Arctic Pipeline Planning - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124165847, 9780124165885

Arctic Pipeline Planning

1st Edition

Design, Construction, and Equipment

Authors: Ramesh Singh
eBook ISBN: 9780124165885
Paperback ISBN: 9780124165847
Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
Published Date: 6th August 2013
Page Count: 136
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Utilize the most recent developments to combat challenges such as ice mechanics. The perfect companion for engineers wishing to learn state-of-the-art methods or further develop their knowledge of best practice techniques, Arctic Pipeline Planning provides a working knowledge of the technology and techniques for laying pipelines in the coldest regions of the world. Arctic Pipeline Planning provides must-have elements that can be utilized through all phases of arctic pipeline planning and construction. This includes information on how to:

  • Solve challenges in designing arctic pipelines
  • Protect pipelines from everyday threats such as ice gouging and permafrost
  • Maintain safety and communication for construction workers while supporting typical codes and standards

Key Features

  • Covers such issues as land survey, trenching or above ground, environmental impact of construction
  • Provides on-site problem-solving techniques utilized through all phases of arctic pipeline planning and construction
  • Is packed with easy-to-read and understandable tables and bullet lists


Piping Engineers, Designers, Civil Engineers, Mechanical Engineers, Petroleum Engineers and Chemical Engineers, and Project Production Engineer

Table of Contents




Part 1: History of Construction in the Arctic

Chapter 1. Introduction

1.1 Introduction and Background to Design and Construction of Arctic Pipeline

1.2 Typical Challenges

1.3 Current Arctic Proposals

1.4 Technology Transfer to Other Areas of the World

1.5 Offshore Pipelines in THE Arctic Area

Chapter 2. Design and Construction

2.1 Introduction to THE Arctic Environment

2.2 Addressing the Challenges of Design

2.3 Challenges of Designing Arctic Pipeline

2.4 River and Waterway Crossings

2.5 Calculations for Design

2.6 Examples of Calculation

2.7 Expansion and Flexibility

2.8 Unsupported Span of Pipe

2.9 Buoyancy of Pipes

2.10 Calculating the Stresses in the Pipe at the Transition from Belowground to Aboveground

2.11 First Scenario, Reducing Stresses Without Anchor Block

2.12 Second Scenario, Reducing Stresses with Anchor Block

2.13 Strain-Based Design

2.14 Construction Methods

2.15 Protection of Tundra

2.16 Grade and Slopes

2.17 Construction in Warm Permafrost

2.18 Design and Construction in Thaw Settlement of Gas Pipeline

2.19 Ditching and Backfilling

2.20 Control Valves

2.21 Pumps for Crude Oil Pipelines

2.22 Designing and Construction to Deter Ice Gouging

2.23 Design and Construction for Subsea Arctic Pipelines

2.24 Design and Construction of Pipeline Crossings

2.25 Thermal Expansion and Contraction

2.26 Design of Compressors and Pump Stations

2.27 Design of Compressor Stations

2.28 Designing a Gas Compressor Unit

2.29 Liquid-Removal Equipment

2.30 Emergency Shutdown Facilities

2.31 Station Piping

Part 2: Safety and Communication

Chapter 3. Safety on Construction Sites

3.1 Hazards to Construction Workers

3.2 Applicable Safety Regulations

Chapter 4. Pipeline System Communication

4.1 System Concepts

4.2 The Human–Machine Interface

4.3 Hardware Solutions

4.4 Remote Terminal Unit

4.5 Supervisory Station

4.6 Communication Infrastructure and Methods

4.7 SCADA System for Typical Gas Pipeline

4.8 SCADA Operator Workstations

4.9 SCADA Servers

4.10 Selection of Software

4.11 Communication Infrastructure Security

4.12 Typical Codes and Standards

Chapter 5. Electrical Equipments

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Design of Electrical Equipment

