Applied Underwater Acoustics

Applied Underwater Acoustics

Leif Bjørnø

1st Edition - January 19, 2017

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  • Editors: Thomas Neighbors, David Bradley
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128112472
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128112403

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Applied Underwater Acoustics meets the needs of scientists and engineers working in underwater acoustics and graduate students solving problems in, and preparing theses on, topics in underwater acoustics. The book is structured to provide the basis for rapidly assimilating the essential underwater acoustic knowledge base for practical application to daily research and analysis. Each chapter of the book is self-supporting and focuses on a single topic and its relation to underwater acoustics. The chapters start with a brief description of the topic’s physical background, necessary definitions, and a short description of the applications, along with a roadmap to the chapter. The subtopics covered within individual subchapters include most frequently used equations that describe the topic. Equations are not derived, rather, assumptions behind equations and limitations on the applications of each equation are emphasized. Figures, tables, and illustrations related to the sub-topic are presented in an easy-to-use manner, and examples on the use of the equations, including appropriate figures and tables are also included.

Key Features

  • Provides a complete and up-to-date treatment of all major subjects of underwater acoustics
  • Presents chapters written by recognized experts in their individual field
  • Covers the fundamental knowledge scientists and engineers need to solve problems in underwater acoustics
  • Illuminates, in shorter sub-chapters, the modern applications of underwater acoustics that are described in worked examples
  • Demands no prior knowledge of underwater acoustics, and the physical principles and mathematics are designed to be readily understood by scientists, engineers, and graduate students of underwater acoustics
  • Includes a comprehensive list of literature references for each chapter


Graduate and postgraduate students, physicists, scientists and engineers in acoustics

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1. General Characteristics of the Underwater Environment

    • 1.1. Introduction
    • 1.2. A Brief Exposition of the History of Underwater Acoustics
    • 1.3. International Standard Units
    • 1.4. The Decibel Scales
    • 1.5. Features of Oceanography
    • 1.6. Sonar Equations
    • 1.7 Abbreviations

    Chapter 2. Sound Propagation

    • 2.1. The Concept of Waves
    • 2.2. Sound Propagation in a Viscous Fluid
    • 2.3. Sound Waves and Shear Waves in Marine Sediments
    • 2.4. Source or Receiver in Motion
    • 2.5. Sound Reflection and Transmission at a Fluid–Fluid Boundary
    • 2.6. The “Ideal” Waveguide
    • 2.7. The Pekeris Channel
    • 2.8. Three-Dimensional Propagation

    Chapter 3. Sound Propagation Modeling

    • 3.1. Ray Models
    • 3.2. Wave Number Integration or Spectral Methods
    • 3.3. Normal Mode Propagation Models
    • 3.4. Parabolic Equation Methods
    • 3.5. Finite-Difference and Finite-Element Methods
    • 3.6. 3-D Sound Propagation Models
    • List of Abbreviations and Symbols

    Chapter 4. Absorption of Sound in Seawater

    • 4.1. Physics and Phenomena
    • 4.2. Experimental Data
    • 4.3. Sound Absorption Mechanisms
    • 4.4. Formulas and Expressions
    • 4.5. Symbols and Abbreviations

    Chapter 5. Scattering of Sound

    • 5.1. Physics and Phenomena
    • 5.2. Scattering From Point-Like Objects
    • 5.3. Scattering From Extended, Nearly Plane, Rough Surfaces
    • 5.4. Theoretical Basis for Scattering Calculations
    • 5.5. Scattering From Curved, Rough Surfaces
    • 5.6. Reverberation
    • 5.7. Symbols and Abbreviations

    Chapter 6. Ambient Noise

    • 6.1. Physics and Phenomena
    • 6.2. Sources of Ambient Noise
    • 6.3. Spectra of Ambient Noise
    • 6.4. Directivity of Ambient Noise
    • 6.5. Coherence of Ambient Noise
    • 6.6. Self-Noise
    • 6.7. Amplitude Distributions for Underwater Noise
    • 6.8. Symbols and Abbreviations

    Chapter 7. Shallow-Water Acoustics

    • 7.1. What Is Shallow-Water Acoustics?
    • 7.2. Physics and Phenomena
    • 7.3. Some Additional Topics of Interest in Shallow-Water Acoustics
    • 7.4. Some Newer Topics
    • List of Acronyms
    • List of Symbols in Equations

    Chapter 8. The Seafloor

    • 8.1. Background and History
    • 8.2. The Origin and Nature of Seafloor Sediments
    • 8.3. Acoustics of Sediments
    • 8.4. Model for Sound Scattering by the Seafloor
    • 8.5. Sediment Physical Properties
    • 8.6. Sediment Geoacoustic Properties
    • 8.7. Seafloor Roughness
    • 8.8. Seafloor Heterogeneity
    • 8.9. Seafloor Identification and Characterization by Use of Sonar
    • List of Symbols

