Applied Plastics Engineering Handbook - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781437735147, 9781437735154

Applied Plastics Engineering Handbook

1st Edition

Processing and Materials

Editors: Myer Kutz
Hardcover ISBN: 9781437735147
eBook ISBN: 9781437735154
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 20th July 2011
Page Count: 574
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Table of Contents


Series page


About the Editor


Introduction to the Plastics Industry

1. Plastics Materials

1.1. Polymeric Materials

2. Engineering Thermoplastics

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Aromatic Polyamides, Aramids

2.3. Semiaromatic Polyamides

2.4. Polyacetals

2.5. Polycarbonates

2.6. Poly(Phenylene Ether)

2.7. Polysulfones

2.8. Polybiphenyldisulfones

2.9. Thermoplastic Polyesters

2.10. Liquid Crystalline Polymers (Polyesters)

2.11. Poly(Phenylene Sulfide)

2.12. Polyetherimide

2.13. Polyimides

2.14. Polyamide Imides

2.15. Aromatic Polyketones

2.16. Polyarylates

2.17. Aliphatic Polyketones

2.18. Syndiotactic Polystyrene

2.19. Polyphenylene

2.20. Trends in Engineering Thermoplastics

2.21. Conclusions

3. Polyolefins

3.1. Industrial Processes for Polyolefin Production

3.2. Classes of Polyolefins

3.3. Catalysts for Olefin Polymerization

3.4. Industrial Reactors

3.5. Polyolefin Properties

3.6. Applications

3.7. Polyolefin Composites

4. Introduction to Fluoropolymers

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Fluoropolymer Classification

4.3. Polymer Development History

4.4. Monomer Synthesis

4.5. Monomer Properties

4.6. Polymerization and Finishing

4.7. Structure–Property Relationship

4.8. Polymer Properties of PTFE

4.9. Fabrication Techniques

4.10. Applications

4.11. Safety

4.12. Economy

4.13. Summary

5. Poly(Vinyl Chloride)

5.1. Introduction [1,2,3]

5.2. Synthesis of Vinyl Chloride [3,5]

5.3. PVC Resin Synthesis and Characterization [1,2,3]

5.4. PVC Compounds: Processing and Applications [7,8]

5.5. Recycling PVC [12]

5.6. Vinyl: Sustainability and Energy Efficiency [13]

5.7. Vinyl Chloride and Health

5.8. Dioxin

6. Thermoplastic Elastomers

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Classification and Structure

6.3. Production

6.4. Structure–Property Relationships

6.5. Applications

6.6. Economic Aspects and Trade Names

7. Thermoset Elastomers

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Some Experimental Details

7.3. Typical Stress–Strain Behavior

7.4. Control of Network Structure

7.5. Networks at Very High Deformations

7.6. Multimodal Chain-Length Distributions

7.7. Other Types of Deformation

7.8. Filler-Reinforced Elastomers and Elastomer-Modified Ceramics

7.9. Current Problems and Future Trends

8. Nanocomposites

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Factors Determining the Properties of Heterogeneous Polymer Systems

8.3. Nanocomposite Structure

8.4. Interfacial Interactions

8.5. Nanocomposite Preparation

8.6. Composite Properties

8.7. Possible Applications

8.8. Conclusions

9. Biodegradable and Biobased Polymers

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Naturally Occurring Biodegradable Polymers

