Applied Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

Applied Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

2nd Edition - January 1, 1970

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  • Authors: C. E. Crouthamel, F. Adams, R. Dams
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483280561

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Applied Gamma-Ray Spectrometry covers real life application of the gamma-ray and the devices used in their experimental studies. This book is organized into 9 chapters, and starts with discussions of the various decay processes, the possible interaction mechanisms of gamma radiation with matter, and the intrinsic and extrinsic variables, which affect the observed gamma-ray and X-ray spectra. The subsequent chapters deal with the properties and fabrication of scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and proportional gas counters. These chapters present some of the most widely utilized applications of these detectors, with a particular emphasis to the activation analysis. These topics are followed by reviews of the description of basic equipment, such as amplifiers, analyzers, special spectrometer arrangements, and detector shielding. Other chapters describe energy and time resolution and quantitative calibration. The quantitative and qualitative interpretation of the spectra is also explained, along with the calibration of the detectors. The last chapter considers the analytical applications of gamma-ray and X-ray spectrometry in tracer studies, activation analysis, fission product studies, and X-ray fluorescence analysis. This book will be of value to analytical chemists and analytical chemistry researchers.

Table of Contents

  • Preface to the Second Edition

    Preface to the First Edition



    Chapter 1. Intrinsic Variables

    1. Types of Emission and Decay Schemes of Unstable Nuclei

    A. Gamma Emission and Internal Conversion

    B. Isomeric Transition

    C. Angular Correlation of Gamma-Rays in Cascade

    D. Characteristic X-Ray Excitation

    E. Beta Transitions (EC, ß+ and ß-)

    2. Interaction Processes of Radiation With Matter

    A. Photoelectric Effect

    B. Compton Scattering

    C. Pair Production

    D. Bremsstrahlung

    3. Gamma-Ray Detectors


    Chapter 2. Scintillation Detectors

    1. Principles of Scintillation

    A. The Energy Band Model

    B. Conditions for Luminescence

    C. Luminescent Materials

    D. The Mechanism of Scintillation

    E. Classification of Scintillators

    2. The Detection of Scintillations

    A. Reflectors and Cans

    B. Optical Coupling and Light Pipe

    C. Photomultipliers

    3. Sodium Iodide-Thallium Activated Crystals

    A. Physical Properties

    B. Preparation

    C. Surface Effects

    D. Machining

    E. Packaging


    Chapter 3. Semiconductor Gamma Detectors

    1. General Considerations

    A. Semiconductor Properties

    B. Detector Requirements

    C. Junction Detectors

    D. Gamma Detectors

    2. The Lithium Ion Drift Process and the Germanium-Lithium System

    A. Lithium Ion Drift

    B. Ion Pairing

    C. Lithium Precipitation

    3. Fabrication of Lithium Drifted Detectors

    A. Material Considerations

    B. Fabrication of Germanium-Lithium Drifted Detectors

    C. Detector Mounting and Surface Sensitivity

    D. Temperature Sensitivity and the Exactness of the Compensation

    E. Detector Configurations

    F. Cryostat Considerations

    4. Germanium-Lithium Drifted Detector Characteristics

    A. Operation Temperature

    B. Radiation Damage in Germanium Detectors

    C. Linearity

    D. Detection Efficiency

    5. Other Semiconductor Gamma Detectors

    6. Silicon-Lithium Drifted Detectors


    Chapter 4. Proportional Counters as Spectrometers for Low Energy Applications

    1. Proportional Gas Counter

    2. Semiconductor Detectors With Internal Amplification


    Chapter 5. Instrumentation

    1. Amplification Equipment

    A. Preamplifier

    B. Pulse Shaping

    C. Low Noise Preamplifier Design

    D. Other Pulse-Shaping Networks

    E. Linear Amplifiers for High Resolution Spectrometry

    F. Base Line Restoration

    2. Analyzing Equipment

    A. Analogue-To-Digital Converter

    B. Data Storage

    C. Analyzer Characteristics

    D. Dead Time Correction

    Ε. Linearity

    F. Stability

    G. Other Amplifier Requirements

    H. Biased Amplifier

    I. High Voltage Supply

    3. Special Spectrometer Arrangements

    A. Total Absorption Spectrometers and Anti-Coincidence Arrangements

    B. Compton Spectrometer

    C. Pair Spectrometer

    D. Coincidence Spectrometry

    4. Design of the Detector Shielding and Analysis of the Sources of the Detector Background


    Chapter 6. Energy and Time Resolution

    1. Scintillation Spectrometer Statistics

    A. Pulse Amplitude Resolution

    B. Time Resolution and Pulse Shape

    2. Energy Resolution of Germanium (Lithium) Detectors

    A. Detector Noise

    B. Statistical Spread in the Number of Carriers

    C. Pulse Shape and the Fundamental Limits of Time Resolution of Germanium Detectors

    3. Energy Resolution of the Proportional Gas Counter


    Chapter 7. Calibration of the Detectors

    1. Computed Efficiency of Sodium Iodide Detectors

    2. Experimental Efficiency Calibration of Sodium Iodide Detectors

    A. Measurement of the Full Energy Peak Efficiency By the Klein-Nishina

    Differential Cross-Section of Compton-Scattered Radiation

    B. Experimental Determination of the Full Energy Peak Efficiency

    C. Experimental Full Energy Peak Efficiency From Absolute Disintegration Rates

    D. Special Effects in Measuring the Full Energy Peak Efficiency

    3. Calibration of Germanium Detectors


    Chapter 8. Gamma Spectrometric Determination of Identity, Purity, and Quantity of Radionuclides

    1. Source Preparation

    2. Determination of Identity and Energy Calibration

    3. Purity Control and Effects Complicating Gamma-Ray Spectra

    4. Determination of the Peak Area

    5. Limits of Qualitative Detection and Quantitative Determination

    6. Data Reduction

    A. Scintillation Spectrum Resolution

    B. Germanium (Lithium) Spectrum Analysis


    Chapter 9. Specific Applications

    1. Tracer Applications

    A. Method Studies

    B. Isotope Dilution Analysis

    C. Radioreagent Methods

    2. Activation Analysis

    A. General Considerations

    B. Neutron Sources and Cross-Sections

    C. Photon Activation

    D. Charged Particle Activation

    E. Formation of Radioactive Species

    F. General Outline of Activation Analysis

    G. Nondestructive Activation Analysis

    H. Radiochemical Separations

    I. Sensitivity

    J. Precision and Accuracy

    K. Applications

    3. Fission Product Studies

    4. Whole-Body Counters, Scanners, and Scintillation Cameras

    5. Nondispersive X-Ray Spectrometry


    Appendix I. X-Ray Critical Absorption and Emission Energies in Kilo Electron Volts

    Appendix II. A Compilation of Gamma-Ray Spectra (Sodium Iodide Detector)

    Appendix III. A Compilation of Gamma-Ray Spectra (Germanium Detector)

    Appendix IV. Intrinsic Efficiencies of Right Cylindrical Sodium Iodide Crystals

    Appendix V. Internal Conversion Coefficients

    Appendix VI. Photon Energy, Atomic Number, and Half-Life Sequences of the Nuclides

    Appendix VII. A Compilation of Precise Gamma-Ray Energies of Isotopes Produced By Neutron Bombardment


Product details

  • No. of pages: 772
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1970
  • Published: January 1, 1970
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483280561

About the Authors

C. E. Crouthamel

F. Adams

R. Dams

About the Editors

R. Belcher

H. Freiser

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