    Chapter 9. Inverse Methods in Underwater Acoustics

    • 9.1. Introduction
    • 9.2. Some Basic Mathematical Relationships
    • 9.3. Source Localization by Matched Field Processing
    • 9.4. Geoacoustic Inversion
    • 9.5. Ocean Acoustic Tomography

    Chapter 10. Sonar Systems

    • 10.1. Sonar System Applications
    • 10.2. Sonar System Types
    • 10.3. Single-Beam Echo Sounders
    • 10.4. Multibeam Echo Sounders
    • 10.5. Side-Scan Sonar
    • 10.6. Synthetic Aperture Sonar
    • 10.7. Other Sonar Types
    • 10.8. Transducer Calibration
    • 10.9. Sonar System Example Calculations
    • 10.10. Sonar Design Calculations
    • 10.11. Symbols and Abbreviations

    Chapter 11. Signal Processing

    • 11.1. Background and Definitions
    • 11.2. Characterizing the Signal and Noise
    • 11.3. Filtering
    • 11.4. Detection
    • 11.5. Estimation

    Chapter 12. Bio- and Fishery Acoustics

    • 12.1. Introduction
    • 12.2. Marine Life: From Whales to Plankton
    • 12.3. Acoustic Scattering by Marine Life
    • 12.4. Active Imaging Systems
    • 12.5. Marine Life and Sound
    • 12.6. Passive Acoustic Monitoring
    • 12.7. Selected Practical Applications
    • 12.8. Conclusions: Future Developments

    Chapter 13. Finite-Amplitude Waves

    • 13.1. Physics and Nonlinear Phenomena
    • 13.2. Nonlinear Underwater Acoustics
    • 13.3. Underwater Explosions
    • 13.4. List of Symbols and Abbreviations

    Chapter 14. Underwater Acoustic Measurements and Their Applications

    • 14.1. Introduction
    • 14.2. Acoustics and Marine Renewable Energy Developments
    • 14.3. Underwater Acoustics in Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Monitoring
    • 14.4. Characterization of Noise From Ships
    • 14.5. Underwater Soundscapes
    • 14.6. Underwater Acoustic Communications
    • 14.7. Underwater Archaeology
    • 14.8. Applications of Underwater Acoustics in Polar Environments
    • 14.9. Tank Experiments
    • 14.10. Acoustic Positioning at Sea
    • 14.11. Ocean Observing Systems and Ocean Observatories, Oceanographers, and Acousticians—A Personal Perspective
    • 14.12. Applications of Underwater Acoustics to Military Purposes

Product details

  • No. of pages: 980
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2017
  • Published: January 19, 2017
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128112472
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128112403

About the Editors

Thomas Neighbors

Thomas Neighbors
Thomas H. Neighbors III, PhD was a Chief Scientist at Leidos Corporation before retiring. Before Leidos split from SAIC he was a Vice President/Chief Scientist at SAIC and before that he was president of Falcon Associates. His publications span the spectrum from acousto-optics to nonlinear underwater acoustics to theory and scale model experiments on anomalous sea surface reverberation. For over a decade Dr. Neighbors was an Adjunct Physics Professor at Georgetown University and twice was a visiting professor at the Technical University of Denmark. He has given keynote papers and invited lectures at conferences on Sea Surface Sound, Underwater Acoustics, and Hydroacoustics. In the past he participated on scientific advisory panels and committees such as the International Conferences on Underwater Acoustic Measurements: Technology & Results and the Waterside Security Conferences.

Affiliations and Expertise

Leidos Corporation, Bellevue, WA, USA (Retired)

David Bradley

Dr. David Bradley is Senior Scientist and Professor of Acoustics at the Applied Research Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA, USA. He received a Bachelor’s Degree in physics from Michigan Technological University in 1960, a Master’s Degree in Physics from Michigan State University in 1963, and a Doctorate in Mechanical Engineering from the Catholic University of America in 1970. His research focuses on underwater acoustic propagation, scattering from complex ocean boundaries and ambient noise in the sea. Dr. Bradley has served as director of the NATO Underwater Research Center, La Spezia, Italy; superintendent of the Acoustics Division of the Naval Research Laboratory; and mine warfare technical adviser to the Chief of Naval Operations. Dr. Bradley's seminal contributions to the field of acoustics have been recognized with many awards and leadership positions within the ASA. They include the Meritorious Civilian Service Award, 1982; and Superior Civilian Service Award, in 1993 from the Department of the Navy. In the ASA he served as chair of the Underwater Acoustics Technical Committee, 1988-1991; on the Executive Council 1991 to 1992; as associate editor 1997-2001, and as chair, Medals and Awards Committee, 2003-2010. He was President of the Acoustical Society of America (ASA), 2012-2013.

Affiliations and Expertise

Applied Research Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA, USA

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