Atomic Radiation and Polymers - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080135090, 9781483181301

Atomic Radiation and Polymers

1st Edition

International Series of Monographs on Radiation Effects in Materials

Authors: A. Charlesby
Editors: A. Charlesby
eBook ISBN: 9781483181301
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1960
Page Count: 570
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Description

Atomic Radiation and Polymers examines the effects of radiation on polymer materials. The title deals with chemical changes that took place when polymers are exposed to radiation, and how these changes affect the physical properties of the polymers. The text first covers the interaction of radiation and matter, along with radiation sources and dosimetry. Next, the selection deals with the general properties of long chain polymers. The text also details the organic molecules and irradiated polymers. Chapters 22 to 24 tackle the radiation-induced changes in nuclear chain reaction, while Chapter 25 discusses the irradiation of polymers in solution where both direct and indirect effects occur. The next series of chapters details the theoretical aspects of reactions between the initial acts of ionization or excitation. The last two chapters cover the conductivity change at low radiation intensities, along with the data on radiation damage at very high intensities. The book will be of great interest to researchers and practitioners from the field of nuclear science and polymer technology.

Table of Contents


Preface

1. Introduction

Nuclear and Electronic Sources

Fundamental Reactions

Metals

Covalent and Ionic Structures

Molecular Structures

Fields of Application

2. Radiation Units

Energy per Particle

Radiation Yield - G Values

Intensity of Radioactive Sources - the Curie

Unit of Radiation Flux - the Roentgen and Rep

Energy Deposited - the Rad

3. Interaction of Radiation with Matter

Electrons

X-Rays and γ-Rays

Protons and α-Particles

Fast Neutrons

Slow Neutrons

Ultraviolet Light

Distribution of Ionization

4. Nuclear Sources of Radiation

Nuclear Reactors

Cooling Circuits

Short-Lived Gaseous Fission Products

Fuel Rods

Radioactive Waste

Separated Fission Products

Radioactive Cobalt and Tantalum

5. Electrical Sources of Radiation

Voltage Multiplier Circuits

Electrostatic Generators

Resonant Transformer

Linear Electron Accelerators

Very High Voltage Particle Accelerators

X-Ray Equipment

6. Dosimetry

Absolute Measurements

Ferrous Sulphate as a Secondary Standard

Other Chemical Dosimeters

Colorimetric Methods

Changes in Plastics

Photographic Methods

Dosimetry in Reactors

7. Long Chain Polymers

Polymerization

Structural Variations in Homopolymers

Crystallinity

Structural Variation in Copolymers

8. Molecular Weight Distribution

Definition of Molecular Weight Distribution

9. Properties of a Crosslinked Network

Increase in Average Molecular Weight due to Crosslinking

Changes below the Gel Point (8 < 1)

Dose for Incipient Gelation

Soluble Fraction

Effect of Crosslinking on Elastic Properties

Tensile Strength

Swelling of Crosslinked Polymers

10. Theory of Polymer Degradation

Reduction in Number Average Molecular Weight

Initially Random Distribution

General Relation

Changes in Intrinsic Viscosity

11. Alternative Methods of Network

Formation

Condensation Reactions

Simultaneous Crosslinking and Degradation

Endlinking

Network Formation as a Chain Reaction

12. Radiation-Induced Changes In Organic

Molecules

Paraffins

13. Polyethylene

Effect of Crosslinking

Crystallinity Changes

Chemical Changes

Mechanical and Electrical Properties

14. Rubber

Early Work

Crosslinking of Unvulcanized Rubber

Irradiation of Cured Rubbers

Physical Properties of Radiation-cured Rubber

Synthetic Rubbers

15. Polystyrene

16. Silicones

17. Other Crosslinking Polymers

Polyvinyl Chloride

Polyacrylates

Polyacrylonitrile

Nylon

Polyethylene Terephthalate

Polypropylene

18. Polyisobutylene

Effects of Radiation

19. Polymethyl Methacrylate

20. Polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE)

Polymonochlorotrifluoroethylene

21. Cellulose

Dextran

Mechanical Properties

22. Polymerization

Radiation as an Initiator of Polymerization

Factors affecting Polymerization Rate

Kinetics of Radiation Polymerization

Polymerization in a Solvent

Polymerization in the Solid State

Emulsion Polymerization

Polymer Yield

Ionic Polymerization

23. Graft and Block Copolymers

Grafting from Monomer and from Solution

Effect of Radiation Intensity

Grafting and Crystallinity

Comparison of Polymerization and Grafting

24. Curing of Unsaturated Polyester Resins

Network Formation by a Chain Reaction

Comparison of Radiation and Thermal Cure

Transition Temperature

Kinetics of Network Formation in Polyesters

Reactions of Unsaturated Polyesters

Advantages of Radiation Cure

25. Irradiation of Polymers in Solution

Degradation in Dilute Aqueous Solutions

Effect of Polymer Concentration in Aqueous Solvents

Degradation in Organic Solvents

Mechanism of Polymer Reactions in Aqueous Solution

26. Reactions of Irradiated Molecules

Behaviour of the Excited Molecule

Behaviour of the Ionized Molecule

Fate of the Free Electron

Energy Transfer

Reaction of Ions and Molecules

27. Radical and Ion Yield

Measurement of Radical Yield

Effect of Concentration and Intensity

Experimental G Values for Radical Production

Comparison with Photochemistry

Distribution of Radicals

Measurement of Ionic Yield

28. Mechanism of Crosslinking and Degradation

Theories of Reaction Mechanisms in Polymers

Discussion

29. Radiation Protection

Internal Radiation Protection

External Protection

Radiation Protection against Degradation

Protection against Crosslinking

Protection in Solutions

Protection in Curing of Unsaturated Polyesters

Mechanisms of Radiation Protection

30. Changes in Electrical Conductivity

31. Use of Polymers in Nuclear Reactors

Appendix

Theory of Network Formation by Random Crosslinking

Name Index

Subject Index




Details

No. of pages:
570
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1960
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483181301

About the Author

A. Charlesby

About the Editor

A. Charlesby