9.3. Biodegradable Polymers Derived from Renewable Resources

9.4. Biodegradable Polymers Derived from Petroleum

9.5. Biobased Polymers Derived from Plant Oil

9.6. Concluding Remarks

10. Polymeric Biomaterials

10.1. Introduction

10.2. Polymeric Biomaterials in Ophthalmology

10.3. Polymeric Biomaterials in Orthopedics

10.4. Polymeric Biomaterials in Cardiovascular

10.5. Polymeric Biomaterials for Wound Closure

10.6. Polymeric Biomaterials in Extracorporeal Artificial Organs

10.7. Polymeric Biomaterials for Nerve Regeneration

10.8. Conclusions and Future Outlook

11. Recycling of Plastics

11.1. Introduction

11.2. Technology to Recycle Plastics

11.3. Challenges

11.4. Industries and Industry Organizations

11.5. Products

11.6. Conclusions

12. Plastics Processing

12.1. Overview of Rheology

12.2. Plastics in Flow

12.3. Types of Flow

12.4. Orientation

12.5. Shear

12.6. Viscosity

12.7. Measuring Viscosity

12.8. Molding

12.9. Extrusion

12.10. Blow Molding

12.11. Thermoforming

12.12. Rotational Molding

12.13. Composites Fabrication

13. Injection Molding Technology

13.1. The Injection Molding Screw

14. Microcellular Injection Molding

14.1. Introduction

14.2. Background

14.3. General Discussion of Foam Processing

14.4. General Discussion of Microcellular Processing

14.5. General Discussion of Microcellular Injection Molding

14.6. Process Monitoring and Control Methods for Microcellular Injection Molding

14.7. Equipment Requirements for Microcellular Foam Injection Molding

14.8. Trexel's MuCell® Technology

14.9. Other Physical Foaming Techniques

14.10. Typical Objectives of Microcellular Injection Molding

14.11. Limitations of Microcellular Injection Molding

14.12. Best Target Applications

14.13. More Challenging Situations

14.14. Commercial Examples

14.15. Future Trends

15. Extrusion Processes

15.1. Introduction

15.2. Single-Screw Extruders

15.3. Single-Screw Extruder Mechanisms

15.4. Melting Mechanism

15.5. Metering Mechanism

15.6. Shaping and Drawing and Extrusion Applications

15.7. Coextrusion

15.8. Extrusion Laminations and Coatings

15.9. Solidification and Cooling

15.10. Never Stand in Front of a Die when an Extruder Is Starting up

16. Blow Molding

16.1. Introduction

16.2. The Process

16.3. Formulas for Blow Molding

16.4. Troubleshooting

17. Compression Molding

17.1. Basics of Processing by Compression Molding

17.2. Molding Force and Pressure

17.3. Typical Presses

17.4. Compression Molds and Associated Tooling

17.5. Commonly Used Resins

17.6. Resin Charge Characteristics

17.7. Processing Parameters for Granules, Powders, and Preforms

17.8. Resin Matrix Modifiers

17.9. Engineered Fiber-Reinforced Molding Compounds

17.10. Comparisons with Transfer Molding and Injection Molding

17.11. Similar Processes

17.12. Modeling the Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer of Mold Filling

17.13. Ensuring Part Quality

18. Rotational Molding

18.1. Introduction

18.2. Rotational Molding Process

18.3. Materials for Rotational Molding

18.4. Molds for Rotational Molding

18.5. Machinery for Rotational Molding

18.6. Design for Rotational Molding

19. Thermoforming

19.1. Introduction

19.2. Thermoforming Characteristics

19.3. Thermoformed Product Characteristics

19.4. The Thermoforming Concept

19.5. Thermoforming Machinery

19.6. Thin-Gauge Thermoforming

19.7. Thick-Gauge Thermoforming

19.8. Other Thermoforming Technologies

19.9. Heaters

19.10. Electric Rod Heaters

19.11. Electric Plate Heaters

19.12. Gas Combustion Heaters

19.13. Thermoforming Mold Materials

19.14. Production Mold Materials

19.15. Prototype Mold Materials

19.16. Mold Design

19.17. Plug Materials

19.18. Other Mold Features

19.19. Plastic Materials

19.20. Thermoforming Window

19.21. Semicrystalline Plastics

19.22. Bio-based Plastics

19.23. Filled and Reinforced Plastics

19.24. Multilayer Products

19.25. Foamed Plastics [19]

19.26. Thermal Characteristics of Plastics

19.27. Product Design

19.28. Shrinkage

19.29. Draft Angles

19.30. Corner

19.31. Dimensional Tolerance

19.32. Operational Aspects of Thermoforming [25]

20. Process Monitoring and Process Control

20.1. Introduction

20.2. Historical Factors Affecting the Development of Process Monitoring and Controls

20.3. Basic Concepts: Open-Loop and Closed-Loop Controls

20.4. Transducers Used in Plastics Processes

20.5. Data Acquisition Systems

20.6. General Control Strategies: Extrusion Versus Injection Molding

20.7. Process Control Applications Overview: Extrusion

20.8. Process Control Applications Overview: Injection Molding

20.9. Process Development Tools

20.10. Conclusions

21. Polymer Stabilization

21.1. Introduction

21.2. Degradation Chemistry

21.3. Stabilizers

21.4. Performance of Stabilizers

21.5. Other Factors Determining the Choice of Stabilizers

Appendix 1. Chemical structure, CAS number, and several trade names of several stabilizers