5.3 Conductor Size

Part 3: Selection of Materials

Chapter 6. Introduction to the Material Selection

Chapter 7. Material Properties in Low Temperature Environment

7.1 Ductility and Behavior of Steel in A Low Temperature Environment

7.2 Concept of Toughness and Loss of Toughness in a Low Temperature Environment

7.3 Fracture Toughness Kc

7.4 Metal Strength at Low Temperature

7.5 Types of Impact Tests

7.6 Energy Absorption in Impact Testing

7.7 Transition Temperature for Energy Absorption

7.8 Transition Temperature for Lateral Expansion

7.9 Drop-Weight Tear Test (DWTT)

7.10 Selecting Material from Specification and Code Books

Chapter 8. Line Pipes

8.1 Metallurgical Considerations for Line Pipe Steel

8.2 Submerged Arc Welded Line Pipes

8.3 Classification of Line Pipes

8.4 PSL 1 vs. PSL 2

8.5 Determination of Percentage Shear Through DWT Test for PSL 2 Welded Pipes

8.6 Ordering a Line Pipe

8.7 Pipes from Other Specifications

Chapter 9. Fittings and Forgings

9.1 ASME/ANSI B16.5—Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings

9.2 ASME/ANSI B16.9—Factory-Made Wrought Steel Butt Welding Fittings

9.3 ASME/ANSI B16.11—Forged Steel Fittings, Socket Welding and Threaded CONNECTIONS

9.4 ASME/ANSI B16.14—Ferrous Pipe Plugs, Bushings and Locknuts with Pipe Threads

9.5 ASME/ANSI B16.20—Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges Ring-Joint, Spiral-Wound, and Jacketed

9.6 ASME/ANSI B16.21—Nonmetallic Flat Gaskets for Pipe Flanges

9.7 ASME/ANSI B16.25—Butt Welding Ends

9.8 ASME/ANSI B16.28—Wrought Steel Butt Welding Short Radius Elbows and Returns

9.9 ASME/ANSI B16.36—Orifice Flanges

9.10 ASME/ANSI B16.39—Malleable Iron Threaded Pipe Unions

9.11 ASME/ANSI B16.42—Ductile Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, Classes 150 and 300

9.12 ASME/ANSI B16.47—Large Diameter Steel Flanges: NPS 26 through NPS 60

9.13 ASME/ANSI B16.48—Steel Line Blanks

9.14 ASME/ANSI B16.49—Factory-Made Wrought Steel Butt Welding Induction Bends for Transportation and Distribution Systems

Chapter 10. Valves

10.1 API 598 Valve Inspection and Testing

10.2 API 600 Steel Valves—Flanged and Butt Welded Ends

10.3 API 602: Compact Steel Gate Valves—Flanged, Threaded, Welding, and Extended Body Ends

10.4 API 603 Class 150 Cast, Corrosion Resistant Flanged End Gate Valves

10.5 API 608 Metal Ball Valves—Flanged and Butt Welded Ends

10.6 API 609: Butterfly Valves—Double Flanged, Lug and Wafer Type

10.7 Testing of Valves

10.8 NACE Trim and NACE Material

10.9 ASME Codes and Other Specifications

10.10 API 6D Specification for Pipeline Valves

10.11 API 6FA

10.12 API 526 Flanged Steel Pressure Relief Valves

10.13 API 527 Seat Tightness of Pressure Relief Valves (2002)

10.14 ANSI/API STD 594 Check Valves: Flanged, Lug, Wafer, and Butt Welding

10.15 ANSI/API 599: Metal Plug Valves—Flanged, Threaded, and Welding Ends

10.16 ASME/ANSI B16.38—Large Metallic Valves for Gas Distribution

10.17 ASME/ANSI B16.33—Manually Operated Metallic Gas Valves for Use in Gas Piping Systems Up to 125 psig

10.18 ASME/ANSI B16.40—Manually Operated Thermoplastic Gas Valves

10.19 ASME/ANSI B16.10—Face-to-Face and End-to-End Dimensions of Valves

10.20 ASME/ANSI B16.34—Valves—Flanged, Threaded, and Welding End



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Gulf Professional Publishing
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About the Author

Ramesh Singh

Ramesh Singh, MS, IEng, MWeldI, is registered as Incorporated Engineer with British Engineering Council UK and a Member of The Welding Institute, UK. He worked as engineer for various operating and EPC organizations in Middle East, Canada and US. Most recently, he worked for 10 years with Gulf Interstate Engineering, Houston, TX. He is now consulting in the fields of pipeline integrity and related materials and corrosion topics. Ramesh is a graduate from Indian Air Force Technical Academy, with diplomas in Structural Fabrication Engineering and Welding Technology. He has been member and officer of the Canadian Standard Association and NACE and serves on several technical committees. He has worked in industries spanning over aeronautical, alloy steel castings, fabrication, machining, welding engineering, petrochemical, and oil and gas. He has written several technical papers and published articles in leading industry magazines, addressing the practical aspects of welding, construction and corrosion issues relating to structures, equipment and pipelines.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Principal Engineer (Materials, Welding and Corrosion) for Gulf Interstate Engineering and Consultant, management of welding, materials, and corrosion, Nadoi Management, Inc.