Au, U, Fe, Mn, Hg, Sb, W, and P Deposits

Au, U, Fe, Mn, Hg, Sb, W, and P Deposits

1st Edition - January 1, 1980

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  • Author: Author Unknown
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444599438

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Description

Handbook of Strata-Bound and Stratiform Ore Deposits, Volume 7: Au, U, Fe, Mn, Hg, Sb, W, and P Deposits focuses on the characteristics, properties, origins, and structures of Au, U, Fe, Mn, Hg, Sb, W, and P deposits. The selection first elaborates on gold in the Proterozoic sediments of South Africa, nature of the Witwatersrand gold-uranium deposits, and origin of Western-States type uranium mineralization. Discussions focus on tectonic conditions, sedimentation, mineralization and alteration, architecture of the Witwatersrand Basin, source of wealth in the Witwatersrand Basin, gold mineralization in South Africa, and ground-rules for gold prospecting. The text then ponders on origin of the Precambrian banded iron-formations, aspects of the sedimentary petrology of cherty iron-formation, and genetic problems and environmental features of volcanosedimentary iron-ore deposits of the Lahn-Dill Type. Concerns cover geological setting, crystallization structures, origin of cherty iron-formations, similarities and differences between banded and oolitic iron-formations, regional geologic distribution, and general diagnostic statement. The manuscript examines sedimentary phosphate deposits, ancient manganese deposits, and freshwater ferromanganese deposits. The selection is a dependable reference for researchers wanting to explore Au, U, Fe, Mn, Hg, Sb, W, and P deposits.

Table of Contents


  • Chapter 1. Gold in the Proterozoic Sediments of South Africa: Systems, Paradigms, and Models

    Introduction

    Gold Mineralization in South Africa

    South Africa's Place as a Mineral Producer

    Geological Eras and Mineral Production

    Gold in Time and Space

    Systems, Paradigms, and Models

    Paradigms of Sedimentary Gold

    Model of a Source Area

    Models of Transfer Systems

    Models of Depositories

    Stratigraphic Models

    Model of a Transvaal-Type Goldfield

    Model of a Witwatersrand-Type Goldfield

    Models of Gold in Time

    Tectonic Elevation Model

    Algal Activity Model

    Ground-Rules for Gold Prospecting

    Note Added in Proof

    References

    Chapter 2. The Nature of the Witwatersrand Gold-Uranium Deposits

    Introduction

    The Economic Significance of the Witwatersrand Basin

    The Witwatersrand Basin in Time and Space

    Age of the Witwatersrand Strata

    Proterozoic Basins and the Pattern of Crustal Evolution

    The Architecture of the Witwatersrand Basin

    Structure and Components

    Pattern of Folding

    Pattern of Faulting

    Source of Wealth in the Witwatersrand Basin

    Stratigraphy and Lithology

    Succession and Thickness

    Nature of Components

    Dykes and Sills

    Sedimentology

    Depositional Isopachs

    Fluvial Fans

    Vertical Distribution of Mineralized Horizons

    The Nature of the Mineralization

    Production of Gold and Uranium

    Types of Reefs

    Composition of Conglomerates

    Mineralogy of the Reefs

    Chemistry of the Reefs

    Relationships Between Components

    Grain Size of Gold, Uranium, and Platinoids

    The Characteristics of a Goldfield

    Processes of Development

    Final Responses to Processes

    Sequential Development of Adjacent Fans

    Progressive Development of a Goldfield

    The Source of the Gold and Uranium

    References

    Chapter 3. Origin of Western-States Type Uranium Mineralization

    Introduction

    Tectonic Conditions

    Sedimentation

    Braided-Stream Fluvial System

    Coarse-Grained Meanderbelt

    Fine-Grained Meanderbelt

    Sedimentary Environment, Paleoclimate and Diagenesis

    Mineralization and Alteration

    Geochemical-Cell Concept

    Geochemical-Cell Reaction

    Physical and Chemical Conditions

    Character of Alteration

    Mineral Zoning

    Cell Growth and Shape

    Modification of Geochemical-Cell Development

    Time of Mineralization

    Source of Mineralization

    Genetic Model

    Discussion

    Topics for Future Research

    Notes Added in Proof

    References

    Chapter 4. Origin of the Precambrian Banded Iron-Formations

    Introduction

    Terminology and Definition of Iron-Formation

    Regional Geologic Distribution

    Ages of Precambrian Banded Iron-Formations

    Geologieal setting

    Depositional Environments

    Sedimentary Facies of Iron-Formations

    Sedimentary Structures

    Diagenetic and Metamorphic Alterations of the Mineral Phases

    Organic Remains

    Chemical Composition

    Similarities and Differences Between Banded and Oolitic Iron-Formations

    Hypotheses of Origin

    Environments of Deposition

    Source of Iron and Silica

    Transport, Deposition and Banding

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 5. Aspects of the Sedimentary Petrology of Cherty Iron-Formation

