Atomic Radiation and Polymers - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483197760, 9781483222790

Atomic Radiation and Polymers

1st Edition

International Series of Monographs on Radiation Effects in Materials, Vol. 1

Authors: A. Charlesby
Editors: A. Charlesby
eBook ISBN: 9781483222790
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1960
Page Count: 570
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Radiation Effects in Materials, Volume 1: Atomic Radiation and Polymers considers the theoretical and experimental studies on the association between polymers and atomic radiation. The use of radiation in polymer science constitutes a powerful tool for the quantitative study of macromolecules. This book consists of 31 chapters, and starts with a brief introduction to fundamentals of atomic radiation and polymer structure. The next chapters focus on some aspect of atomic radiation, including radiation units, radiation-matter interaction, and nuclear and electrical sources of radiation. A chapter presents the appropriate methods to study radiation chemistry and polymer. Considerable chapters are devoted to the molecular structure, chemistry, and reactions of polymers. This volume also describes some significant chemical changes of radiation. Other chapters explore the properties and reactions of various irradiated polymers. The remaining chapters deal with radiation protection effects in polymers, which are processes wherein small changes in chemical structure within a molecule or in its neighborhood can exert a disproportionately large influence on the overall chemical reactions. This book is of value to nuclear and solid state physicists, organic and polymer chemists, and nuclear engineers and radiobiologists.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Introduction

Nuclear and Electronic Sources

Fundamental Reactions


Covalent and Ionic Structures

Molecular Structures

Fields of Application

Chapter 2. Radiation Units

Energy per Particle

Radiation Yield - G Values

Intensity of Radioactive Sources - the Curie

Unit of Radiation Flux - the Roentgen and Rep

Energy Deposited - the Rad

Chapter 3. Interaction of Radiation with Matter


X-Rays and γ-Rays

Protons and α-Particles

Fast Neutrons

Slow Neutrons

Ultraviolet Light

Distribution of Ionization

Chapter 4. Nuclear Sources of Radiation

Nuclear Reactors

Cooling Circuits

Short-Lived Gaseous Fission Products

Fuel Rods

Radioactive Waste

Separated Fission Products

Radioactive Cobalt and Tantalum

Chapter 5. Electrical Sources of Radiation

Voltage Multiplier Circuits

Electrostatic Generators

Resonant Transformer

Linear Electron Accelerators

Very High Voltage Particle Accelerators

X-Ray Equipment

Chapter 6. Dosimetry

Absolute Measurements

Ferrous Sulphate as a Secondary Standard

Other Chemical Dosimeters

Colorimetric Methods

Changes in Plastics

Photographic Methods

Dosimetry in Reactors

Chapter 7. Long Chain Polymers


Structural Variations in Homopolymers


Structural Variation in Copolymers

Chapter 8. Molecular Weight Distribution

Definition of Molecular Weight Distribution

Chapter 9. Properties of a Crosslinked Network

Increase in Average Molecular Weight due to Crosslinking

Changes below the Gel Point (δ < 1)

Dose for Incipient Gelation

Soluble Fraction

Effect of Crosslinking on Elastic Properties

Tensile Strength

Swelling of Crosslinked Polymers

Chapter 10. Theory of Polymer Degradation

Reduction in Number Average Molecular Weight

Initially Random Distribution

General Relation

Changes in Intrinsic Viscosity

Chapter 11. Alternative Methods of Network Formation

Condensation Reactions

Simultaneous Crosslinking and Degradation


Network Formation as a Chain Reaction

Chapter 12. Radiation-Induced Changes in Organic Molecules


Chapter 13. Polyethylene

Effect of Crosslinking

Crystallinity Changes

Chemical Changes

Mechanical and Electrical Properties

Chapter 14. Rubber

Early Work

Crosslinking of Unvulcanized Rubber

Irradiation of Cured Rubbers

Physical Properties of Radiation-cured Rubber

Synthetic Rubbers

Chapter 15. Polystyrene

Chapter 16. Silicones

Chapter 17. Other Crosslinking Polymers

Polyvinyl Chloride




Polyethylene Terephthalate


Chapter 18. Polyisobutylene

Effects of Radiation

Chapter 19. Polymethyl Methacrylate

Chapter 20. Polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE)


Chapter 21. Cellulose


Mechanical Properties

Chapter 22. Polymerization

Radiation as an Initiator of Polymerization

Factors affecting Polymerization Rate

Kinetics of Radiation Polymerization

Polymerization in a Solvent

Polymerization in the Solid State

Emulsion Polymerization

Polymer Yield

Ionic Polymerization

Chapter 23. Graft and Block Copolymers

Grafting from Monomer and from Solution

Effect of Radiation Intensity

Grafting and Crystallinity

Comparison of Polymerization and Grafting

Chapter 24. Curing of Unsaturated Polyester Resins

Network Formation by a Chain Reaction

Comparison of Radiation and Thermal Cure

Transition Temperature

Kinetics of Network Formation in Polyesters

Reactions of Unsaturated Polyesters

Advantages of Radiation Cure

Chapter 25. Irradiation of Polymers in Solution

Degradation in Dilute Aqueous Solutions

Effect of Polymer Concentration in Aqueous Solvents

Degradation in Organic Solvents

Mechanism of Polymer Reactions in Aqueous Solution

Chapter 26. Reactions of Irradiated Molecules

Behavior of the Excited Molecule

Behavior of the Ionized Molecule

Fate of the Free Electron

Energy Transfer

Reaction of Ions and Molecules

Chapter 27. Radical and Ion Yield

Measurement of Radical Yield

Effect of Concentration and Intensity

Experimental G Values for Radical Production

Comparison with Photochemistry

Distribution of Radicals

Measurement of Ionic Yield

Chapter 28. Mechanism of Crosslinking and Degradation

Theories of Reaction Mechanisms in Polymers


Chapter 29. Radiation Protection

Internal Radiation Protection

External Protection

Radiation Protection against Degradation

Protection against Crosslinking

Protection in Solutions

Protection in Curing of Unsaturated Polyesters

Mechanisms of Radiation Protection

Chapter 30. Changes in Electrical Conductivity

Chapter 31. Use of Polymers in Nuclear Reactors

Appendix Theory of Network Formation by Random Crosslinking

Name Index

Subject Index


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© Pergamon 1960
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About the Author

A. Charlesby

About the Editor

A. Charlesby

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