22. Chaotic Advection and Its Application to Extruding Micro- and Nanostructured Plastic Materials

22.1. Applicability and Fundamentals

22.2. Machinery and Process Control

22.3. Micro- and Nanolayered Plastics

22.4. Polymer Blends

22.5. Polymer–Solid Composites and Nanocomposites

22.6. Mixtures and Nanodispersions

22.7. Decoration

23. Plastics Additives

23.1. Introduction

23.2. Overview

23.3. Thermal Stabilizers

23.4. Nucleating Agents

23.5. Antioxidants

23.6. Flame Retardants

23.7. Color and Colorants

23.8. Fillers

23.9. Reinforcements

23.10. Impact Modifiers and Impact Modification

23.11. Miscellaneous

24a. Coating Plastics

24a.1. Introduction

24a.2. Plastics as Substrates

24a.3. Powder Coatings

24a.4. Electron Beam and Ultraviolet Curing Coatings

24b. Colorants for Thermoplastic Polymers

24b.1. Some Useful Color Terminology

24b.2. Pigments

24b.3. Dyes

24b.4. Special Effect Colorants

24b.5. Colorant Forms

24b.6. Other Resources

25. Dispersants and Coupling Agents

25.1. Introduction

25.2. Dispersants

25.3. Practical Use Considerations

25.4. Types of Dispersants

25.5. Property Effects

25.6. Coupling Agents

25.7. Conclusions

26. Functional Fillers for Plastics

26.1. Introduction

26.2. The Basics

26.3. Thermal and Electrical Properties

26.4. Hardness, Friction, Scratch Resistance, and Wear

26.5. Barrier Properties

26.6. Optical Properties

26.7. Processing

26.8. Extra Phase Effects

26.9. Popular Fillers (Table 26.3)

26.10. Specialty Fillers

27. Flame Retardants

27.1. Introduction—What Is a Flame Retardant (FR)?

27.2. Fire Statistics—Why Do We Use Flame Retardants?

27.3. FR Applications—Where Are Flame Retardants Used?

27.4. Flammability Standards and Test Methods—How Is FR Effectiveness Measured?

27.5. UL94 (Issued by Underwriters Laboratories) [7]

27.6. Limiting Oxygen Index or LOI (ASTM D2863) [8]

27.7. Steiner Tunnel (ASTM E84) [9]

27.8. Vertical Tray Cable Test (IEEE 383) [10]

27.9. Smoke Measurement—What Is Smoke and How Is It Measured?

27.10. FR Standards Issuing Organizations—Where Do All These Tests Come From?

27.11. Market Drivers—What Else Should Be Known Before Formulating an FR Product?

27.12. What is Wrong with Halogen FRs?

27.13. Flame Retardants—What Compounds Are Used?

27.14. FR 101—What Are the Major FR Technologies and How Do They Work?

27.15. The Three Major FR Technologies

27.16. Halogen FRs—Selected Products

27.17. Halogen FR Synergists

27.18. Halogen FRs and REACH

27.19. Metal Hydrate FRs

27.20. Phosphorus FRs

27.21. Other FRs

27.22. Smoke Suppressants

27.23. Nanotechnology and Flame Retardance

27.24. Conclusion

28. Plasticizers

28.1. Introduction

28.2. Mechanism of Plasticization

28.3. Types of Plasticizers

28.4. Phthalate Esters

28.5. Dibasic Acid Esters

28.6. Trimellitate Esters

28.7. Terephthalate Esters

28.8. Cyclohexanoate Esters

28.9. Citrate Esters

28.10. Benzoate Esters

28.11. Phosphate Esters

28.12. Modified Vegetable/Plant Oil Esters

28.13. Polyester Plasticizers

28.14. Plasticizer Characteristics and Performance of Flexible PVC

28.15. Plasticizer Selection for Specific Applications

28.16. Plasticizers for Other Polymers

28.17. Human Health Aspects of Plasticizers

28.18. Future of Plasticizers

29. Adhesion Promoters

29.1. General Concepts

29.2. Nature of Silane Adhesion Promoters

29.3. Mechanism of Adhesion Promotion

29.4. Optimizing Coupling Agent Performance

29.5. How to Choose a Silane Coupling Agent?

29.6. General Applications of Silane Coupling Agents

29.7. Industry and Utility

29.8. Other Types of Adhesion Promoters

29.9. Sources of Silanes

30. Chemical Mechanical Polishing: Role of Polymeric Additives and Composite Particles in Slurries

30.1. Introduction

30.2. Inorganic Abrasive Particles

30.3. Organic Additives

30.4. Composite Abrasives

30.5. Conclusions

31. Design of Plastic Parts

31.1. Introduction

31.2. Process Selection

31.3. Structural Design

31.4. Conclusions

32. Plastics in Buildings and Construction

32.1. Introduction

32.2. Applications

32.3. Plastic Applications in Green Building Design

32.4. Conclusions

33. Infrastructure Applications of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites

33.1. Introduction

33.2. Products and Applications

33.3. Durability of Polymer Composites

33.4. Summary

34. The Plastic Piping Industry in North America

34.1. Introduction

34.2. Thermoplastic Pipe and Fittings Materials

34.3. New Developments in Polyethylene Materials for Piping

34.4. Chlorinated Polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) Materials

34.5. Crosslinked Polythylene (PEX) Materials

34.6. Crosslinking Technologies

34.7. Polypropylene (PP) Materials

34.8. Polybutylene (PB) Materials

34.9. Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) Materials

34.10. Nylon (PA) Materials

34.11. Fluoropolymer Materials

34.12. Engineering Plastic Materials

34.13. Mulitlayer Piping Products

34.14. Composite Piping Products

34.15. Fiberglass Reinforced Thermoset Piping

34.16. Pipeline and Piping Rehabilitation Technologies

34.17. Plastic Pipe and Fittings Manufacturing Processes

34.18. Long-Term Strength Testing of Thermoplastic Piping Materials

34.19. Test Methods for Determining Long-Term Hydrostatic Strength

34.20. Validation of Polyethylene Pipe Materials

