysiology and immunopathology
      • Therapeutic approach
      • Future directions
    • Chapter 13: Autoimmune epilepsy
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Rasmussen's encephalitis
      • Seizures occurring in systemic autoimmune diseases
      • Seizures due to antibody-mediated neurologic autoimmune disorders
      • Autoimmune epilepsy: diagnostic and therapeutic approach
      • Summary
    • Chapter 14: Autoimmune dementia and encephalopathy
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Clinical features
      • Clinical course and prognosis
      • Bedside cognitive testing and detailed neuropsychologic testing
      • Risk factors
      • Serum and cerebrospinal fluid evaluation
      • Autoantibodies
      • Neuroimaging
      • Electroencephalogram
      • Brain biopsy and pathology
      • Cancer investigation
      • Differential diagnosis
      • Pathophysiology
      • Therapeutic approach
      • Future therapies and future direction
    • Chapter 15: Autoimmunity in neuropsychiatric disorders
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Brain and immune system interaction
      • Evidence pointing towards an immune pathophysiology in different psychiatric disorders
      • Autoimmune encephalitis and link to neuropsychiatric disorders
      • Disorders of psychologic development and mental retardation
      • Future directions
      • Acknowledgment
    • Chapter 16: Central nervous system vasculitis in adults and children
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Etiopathogenesis
      • Clinical presentation
      • Subsidiary examinations
      • Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 17: Autoimmune movement disorders
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Clinical disorders
      • Evaluation
      • Treatment
      • Future directions
    • Chapter 18: Autoimmune sleep disorders
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Sleep manifestations associated with specific autoantibodies (Table 18.1)
      • Narcolepsy as an autoimmune disease
      • Future directions
    • Chapter 19: Autoimmune myelopathies
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Clinical course and prognosis
      • Risk factors
      • Neuroimaging
      • Differential diagnosis
      • Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) evaluation
      • Autoantibodies
      • Spinal cord biopsy and pathology of autoimmune myelopathies
      • Cancer investigation
      • Pathophysiology
      • Therapeutic approach
      • Conclusions and future direction
      • Disclosures
    • Chapter 20: Autoimmunity in visual loss
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The anatomic basis for patterns of visual loss
      • General considerations for autoimmune mechanisms for visual loss
      • Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of autoimmune visual loss
      • Autoimmune retinopathies
      • Conclusion
      • Review of literature
      • Conflict of interest
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 21: Autoimmune AQP4 channelopathies and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Epidemiology and genetics
      • Clinical course and prognosis
      • Diagnostic evaluation
      • Pathophysiology
      • Immunopathology
      • Therapeutic approach
      • Future direction
    • Chapter 22: Autoimmune autonomic disorders
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG)
      • Paraneoplastic autonomic neuropathy
      • Other autoimmune neurologic disorders with autonomic features
      • Other autonomic disorders with possible autoimmune cause
      • Differential diagnosis
      • Evaluation
      • Treatment
      • Future directions
    • Chapter 23: Autoimmune-mediated peripheral neuropathies and autoimmune pain
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Nonparaneoplastic immune-mediated neuropathies
      • Paraneoplastic and idiopathic immune-mediated neuropathies
      • Mgus-associated idiopathic immune-mediated neuropathies and poems syndrome
      • Autoimmune pain
      • Summary
    • Chapter 24: Neuromuscular junction disorders
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The neuromuscular junction
      • Future directions
    • Chapter 25: Autoimmune muscle disease
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Epidemiology and genetics
      • Clinical course and prognosis
      • Diagnostic evaluation
      • Clinical approach to myositis autoantibody testing
      • Pathophysiology and immunopathology
      • Therapeutic approach
      • Symptomatic treatment
      • Future therapies
      • Other rare forms of inflammatory myopathy
      • Future directions
    • Chapter 26: Autoimmune neurologic disorders in children
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • General considerations for the pediatric patient
      • Autoimmune central nervous system disorders
      • Autoimmunity in childhood neurodegenerative disorders
      • CNS autoimmunity in systemic inflammatory disorders
      • Future direction
      • Disclosures
    • Chapter 27: Current and future immunotherapy targets in autoimmune neurology
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Immunotherapies by pharmacologic category or compound
      • Targeted immunotherapies in disease prototypes
      • Acknowledgments
  • Errata
  • Index

Description

Autoimmune Neurology presents the latest information on autoimmune neurologic disease, the immune response to the body where organs run wild, causing the immune system to attack itself. Autoimmunity is a main element in numerous nervous system diseases and can target any structure within the central or peripheral nervous system.