    Introduction

    Definition and General Description

    Terminology

    Sedimentary Features

    Sedimentary Textures

    Sedimentary Structures

    Organo-Sedimentary Textures and Structures

    Classification

    Diagenesis

    Syn-Sedimentary Deformation

    Shrinkage (Syneresis) Features

    Compaction

    Concretionary Bodies

    Solution and Solution-Collapse Features

    Stylolites

    Crystallization Textures

    Quartz in Matrix Cherts

    Quartz of Cement Chert

    Iron-Minerals

    Physico-Chemistry of Iron-Mineral Diagenesis

    Paleogeographic Analysis

    Lake Superior-Type I.Fs

    Algoma-Type Iron-Formations

    Special Problems of Iron-Formation Paleogeography

    Depth-Control of Iron-Mineral Facies

    Tectonic Control of Iron-Formation Deposition

    Origin of Cherty Iron-Formations

    Transport of Iron and Silica

    Direct-Precipitation Hypotheses

    Replacement Hypotheses

    Summary and Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 6. Genetic Problems and Environmental Features of Volcano-Sedimentary Ironore Deposits of the Lahn-Dill Type

    Introduction

    General Diagnostic Statement

    Geological Setting

    Regional and Stratigraphic Distribution

    Geotectonic and Paleogeographic Framework

    Depositional Environment of the Volcano-Sedimentary Iron Ores

    Sedimentary Facies of the Volcano-Sedimentary Iron Ores

    Mineralogical Facies of the Volcano-Sedimentary Iron Ores

    Chemical Composition of the Volcano-Sedimentary Iron Ores

    The Origin of Volcano-Sedimentary Iron Ores

    Hypotheses of Origin

    Actualistic Examples of the Formation of Iron-Rich Sediments by Volcanic Processes

    Similarities and Differences Between the Lahn-Dill Type and Other Types of Sedimentary Iron Formations

    The Relation of Volcano-Sedimentary Iron Ores To Other Syngenetic Metal Mineralizations in Geosynclinal Environments

    Possible Source of Iron and Silica in Ophiolitic Geosynclinal Volcanism

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgement

    References

    Chapter 7. Deep-Sea Manganese Nodules

    Historical Introduction

    Distribution of Manganese Nodules in the World's Oceans

    Regional Distribution

    Sedimentation Rate

    Availability of Potential Nucleating Agents

    Age

    Bottom Current Velocity

    Biological Activity

    Redox Conditions

    Localised Distribution

    Distribution with Depth

    Geochemistry

    Compositional Variations Within Individual Nodules

    Localised Variations in Composition

    Regional Variations in Composition

    Mineralogy

    Internal Structure

    Determination of Valency States

    Rates and Mechanisms of Accretion Nodules

    Thermochemical Considerations

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 8. Freshwater Ferromanganese Deposits

    Introduction

    Geologic Setting

    Occurrence and Morphology of Freshwater Ferromanganese Oxides

    Coatings

    Crusts

    Nodules

    Dispersed Ferromanganese Oxides

    Sediment Types Associated with Ferromanganese Nodules

    Chemical Composition of Freshwater Ferromanganese Oxides

    Iron/Manganese Ratios

    Major-Element Chemistry

    Minor-Element Chemistry

    Regional Variability in Nodule Composition

    Mineralogy

    Comparison Between Marine and Freshwater Nodules

    Mobilization/Precipitation of Iron and Manganese in the Sedimentary Environment

    Aqueous Geochemistry of Iron and Manganese

    Transport of Iron and Manganese

    Interaction Between Source Waters and Lake Waters

    Deposition of Iron and Manganese Oxyhydroxides

    Theories of Origin

    Historical Development

    Precipitation From Overlying Water

    Diagenetic Remobilization

    Ferromanganese Oxide Precipitation Mechanism(S)

    Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 9. Ancient Manganese Deposits

    Introduction

    Nonvolcanogenic-Sedimentary Manganese Deposits

    Manganese Deposits Associated with Terrigenous Formations

    Manganese Deposits Associated with Carbonate Formation

    Manganese Deposits Associated with Iron-Formation

    Fossil Manganese and Iron-Manganese Nodules

    Sedimentary Manganese Ores and Stromatolites

    Volcanogenic-Sedimentary Manganese Deposits

    Deposits of Olympic Peninsula Type

    Deposits of Noda Tamagawa Type

    Deposits of West African Type

    Deposits of Langban Type

    Deposits of Karadzhal Type

    Summary and Conclusion

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 10. The Strata-Bound Cinnabar-Stibnite-Scheelite Deposits (Discussed with Examples From the Mediterranean Region)

    Introduction

    Sardinia

    Turkey

    Conclusions

    The Eastern Alps

    Spain

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 11. Sedimentary Phosphate Deposits

    Introduction

    Distribution of Phosphate Deposits

    Types of Phosphate Deposits

    "Geosynclinal" Phosphorites

    "Platform" Phosphorites

    Weathered and Residual Phosphorites

    Petrology of Phosphorites

    Phosphatic Nodules

    Phosphatic Grains and Pellets

    Non-Pelletal Phosphate

    Geochemistry of Phosphorites

    The Genesis of Phosphorites

    Conclusions

    References

    References Index Part II

    Subject Index Part II

Product details

  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 1980
  • Published: January 1, 1980
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444599438

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