Architectural Acoustics - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780123982582, 9780123982650

Architectural Acoustics

2nd Edition

Authors: Marshall Long
eBook ISBN: 9780123982650
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123982582
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 3rd March 2014
Page Count: 984
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Architectural Acoustics, Second Edition presents a thorough technical overview of the discipline, from basic concepts to specific design advice. Beginning with a brief history, it reviews the fundamentals of acoustics, human perception and reaction to sound, acoustic noise measurements, noise metrics, and environmental noise characterization. In-depth treatment is given to the theoretical principles and practical applications of wave acoustics, sound transmission, vibration and vibration isolation, and noise transmission in floors and mechanical systems.

Chapters on specific design problems demonstrate how to apply the theory, including treatment of multifamily dwellings, office buildings, rooms for speech, rooms for music, multipurpose rooms, auditoriums, sanctuaries, studios, listening rooms, and the design of sound reinforcement systems. Detailed figures illustrate the practical applications of acoustic principles, showing how to implement design ideas in actual structures.

This compendium of theoretical and practical design information brings the relevant concepts, equations, techniques, and specific design problems together in one place, including both fundamentals and more advanced material. Practicing engineers will find it an invaluable reference for their daily work, while advanced students will appreciate its rigorous treatment of the basic building blocks of acoustical theory.

Key Features

  • Considered the most complete resource in the field – includes basic fundamental relations, derived from first principles, and examples needed to solve real engineering problems.
  • Provides a well-organized text for students first approaching the subject as well as a reliable reference for experienced practitioners looking to refresh their technical knowledge base.
  • New content for developing professionals includes case studies and coverage of specific focus areas such as audio visual design, theaters, and concert halls.


Professional engineers, consultants and researchers in architectural acoustics, acoustical engineering and related mechanical and architectural fields. Upper-level undergraduate and postgraduate students undertaking engineering or architecture courses with related modules.

