Auditory Perception - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080259574, 9781483148144

Auditory Perception

1st Edition

A New Synthesis

Authors: Richard M. Warren
Editors: Arnold P. Goldstein Leonard Krasner
eBook ISBN: 9781483148144
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1982
Page Count: 258
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Description

Auditory Perception: A New Synthesis focuses on the effort to show the connections between key areas in hearing. The book offers a review of classical problems, and then presents interpretations and evidence of this topic.
A short introduction to the physical nature of sound and the way sound is transmitted and changed within the ear is provided. The book discusses the importance of being able to identify the source of a sound, and then presents processes in this regard. The text provides information on the organs involved in the identification of sound and discusses pitch and infrapitch and the manner by which their loudness can be measured. Scales are presented to show the loudness of sound. The relationship of hearing with other senses is also discussed. The text also outlines how speech is produced, taking into consideration the organs involved in the process. The book is a valuable source of data for research scientists and other professionals who are involved in hearing and speech.

Table of Contents


Preface

Chapter 1 Sound and the Auditory System

The Nature of Auditory Stimuli

Our Auditory Apparatus

The Outer Ear and the Middle Ear

Structure of the Inner Ear

Neural Structures and Auditory Pathways

Mechanics for Stimulation within the Inner Ear

The Auditory-Acoustic Paradox: Excellent Discrimination from a Poor Instrument

Electrophysiological Response of the Cochlea and Peripheral Neural Apparatus

The Resting Potential

The Summating Potential

The Cochlear Microphonic

Whole Nerve Action Potential

Single Unit Receptor Potentials

Single Unit Generator Potentials

Action Potentials of Auditory Nerve Fibers

Chapter 2 Spatial Localization and Binaural Hearing

Binaural Perception of Azimuth

Minimal Audible Angle

Binaural Beats

Detection of Interaural Delays for Clicks and for Complex Sounds

Detection of Long Interaural Delays

Contralateral Induction

Masking Level Differences

Two Types of Temporal Disparity

Time Intensity Trading

Some Cautions Concerning Interpretation of Studies Using Headphones

Importance of the Pinna in Sound Localization

Room Acoustics

Auditory Reorientation

Estimates of Distance from the Source

Sensory Input and Physical Correlates

Chapter 3 Perception of Acoustic Repetition Pitch and Infrapitch

Terminology

Pitch

Masking

Critical Bands

Place Theory

Periodicity Theory

Schouten's Residue Pitch

Pitch of Inharmonic Complexes

Spectral Dominance

Periodic Sounds and Local Temporal Patterns on the Basilar Membrane

Model Periodic Stimuli Versus Special Periodic Stimuli

Iterated Noise Segments as Model Periodic Sounds

Pitch and Infra pitch

Perception of Multiple Infratonal Frequencies Stimulating the same Cochlear Loci

Echo Pitch and Infrapitch Echo

Periodic Signals with Alternating Polarity

Alternating Polarity Pulse Trains

Pitches Produced by Dichotic Interactions

Ear Dominance for Perception of Pitch

Musical Pitch and Musical Infrapitch (Rhythm)

Complex Beats: Integration of Different Infrapitch Periodicities at Different Cochlear Loci

Effects of Deviations from Strict Infrapitch Periodicity

Some Recent Models for the Pitch of Complex Tones

Chapter 4 The Measurement of Loudness and Pitch

Sensory Input and Perception

The History of Loudness Measurement

Apparent Loudness and Its Relation to Auditory Localization: The Physical Correlate Theory

Equivalence of Half-Loudness and Twice-Distance Estimates

Agreement of Half-Loudness with the Inverse Square Law

Effect of Reverberation on Loudness Functions

Loudness of Self-Generated Sound

Learning of a New Physical Correlate for Loudness

The Mel Scale of Pitch Magnitude

Some Conclusions and Inferences

Chapter 5 Perception of Acoustic Sequences

Rate at which Component Sounds Occur in Speech and Music

Identification of Components and Their Order

Temporal Order Identification within Extended Sequences

Identification of Order for Sequences of Unrelated Sounds and for Sequences of Speech Sounds

Identification of Order within Tonal Sequences

Identification of Order and Verbal Labeling

Need for Verbal Labeling for Serial Order Retention in Memory Experiments

Identification of Patterns without Discrimination of Order: Holistic Pattern Recognition

Extent of Temporal Mismatch Permitting Holistic Pattern Recognition

Should Trained or Untrained Subjects be Used?

A Comparison of Holistic Pattern Recognition with Identification of Components and Their Orders Using Untrained Subjects

Holistic Pattern Recognition and Detection of Acoustic Repetition

Holistic Pattern Recognition and Context-Sensitive Speech Sounds

Identification of Components and Their Orders and Holistic Pattern Recognition for Dichotomous Patterns

Holistic Pattern Recognition in Animals Other Than Humans

Conclusions

Chapter 6 Perceptual Restoration of Missing Sounds

Temporal Induction

Homophonic Continuity

Heterophonic Continuity

The Roll Effect as Tonal Restoration

Temporal Limits for Illusory Continuity

Illusory Continuity of Stimuli Repeated at Tonal and Infratonal Frequencies

Incomplete Continuity or Illusory Lengthening

Illusory Pattern Completion: Restoration of Frequency Glides

Temporal Induction of Speech

Phonemic Restorations

Apparent Continuity of Speech Produced by Insertion of Noise into Gaps

Increase in Intelligibility of Speech Produced by Insertion of Noise into Gaps: Multiple Phonemic

Restorations

Masking and Unmasking

Chapter 7 Speech

Speech Production

The Subglottal System

The Larynx

The Vocal Tract and Articulation of Speech Sounds

Visual Representation of Speech Sounds

The Protean Phoneme

are Phonemes Perceptual Units?

The Alphabet and the Phoneme

Illiterate Adults Cannot Segment Phonetically

Ability to Segment Phonetically and Reading Ability are Related in Children

Cues for Identifying Phonemes and Characterizing Letters

Evidence that Phonetic Constituents of Speech are Not Identified Directly

The Temporal Course of Speech Perception

Skilled Storage and Delayed Perceptual Organization of Speech

Speech Errors in Everyday Life

Changes in Speech Perception during Stimulus Repetition

Verbal Satiation

Verbal Summation

Verbal Transformations

Ear Advantages and Cortical Processing of Speech

Perception of Linguistic and Nonlinguistic Sequences

Chapter 8 The Relation of Hearing to Other Senses

Multimodal Perception

Interaction of Vision with Senses Other than Hearing

Interaction of Vision and Hearing in Speech Perception

Perceptual Resolution of Conflicting Visual and Auditory Information Concerning Speech

Auditory Input Perceived as Touch

Multimodal Sensory Control of Speech Production

General Perceptual Rules and Modality-Specific Rules

Perceptual Calibration of Sensory Input

References

Author Index

Subject Index

About the Author


Details

No. of pages:
258
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1982
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483148144

About the Author

Richard M. Warren

About the Editor

Arnold P. Goldstein

Leonard Krasner