34.21. Popelar Shift Function Calculations for PE Pipe Materials

34.22. Ductile-to-Brittle Transition and Failure Mechanisms

34.23. Long-Term Strength Testing of Reinforced Thermosetting Piping

34.24. Long-Term Strength Testing of Reinforced Composite Piping

34.25. Design of Plastic Piping Systems

34.26. Specifications, Product Standards, Test Methods, and Codes

34.27. Regulatory

34.28. Applications of Thermoplastic Plastic Piping

34.29. Installation Using Thermoplastic Pipe for Pipeline Replacement

34.30. Applications of Composite Piping

Chapter 35. PET Use in Blow Molded Rigid Packaging

35.1. Introduction



A practical reference for all plastics engineers who are seeking to answer a question, solve a problem, reduce a cost, improve a design or fabrication process, or even venture into a new market. Applied Plastics Engineering Handbook covers both polymer basics – helpful to bring readers quickly up to speed if they are not familiar with a particular area of plastics processing – and recent developments – enabling practitioners to discover which options best fit their requirements. Each chapter is an authoritative source of practical advice for engineers, providing authoritative guidance from experts that will lead to cost savings and process improvements. Throughout the book, the focus is on the engineering aspects of producing and using plastics. The properties of plastics are explained along with techniques for testing, measuring, enhancing and analyzing them.

Key Features

  • Practical introductions to both core topics and new developments make this work equally valuable for newly qualified plastics engineers seeking the practical rules-of-thumb they don’t teach you in school, and experienced practitioners evaluating new technologies or getting up to speed on a new field
  • The depth and detail of the coverage of new developments enables engineers and managers to gain knowledge of, and evaluate, new technologies and materials in key growth areas such as biomaterials and nanotechnology
  • This highly practical handbook is set apart from other references in the field, being written by engineers for an audience of engineers and providing a wealth of real-world examples, best practice guidance and rules-of-thumb


Plastics engineers, polymer scientists, materials engineers, equipment manufacturers, product design engineers, mechanical engineers, chemical engineers, biomaterials engineers, consultants, research & development departments, academics


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© William Andrew 2011
William Andrew
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"An authoritative source of practical advice for engineers, providing authoritative guidance from experts that will lead to cost savings and process improvements. Throughout the book, the focus is on the engineering aspects of producing and using plastics. The properties of plastics are explained along with techniques for testing, measuring, enhancing and analyzing them. Materials and additives are described as well as their characteristics and effects. The technologies and machinery used in processing operations are covered with reference to product design. And recent developments in a cross-section of applications demonstrate in a pragmatic way, the opportunities as well as the limitations of plastics."

About the Editors

Myer Kutz Editor

Myer Kutz has headed his own firm, Myer Kutz Associates, Inc., since 1990. For the past several years, he has focused on writing and on developing engineering handbooks on a wide range of technical topics, such as mechanical, materials, biomedical, transportation, and environmentally conscious engineering, for a number of publishers, including Wiley, McGraw-Hill, and Elsevier. Earlier, his firm supplied consulting services to a large client roster, including Fortune 500 companies, scientific societies, and large and small publishers. The firm published two major multi-client studies, “The Changing Landscape for College Publishing” and “The Developing Worlds of Personalized Information.” Before starting his independent consultancy, Kutz held a number of positions at Wiley, including acquisitions editor, director of electronic publishing, and vice president for scientific and technical publishing. He has been a trustee of the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) and chaired committees of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Association of American Publishers. He holds engineering degrees from MIT and RPI, served as an officer in the US Army Ordnance Corp, and worked in the aerospace industry on the Apollo project. In addition to his edited reference works, he is the author of nine books, including Temperature Control, published by Wiley, Rockefeller Power, published by Simon & Schuster, the novel, Midtown North, published under the name Mike Curtis, and most recently the independently published novel, In the Grip. He is the editor of the Bulletin of the Professional Scholarly Publishing Division of the Association of American Publishers and writes The Scholarly Publishing Scene column for the magazine Against the Grain. He lives in Delmar, NY, with his wife, Arlene.

Affiliations and Expertise

Myer Kutz Associates. Inc., Delmar, NY, USA