Table of Contents



First Edition Acknowledgments

Second Edition Acknowledgments

1. Historical Introduction

1.1 Greek and Roman Period (650 BC–AD 400)

1.2 Early Christian Period (AD 400–800)

1.3 Romanesque Period (800–1100)

1.4 Gothic Period (1100–1400)

1.5 Renaissance Period (1400–1600)

1.6 Baroque Period (1600–1750)

1.7 Origins of Sound Theory

1.8 Classical Period (1750–1825)

1.9 Romantic Period (1825–1900)

1.10 Beginnings of Modern Acoustics

1.11 Twentieth Century

2. Fundamentals of Acoustics

2.1 Frequency and Wavelength

2.2 Simple Harmonic Motion

2.3 Superposition of Waves

2.4 Sound Waves

2.5 Acoustical Properties

2.6 Levels

2.7 Source Characterization

3. Human Perception and Reaction to Sound

3.1 Human Hearing Mechanisms

3.2 Pitch

3.3 Loudness

3.4 Intelligibility

3.5 Annoyance

3.6 Health and Safety

3.7 Other Effects

4. Acoustic Measurements and Noise Metrics

4.1 Microphones

4.2 Sound Level Meters

4.3 Field Measurements

4.4 Broadband Noise Metrics

4.5 Band-Limited Noise Metrics

4.6 Specialized Measurement Techniques

5. Environmental Noise

5.1 Noise Characterization

5.2 Barriers

5.3 Environmental Effects

5.4 Traffic Noise Modeling

5.5 Railroad Noise

5.6 Aircraft Noise

6. Wave Acoustics

6.1 Resonance

6.2 Wave Equation

6.3 Simple Sources

6.4 Coherent Planar Sources

6.5 Loudspeakers

7. Sound and Solid Surfaces

7.1 Perfectly Reflecting Infinite Surfaces

7.2 Reflections from Finite Objects

7.3 Absorption

7.4 Absorption Mechanisms

7.5 Absorption by Nonporous Absorbers

7.6 Absorption by Resonant Absorbers

8. Sound in Enclosed Spaces

8.1 Standing Waves in Pipes and Tubes

8.2 Sound Propagation In Ducts

8.3 Sound in Rooms

8.4 Diffuse-Field Model of Rooms

8.5 Reverberant Field Effects

9. Sound Transmission Loss

9.1 Transmission loss

9.2 Single Panel Transmission Loss Theory

9.3 Double-Panel Transmission Loss Theory

9.4 Triple-Panel Transmission Loss Theory

9.5 Structural Connections

10. Sound Transmission in Buildings

10.1 Diffuse Field Sound Transmission

10.2 STC Ratings of Various Wall Types

10.3 Direct-Field Sound Transmission

10.4 Exterior to Interior Noise Transmission

11. Vibration and Vibration Isolation

11.1 Simple Harmonic Motion

11.2 Single Degree of Freedom Systems

11.3 Vibration Isolators

11.4 Support of Vibrating Equipment

11.5 Two Degree of Freedom Systems

11.6 Floor Vibrations

12. Noise Transmission in Floor Systems

12.1 Types of Noise Transmission

12.2 Airborne Noise Transmission

12.3 Footfall Noise

12.4 Structural Deflection

12.5 Floor Squeak

13. Noise in Mechanical Systems

13.1 Mechanical Systems

13.2 Noise Generated by Hvac Equipment

13.3 Noise Generation in Fans

13.4 Noise Generation in Ducts

13.5 Noise From Other Mechanical Equipment

14. Sound Attenuation in Ducts

14.1 Sound Propagation Through Ducts

14.2 Sound Propagation Through Plenums

14.3 Silencers

14.4 Breakout

14.5 Break-In

14.6 Control of Duct-Borne Noise

15. Design and Construction of Multifamily Dwellings

15.1 Codes and Standards

15.2 Party Wall Construction

15.3 Party Floor-Ceiling Separations

15.4 Plumbing and Piping Noise

15.5 Mechanical Equipment

15.6 Appliances and Other Sources of Noise

16. Design and Construction of Office Buildings

16.1 Speech Privacy in Open Offices

16.2 Speech Privacy in Closed Offices

16.3 Mechanical Equipment

17. Design of Rooms for Speech

17.1 General Acoustical Requirements

17.2 Speech Intelligibility

17.3 Design of Rooms for Speech Intelligibility

17.4 Motion Picture Theaters

18. Sound Reinforcement Systems

18.1 Loudspeaker Systems

18.2 Sound System Design

18.3 Characterization of Transducers

18.4 Computer Modeling of Sound Systems

19. Design of Rooms for Music

19.1 General Considerations

19.2 General Design Parameters

19.3 Quantifiable Acoustical Attributes

19.4 Concert Halls

19.5 Opera Halls

20. Design of Multipurpose Auditoria and Sanctuaries

20.1 General Design Considerations

20.2 Design of Specific Room Types

20.3 Specialized Design Problems

21. Design of Studios and Listening Rooms

21.1 Sound Recording

21.2 Principles of Room Design

21.3 Rooms for Listening

21.4 Rooms For Recording

21.5 Rooms for Mixing

21.6 Design Details in Studios

22. Acoustic Modeling, Ray Tracing, and Auralization

22.1 Acoustic Modeling

22.2 Ray Tracing

22.3 Specular Reflection of Rays from Surfaces

22.4 Diffuse Reflection of Rays from Surfaces

22.5 Auralization




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About the Author

Marshall Long

Since 1971, Marshall Long has been engaged in acoustical engineering consulting as principal of the firm he founded. Based in California, USA, Marshall Long Acoustics, has established a national and international reputation, completing over 3,000 projects in architectural acoustics, noise and vibration control, environmental impact assessment, and audio visual design. With engineering degrees from Princeton and UCLA, Dr. Long has taught acoustical engineering courses at UCLA and Southern California Institute of Architecture, and has guest lectured at Cal State Long Beach and USC. He has published numerous papers and articles in the field of acoustics. The author has recently been awarded a US patent on the recording and reproduction of three-dimensional sound. For further information visit the firm’s website at

Affiliations and Expertise

President, Marshall Long Acoustics, Sherman Oaks, CA, USA


"The strength of the book lies in the breadth of material that it covers, and it will work as a starting point for anyone interested in any of the many topics that the author presents."--Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, Architectural Acoustics, 2nd Edition

"...provides a comprehensive overview to the many aspects of architectural acoustics, sound isolation, equipment noise control and sound reinforcement systems, balancing both theoretical and practical considerations."--Noice Control Engineering Journal, July-August 2014

"…a first-rate reference for consultants who practice architectural acoustics or for architects and engineers who are looking for a complete compilation on acoustical techniques."--International Journal of Acoustics and Vibration