# Atmosphere—Ocean Dynamics

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Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics deals with a systematic and unified approach to the dynamics of the ocean and atmosphere. The book reviews the relationship of the ocean-atmosphere and how this system functions. The text explains this system through radiative equilibrium models; the book also considers the greenhouse effect, the effects of convection and of horizontal gradients, and the variability in radiative driving of the earth. Equations in the book show the properties of a material element, mass conservation, the balance of scalar quantity (such as salinity), and the mathematical behavior of the ocean and atmosphere. The book also addresses how the ocean-atmosphere system tends to adjust to equilibrium, both in the absence and presence of driving forces such as gravity. The text also explains the effect of the earth's rotation on the system, as well as the application of forced motions such as that produced by wind or temperature changes. The book explains tropical dynamics and the effects of variation of the Coriolis parameter with latitude. The text will be appreciated by meteorologists, environmentalists, students studying hydrology, and people working in general earth sciences.

## Table of Contents

Preface

Acknowledgments

Chapter One How the Ocean-Atmosphere System Is Driven

1.1 Introduction

1.2 The Amount of Energy Received by the Earth

1.3 Radiative Equilibrium Models

1.4 The Greenhouse Effect

1.5 Effects of Convection

1.6 Effects of Horizontal Gradients

1.7 Variability in Radiative Driving of the Earth

Chapter Two Transfer of Properties between Atmosphere and Ocean

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Contrasts in Properties of Ocean and Atmosphere

2.3 Momentum Transfer between Air and Sea, and the Atmosphere's Angular Momentum Balance

2.4 Dependence of Exchange Rates on Air-Sea Velocity, Temperature, and Humidity Differences

2.5 The Hydrological Cycle

2.6 The Heat Balance of the Ocean

2.7 Surface Density Changes and the ThermohaHne Circulation of the Ocean

Chapter Three Properties of a Fluid at Rest

3.1 The Equation of State

3.2 Thermodynamic Variables

3.3 Values of Thermodynamic Quantities for the Ocean and Atmosphere

3.4 Phase Changes

3.5 Balance of Forces in a Fluid at Rest

3.6 Static Stability

3.7 Quantities Associated with Stability

3.8 Stability of a Saturated Atmosphere

3.9 Graphical Representation of Vertical Soundings

Chapter Four Equations Satisfied by a Moving Fluid

4.1 Properties of a Material Element

4.2 Mass Conservation Equation

4.3 Balance for a Scalar Quantity like Salinity

4.4 The Internal Energy (or Heat) Equation

4.5 The Equation of Motion

4.6 Mechanical Energy Equation

4.7 Total Energy Equation

4.8 Bernoulli's Equation

4.9 Systematic Effects of Diffusion

4.10 Summary List of the Governing Equations

4.11 Boundary Conditions

4.12 A Coordinate System for Planetary Scale Motions

Chapter Five Adjustment under Gravity in a Nonrotating System

5.1 Introduction : Adjustment to Equilibrium

5.2 Perturbations from the Rest State for a Homogenous Inviscid Fluid

5.3 Surface Gravity Waves

5.4 Dispersion

5.5 Short-Wave and Long-Wave Approximations

5.6 Shallow-Water Equations Derived Using the Hydrostatic Approximation

5.7 Energetics of Shallow-Water Motion

5.8 Seiches and Tides in Channels and Gulfs

Chapter Six Adjustment under Gravity of a Density-Stratified Fluid

6.1 Introduction

6.2 The Case of Two Superposed Fluids of Different Density

6.3 The Baroclinic Mode and the Rigid Lid Approximation

6.4 Adjustments within a Continuously Stratified Incompressible Fluid

6.5 Internal Gravity Waves

6.6 Dispersion Effects

6.7 Energetics of Internal Waves

6.8 Internal Waves Generated at a Horizontal Boundary

6.9 Effects on Boundary-Generated Waves of Variations of Buoyancy Frequency with Height

6.10 Free Waves in the Presence of Boundaries

6.11 Waves of Large Horizontal Scale: Normal Modes

6.12 An Example of Adjustment to Equilibrium in a Stratified Fluid

6.13 Resolution into Normal Modes for the Ocean

6.14 Adjustment to Equilibrium in a Stratified Compressible Fluid

6.15 Examples of Adjustment in a Compressible Atmosphere

6.16 Weak Dispersion of a Pulse

6.17 Isobaric Coordinates

6.18 The Vertically Integrated Perturbation Energy Equation in Isobaric Coordinates

Chapter Seven Effects of Rotation

7.1 Introduction

7.2 The Rossby Adjustment Problem

7.3 The Transients

7.4 Applicability to the Rotating Earth

7.5 The Rossby Radius of Deformation

7.6 The Geostrophic Balance

7.7 Relative Geostrophic Currents: The Thermal Wind

7.8 Available Potential Energy

7.9 Circulation and Vorticity

7.10 Conservation of Potential Vorticity for a Shallow Homogeneous Layer

7.11 Circulation in a Stratified Fluid and Ertel's Potential Vorticity

7.12 Perturbation Forms of the Vorticity Equations in a Uniformly Rotating Fluid

7.13 Initialization of Fields for Numerical Prediction Schemes

Chapter Eight Gravity Waves in a Rotating Fluid

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Effect of Rotation on Surface Gravity Waves: Poincaré Waves

8.3 Dispersion Properties and Energetics of Poincaré Waves

8.4 Vertically Propagating Internal Waves in a Rotating Fluid

8.5 Polarization Relations

8.6 Energetics

8.7 Waves Generated at a Horizontal Boundary

8.8 Mountain Waves

8.9 Effects of Variation of Properties with Height

8.10 Finite-Amplitude Topographic Effects

8.11 Dissipative Effects in the Upper Atmosphere

8.12 The Liouville-Green or WKBJ Approximation

8.13 Wave Interactions

8.14 The Internal Wave Spectrum in the Ocean

8.15 Wave Transport and Effects on the Mean Flow

8.16 Quasi-geostrophic Flow (/Plane): The Isallobaric Wind

Chapter Nine Forced Motion

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Forcing Due to Surface Stress: Ekman Transport

9.3 Wind-Generated Inertial Oscillations in the Ocean Mixed Layer

9.4 Ekman Pumping

9.5 Bottom Friction: Velocity Structure of the Boundary Layer

9.6 The Laminar Ekman Layer

9.7 The Nocturnal Jet

9.8 Tide-Producing Forces

9.9 Effect of Atmospheric Pressure Variations and Wind on Barotropic Motion in the Sea: The Forced Shallow-Water Equation

9.10 Baroclinic Response of the Ocean to Wind Forcing: Use of Normal Modes

9.11 Response of the Ocean to a Moving Storm or Hurricane

9.12 Spin-Down by Bottom Friction

9.13 Buoyancy Forcing

9.14 Response to Stationary Forcing: A Barotropic Example

9.15 A Forced Baroclinic Vortex

9.16 Equilibration through Dissipative Effects

Chapter Ten Effects of Side Boundaries

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Effects of Rotation on Seiches and Tides in Narrow Channels and Gulfs

10.3 Poincaré Waves in a Uniform Channel of Arbitrary Width

10.4 Kelvin Waves

10.5 The Full Set of Modes for an Infinite Channel of Uniform Width

10.6 End Effects: Seiches and Tides in a Gulf That Is Not Narrow

10.7 Adjustment to Equilibrium in a Channel

10.8 Tides

10.9 Storm Surges on an Open Coastline : The Local Solution

10.10 Surges Moving along the Coast: Forced Kelvin Waves

10.11 Coastal Upwelling

10.12 Continental Shelf Waves

10.13 Coastally Trapped Waves

10.14 Eastern Boundary Currents

Chapter Eleven The Tropics

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Effects of Earth's Curvature: Shallow-Water Equations on the Sphere

11.3 Potential Vorticity for a Shallow Homogeneous Layer

11.4 The Equatorial Beta Plane

11.5 The Equatorial Kelvin Wave

11.6 Other Equatorially Trapped Waves

11.7 The Equatorial Waveguide: Gravity Waves

11.8 Planetary Waves and Quasi-geostrophic Motion

11.9 Baroclinic Motion near the Equator

11.10 Vertically Propagating Equatorial Waves

11.11 Adjustment under Gravity near the Equator

11.12 Transient Forced Motion

11.13 Potential Vorticity for Baroclinic Motion: The Steady Limit

11.14 Steady Forced Motion

11.15 The Tropical Circulation of the Atmosphere

11.16 Tropical Ocean Currents

Chapter Twelve Mid-latitudes

12.1 Introduction

12.2 The Mid-latitude Beta Plane

12.3 Planetary Waves

12.4 Spin-Up of the Ocean by an Applied Wind Stress

12.5 Steady Ocean Circulation

12.6 Western Boundary Currents

12.7 Vertical Propagation of Planetary Waves in a Medium at Rest

12.8 Nonlinear Quasi-geostrophic Flow in Three Dimensions

12.9 Small Disturbances on a Zonal Flow Varying with Latitude and Height

12.10 Deductions about Vertical Motion from the Quasi-geostrophic Equations

Chapter Thirteen Instabilities, Fronts, and the General Circulation

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Free Waves in the Presence of a Horizontal Temperature Gradient

13.3 Baroclinic Instability: The Eady Problem

13.4 Baroclinic Instability : The Charney Problem

13.5 Necessary Conditions for Instability

13.6 Barotropic Instability

13.7 Eddies in the Ocean

13.8 Fronts

13.9 The Life Cycle of a Baroclinic Disturbance

13.10 General Circulation of the Atmosphere

Appendix One Units and Their SI Equivalents

Appendix Two Useful Values

Appendix Three Properties of Seawater

A3.1 The Equation of State

A3.2 Other Quantities Related to Density

A3.3 Expansion Coefficients

A3.4 Specific Heat

A3.5 Potential Temperature

A3.6 Speed of Sound

A3.7 Freezing Point of Seawater

Appendix Four Properties of Moist Air

A4.1 Methods of Specifying Moisture Content

A4.2 Saturation Vapor Pressure

A4.3 Further Quantities Related to Moisture Content

A4.4 Latent Heats

A4.5 Lapse Rates

Appendix Five A List of Atlases and Data Sources

References

Index

## Product details

- No. of pages: 682
- Language: English
- Copyright: © Academic Press 1982
- Published: September 28, 1982
- Imprint: Academic Press
- eBook ISBN: 9781483281582