Astrocytes Pt 3: Biochemistry, Physiology, and Pharmacology of Astrocytes - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122504532, 9780323148559

Astrocytes Pt 3: Biochemistry, Physiology, and Pharmacology of Astrocytes

1st Edition

Editors: Sergey Fedorff
eBook ISBN: 9780323148559
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 5th January 1987
Page Count: 486
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Description

Astrocytes: Cell Biology and Pathology of Astrocytes, Volume 3 deals with the involvement of astrocytes in neurological and neuropathological states of brain function.

This volume discusses the expression of astrocyte-specific immunological markers and plasma membrane structures; the dynamics of the cytoskeleton and cell cycle; and the reactivity to injury and response of astrocytes in selected pathological and genetic states. The text also aims to inspire new ideas and research on astrocyte functions as well as on the pathogenesis of neurological disorders.

Neuroscientists, cell biologists, clinicians, neuropathologists, and pediatric neurologists will find the book invaluable.

Table of Contents


Foreword

Preface

Immunological Markers in Astrocytes

I. Introduction

II. S-100 Protein

III. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP)

IV. Glutamine Synthetase

V. Brain-Specific Hyaluronectin: A Marker for White Matter Astrocytes?

VI. Other Astrocyte Markers

References

The Cytoskeleton

I. Introduction

II. Methodology

III. Intermediate Filaments

IV. Microfilaments

V. Microtubules

VI. Summary

References

Membrane Structure in Astrocytes

I. Introduction

II. The Technique of Freeze Fracture

III. The Shape of the Astrocyte

IV. Specializations of Astrocyte Membrane Composition

V. The Nature of Assemblies

VI. Astrocytic Gap Junctions

VII. The "Polygonal Particle Junctions"

VIII. Concluding Remarks

References

Proliferation and Cell Cycle Parameters of Astrocytes

I. Introduction and Basic Considerations

II. Period of Proliferation of Astroglial Cells

III. Cell Cycle Parameters of Proliferating Astroglial Cells

IV. Mode of Proliferation of Astroglial Cells

V. Summary

References

Physiological and Pathological Aspects of Astrocytic Swelling

I. Introduction—Brain Edema and Astrocytic Swelling

II. Pathological and Experimentally Induced Astrocytic Swelling

III. Ion Transport Processes Involved in Astrocytic Swelling

IV. Extracellular Changes Indicative of Cell Swelling in Situ

V. Mechanisms of Astrocytic Swelling

VI. Conclusions and Functional Correlates of Astrocytic Swelling and Ion Transport

References

Developing Astroglia in Abnormal Thyroid States

I. Introduction

II. Astroglia Formation

III. Astrocyte Maturation

IV. Concluding Remarks

References

Glial Hormone Receptors: Thyroid Hormones and Microtubules in Gliomas and Neuroblastomas

I. Introduction

II. Hormonal Effects on Glial Cell Development

III. Effects of Hypothyroidism on Nuclear T3 Receptors and Microtubules in Glioma and Neuroblastoma Cells

IV. Prospective Studies: Subependymal Cell Model

References

The Role of Astrocytes in the Interaction Between the Immune and Nervous System

I. The Immunological Status of the Central Nervous System

II. The Antigen-Presenting Function of Astrocytes in Vitro

III. Possible in Vivo Correlates of the in Vitro Detected Immune Activity of Astrocytes

IV. Implications for Viral and Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

References

Reactive Gliosis

I. Introduction

II. Glial Proliferation in Normal and Injured Adult Brain

III. Biochemical Markers of Reactive Gliosis

IV. Neurotrophic Properties of Reactive Astrocytes

V. Neural Tissue Transplantation: Response of Astrocytes in Host and Donor Tissue

VI. Concluding Remarks

References

Gliosis Following CNS Injury: The Anatomy of Astrocytic Scars and their Influences on Axonal Elongation

I. Introduction

II. Tissue Repair and Astrocytic Responses to CNS Injury

III. Cytological Features of Glial Scar Matrices during Wallerian Degeneration in White and Gray Matter

IV. Scar Formation at Injured Surfaces of the CNS and Reconstitution of the Glial-Limiting Membrane

V. Evidence Supporting the Glial Scar Hypothesis

VI. Opposing Views Concerning the Inhibitory Influence of Glial Scars on Regeneration

VII. Summary, Synthesis of Observations, and Future Directions

VIII. Conclusion

References

Astrocyte Modifications in Neurological Mutations of the Mouse

I. Introduction

II. Mutations Affecting Neuronal Migration

III. Neuronal Degeneration in Staggerer Mutation

IV. Cerebellar Mutations and Astrocyte Metabolism

V. Mutations Affecting Myelination

References

Astrocytoma

I. Clinical and Pathological Characteristics

II. Cellular and Molecular Biology

References

Astrocytes in Huntington's Chorea

I. Introduction

II. Neuronal Death in Huntington's Chorea

III. Astrogliosis in Huntington's Chorea

IV. Oligodendrocytes and Myelin

V. Microglia in Huntington's Chorea

VI. Glial-Neuronal and Glial-Glial Relationships in Huntington's Chorea

VII. Reactive versus Normal Astrocytes

VIII. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein

IX. Structural Protein Deficiencies in Huntington's Chorea

X. Glutamate, GABA, and Glial Cells

XI. Cell Membrane Changes in Huntington's Chorea

XII. Conclusions

References

Astrocytes in Alexander's Disease

I. Introduction

II. Types of Alexander's Disease

III. Pathological Changes

IV. Pathogenetic Considerations

References

Astrocytes in Epilepsy

I. Basic Mechanisms of Epilepsy

II. Astrocytes in Focal Epilepsy

III. Cell Culture Model for Astrocytes in Epilepsy

IV. Conclusions

References

Hepatic Encephalopathy: A Disorder of Astrocytes

I. Introduction

II. Etiological Factors

III. The Astrocyte Response

IV. Speculative Synthesis

V. Summary

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
486
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1986
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323148559

About the Editor

Sergey Fedorff