Over the past 20 years, significant advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of autoimmune disorders, including the use of biomarkers has led to new diagnosis and treatment options. Neurologic conditions associated with autoimmune reactions include dementia, neuromuscular disease, epilepsy, sleep disorders, diabetes, and other common neurologic disorders and disease.

This current tutorial-reference will be a must-have title for clinical neurologists, research neurologists, neuroscientists, and any medical professional working with autoimmune disease and disorders.

Key Features

  • Includes comprehensive coverage of autoimmune neurology
  • Details the latest techniques for the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases and disorders, including dementia, neuromuscular disease, epilepsy, and sleep disorders
  • Presents a focused reference for clinical practitioners and the clinical neurology and neurology research communities

Readership

Neuroscience researchers, clinical neurologists, neuroimmunology researchers


Details

No. of pages:
568
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780444634467
Hardcover ISBN:
9780444634320

Ratings and Reviews


About the Series Volume Editors

Sean Pittock Series Volume Editor

Sean Pittock, M.D., is a consultant in the Department of Neurology and has a joint appointment in the Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology. He holds the academic rank of professor of neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine. He currently serves as director of the Neuroimmunology Laboratory and is the Marilyn A. Park and Moon S. Park, M.D., Director of the Center for Multiple Sclerosis and Autoimmune Neurology. He joined the staff of Mayo Clinic in 2005.

Dr. Pittock’s research and clinical interests include autoimmune neurological disorders, paraneoplastic diseases, neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis. His research focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of multiple sclerosis and autoimmune disorders that target the central and peripheral nervous systems. He founded the Autoimmune Neurology Clinic at Mayo Clinic in 2006, which has allowed the development of a unique translational practice extending the laboratory's serological findings directly from bench to bedside. He has been involved in cutting edge trials of novel immunotherapies to treat NMO and other autoimmune neurologic diseases. He has been invited to give over 100 presentations on his research and has authored over 275 journal articles, abstracts and other written publications.

He is currently the Chair of the Autoimmune Neurology Special Interest Group at the American Neurological Association and directs the educational program on Neuromyelitis Optica at the American Academy of Neurology.

Dr. Pittock serves on numerous professional societies and associations, including the Minnesota Medical Association and American Academy of Neurology, and is a committee member of the American Neurological Association.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor of Neurology and Co-Director, Neuroimmunology Laboratory, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA

Angela Vincent Series Volume Editor

Angela Vincent qualified as a doctor at Westminster Hospital Medical School but after one year post qualification residence, she enrolled to do an MSc in Biochemistry at University College London. Subsequently, working with Ricardo Miledi FRS, she became involved in some of the earliest studies on acetylcholine receptors in myasthenia gravis, and in defining the genetic basis of congenital myasthenic syndromes, and began a long partnership with John Newsom-Davis (later FRS), first at the Royal Free Hospital in London and then at the newly-established Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine in Oxford. Since Newsom-Davis’ retirement in 1998, she has led the neuroimmunology research in Oxford. In 1992 she established a national and international referral centre for the diagnosis of immune-mediated neurological diseases. From 2005-2008, when she officially retired, she was Head of Department of Clinical Neurology.

Although post-retirement age, she has a five-year contract with the University, is an Honorary Consultant in Immunology and still runs the Oxford Neuroimmunology Service for detection of autoantibodies in neurological diseases. Her clinical interests are in the role of auto-antibodies to ion channels and receptors in peripheral and central disorders, and in helping to diagnose immunotherapy-responsive conditions. Her research interests include models of neuromuscular junction and CNS diseases, and the influence of maternal antibodies on development.

Angela Vincent has an Honorary degree from the University of Bergen (2004), and is a Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences (FMedSci, 2002) and a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS, 2011), as well as Honorary Member American Association of Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine, and Honorary Fellow of the American Neurological Association. She has received the Duchenne-Erb Award, German Muscle Society, Darmstadt (2009), and the Medal of the Association of British Neurologists (2009) among other awards. She was previously President of the International Society of Neuroimmunology (2001-2004), was an Associate Editor of Brain (2004-2013), and co-edited four books including Inflammatory and Autoimmune Disorders of the Nervous System in Children (RC Dale, A Vincent. Mac Keith Press 2010.

.

Affiliations and Expertise

The Weatherall Institute for Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK