Antioxidants Effects in Health

Antioxidants Effects in Health

The Bright and the Dark Side

1st Edition - June 16, 2022

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  • Editors: Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Ana Silva
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128190975
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128190968

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Description

Antioxidants Effects in Health: The Bright and the Dark Side examines the role that antioxidants play in a variety of health and disease situations. The book discusses antioxidants’ historical evolution, their oxidative stress, and contains a detailed approach of 1) endogenous antioxidants, including endogenous sources, mechanisms of action, beneficial and detrimental effects on health, in vitro evidence, animal studies and clinical studies; 2) synthetic antioxidants, including sources, chemistry, bioavailability, legal status, mechanisms of action, beneficial and detrimental effects on health, in vitro evidence, animal studies and clinical studies; and 3) natural antioxidants, including sources, chemistry, bioavailability, mechanisms of action, possible prooxidant activity; beneficial and detrimental effects on health, in vitro evidence, animal studies and clinical studies. Throughout the boo, the relationship of antioxidants with different beneficial and detrimental effects are examined, and the current controversies and future perspectives are addressed and explored. Antioxidants Effects in Health: The Bright and the Dark Side evaluates the current scientific evidence on antioxidant topics, focusing on endogenous antioxidants, naturally occurring antioxidants and synthetic antioxidants. It will be a helpful resource for pharmaceutical scientists, health professionals, those studying natural chemistry, phytochemistry, pharmacognosy, natural product synthesis, and experts in formulation of herbal and natural pharmaceuticals.

Key Features

  • Introduces recent information on antioxidants in a systematic way
  • Provides an overview of the history and function of antioxidants
  • Contains discussion of antioxidants including their chemistry, sources and main effects

Readership

Pharmacologists; Biomedical researchers; phytochemistry, pharmacognosy, and natural product researchers; chemists; industry and government regulatory agencies

Table of Contents

  • Cover Image
  • Title Page
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Table of Contents
  • Contributors
  • About the editors
  • Preface
  • Part 1 Introduction
  • Chapter 1.1 Evolution of antioxidants over times (including current global market and trend)
  • 1.1.1 Introduction
  • 1.1.2 Antioxidants in early human use
  • 1.1.3 Types of antioxidants and their mode of action
  • 1.1.4 Current research focus and trends
  • 1.1.5 Current global market
  • 1.1.6 Economic burden and cost benefit of antioxidants
  • 1.1.7 Adverse effect of antioxidants
  • Conclusion
  • Conflict of interest
  • Abbreviations
  • References
  • Chapter 1.2 The oxidative stress: Causes, free radicals, targets, mechanisms, affected organs, effects, indicators
  • 1.2.1 Introduction
  • 1.2.2 Oxidative stress
  • 1.2.3 Targets of free radicals
  • 1.2.4 Free radicals and their damaging effect on organs
  • 1.2.5 Biomarkers
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 1.3 Food auto-oxidation: An overview
  • 1.3.1 Introduction
  • 1.3.2 Mechanism of auto-oxidation
  • 1.3.3 Methods for the determination of food auto-oxidation
  • 1.3.4 Factors influencing auto-oxidation
  • 1.3.5 Toxic effects of food auto-oxidation
  • 1.3.6 Prevention of food auto-oxidation
  • 1.3.7 Antioxidants used in the food industry
  • 1.3.8 Effect of antioxidants on human health
  • 1.3.9 Regulatory guidelines/aspects
  • 1.3.10 Current challenges
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • Abbreviations
  • References
  • Part 2 Endogenous antioxidants
  • Chapter 2.1 Bilirubin
  • 2.1.1 Origin and structure
  • 2.1.2 Bilirubin synthesis
  • 2.1.3 Bilirubin metabolism and excretion
  • 2.1.4 Bilirubin as an antioxidant
  • 2.1.5 Bilirubin and its potential detrimental effects
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 2.2 Catalase
  • 2.2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2.2 Endogenous and exogenous sources
  • 2.2.3 Catalase: Importance, benefits, and activity
  • 2.2.4 Impact of physiological, behavioral and environmental factors on catalase activity
  • 2.2.5 Role of catalase as a biomarker for oxidative stress
  • 2.2.6 Mechanism of action of catalase
  • 2.2.7 In vitro and in vivo studies
  • 2.2.8 Clinical Study
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 2.3 Coenzyme Q: An endogenous antioxidant
  • 2.3.1 Introduction
  • 2.3.2 Mechanism of action of coenzyme Q10
  • 2.3.3 Coenzyme Q10 as pro-oxidant
  • 2.3.4 Beneficial effects
  • 2.3.5 In-vitro and in-vivo studies
  • Conclusion
  • Conflict of interest
  • Abbreviations
  • References
  • Chapter 2.4 Ferritin
  • 2.4.1 Introduction
  • 2.4.2 Serum ferritin level as a diagnostic biomarker
  • 2.4.3 Role of ferritin in Fe homeostasis
  • 2.4.4 Ferritin and oxidative stress
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 2.5 Glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase
  • 2.5.1 Introduction
  • 2.5.2 Mechanism of action
  • 2.5.3 Beneficial effects of glucose-6-phosphate on health
  • 2.5.4 Detrimental effects of glucose-6-phosphate on health
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 2.6 Melatonin
  • 2.6.1 Endogenous sources
  • 2.6.2 Mechanisms of action
  • 2.6.3 Beneficial effects of melatonin on health
  • 2.6.4 Effects of melatonin on diseases
  • Conclusion/future prospects
  • References
  • Chapter 2.7 Superoxide dismutase
  • 2.7.1 Introduction
  • 2.7.2 Classifications of different types of superoxide dismutase
  • 2.7.3 Mechanism of action
  • 2.7.4 Beneficial roles of superoxide dismutases
  • 2.7.5 Superoxide dismutases and diseases
  • 2.7.6 Superoxide dismutase as a therapeutic target against various diseases
  • 2.7.7 Adverse effects of superoxide dismutase
  • 2.7.8 Optimum dose, route of administration, and limitations of therapeutic use of superoxide dismutase
  • Conclusion
  • Abbreviations
  • References
  • Chapter 2.8 Uric acid
  • 2.8.1 Introduction
  • 2.8.2 Antioxidant effect of uric acid
  • 2.8.3 Pro-oxidant activity of uric acid
  • 2.8.4 Beneficial effects of uric acid
  • 2.8.5 Increasing the bioavailability of uric acid
  • 2.8.6 Detrimental effects of uric acid
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Part 3 Synthetic antioxidants: bright and the dark side
  • Chapter 3.1 Ascorbyl palmitate
  • 3.1.1 Chemistry
  • 3.1.2 Synthesis
  • 3.1.3 Legal status
  • 3.1.4 Mechanism of action
  • 3.1.5 Effects on health
  • Conclusions
  • Authors’ contribution
  • References
  • Chapter 3.2 Butylated hydroxyanisole
  • 3.2.1 Chemistry
  • 3.2.2 Synthesis
  • 3.2.3 Legal status
  • 3.2.4 Mechanisms of action
  • 3.2.5 Effects on health
  • Conclusions
  • Authors’ contribution
  • References
  • Chapter 3.3 Butylated hydroxytoluene
  • 3.3.1 Chemistry
  • 3.3.2 Synthesis
  • 3.3.3 Legal status
  • 3.3.4 Mechanisms of action
  • 3.3.5 Effects on health
  • Conclusions
  • Authors’ contribution
  • References
  • Chapter 3.4 Erythorbic acid (D-ascorbic acid)
  • 3.4.1 Chemistry
  • 3.4.2 Synthesis
  • 3.4.3 Legal status
  • 3.4.4 Mechanisms of action
  • 3.4.5 Effects on health
  • Conclusions
  • Authors’ contribution
  • References
  • Chapter 3.5 Nordihydroguaiaretic acid
  • 3.5.1 Chemistry
  • 3.5.2 Synthesis
  • 3.5.3 Legal status
  • 3.5.4 Mechanisms of action
  • 3.5.5 Effects on health
  • Conclusions
  • Authors’ contribution
  • References
  • Chapter 3.6 Octyl gallate
  • 3.6.1 Chemistry
  • 3.6.2 Synthesis
  • 3.6.3 Legal status
  • 3.6.4 Mechanisms of action
  • 3.6.5 Effects on health
  • Conclusions
  • Authors’ contribution
  • References
  • Chapter 3.7 Propyl gallate
  • 3.7.1 Chemistry
  • 3.7.2 Synthesis
  • 3.7.3 Legal status
  • 3.7.4 Mechanisms of action
  • 3.7.5 Effects on health
  • Conclusions
  • Authors’ contribution
  • References
  • Chapter 3.8 Tert-butylhydroquinone
  • 3.8.1 Chemistry
  • 3.8.2 Synthesis
  • 3.8.3 Legal status
  • 3.8.4 Mechanisms of action
  • 3.8.5 Effects on health
  • Conclusions
  • Authors’ contribution
  • References
  • Part 4 Natural occurring antioxidants: bright and the dark side
  • Chapter 4.1 Amino acid: Essential builiding blocks for Human body
  • 4.1.1 Introduction
  • 4.1.2 Sources
  • 4.1.3 Chemistry
  • 4.1.4 Bioavailability
  • 4.1.5 Mechanisms of action
  • 4.1.6 Pro-oxidant activity
  • 4.1.7 Beneficial and detrimental effects on health
  • 4.1.8 In-vitro evidence of amino acids
  • 4.1.9 Clinical studies
  • 4.1.10 Effect of antioxidants on the gastrointestinal tract
  • Conclusion
  • Abbreviations
  • References
  • Chapter 4.10 Lignans
  • 4.10.1 Background
  • 4.10.2 Sources of lignans
  • 4.10.3 Chemistry
  • 4.10.4 Bioavailability
  • 4.10.5 Antioxidant activity of (neo)lignans and mechanism of action
  • 4.10.6 Plausible pro-oxidant activity of lignans
  • 4.10.7 Beneficial effects of lignans on health
  • 4.10.8 In-vitro evidences of antioxidant activity of (neo)lignans
  • 4.10.9 Animal and clinical studies
  • 4.10.10 Concluding remarks
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 4.11 Organosulfur compounds (allyl sulfide, indoles)
  • 4.11.1 Introduction
  • 4.11.2 Sources, chemical structure, and bioavailability of organosulfur compounds
  • 4.11.3 Mechanisms of action
  • 4.11.4 Beneficial and detrimental effects on health
  • 4.11.5 Detrimental effects
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 4.12 Phenolic acids
  • 4.12.1 Introduction
  • 4.12.2 Antioxidant activity of phenolic acids
  • 4.12.3 Pro-oxidant activity of phenolic acids
  • 4.12.4 Bioavailability and metabolism of phenolic acids
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 4.13 Phytic acid: As a natural antioxidant
  • 4.13.1 Introduction
  • 4.13.2 Sources of phytic acid
  • 4.13.3 Mechanism of action of phytic acid as an antioxidant
  • 4.13.4 Possible pro-oxidant activity
  • 4.13.5 Role of phytic acid as antioxidant in health and disease
  • 4.13.6 In-vivo studies
  • 4.13.7 In-vitro studies
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 4.14 Protein hydrolysates
  • 4.14.1 Introduction
  • 4.14.2 Sources, chemistry, and bioavailability
  • 4.14.3 Mechanism of protein hydrolysates as antioxidants
  • 4.14.4 Degree of hydrolysis on protein hydrolysates activity
  • 4.14.5 Therapeutic action of protein hydrolysates
  • 4.14.6 In vitro test for the appraisal of antioxidant potential of protein hydrolysates
  • 4.14.7 An appraisal of protein hydrolysates activity in vivo
  • 4.14.8 An appraisal of protein hydrolysates activity in human trial
  • 4.14.9 Safety, regulation, and application
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 4.15 Selenium
  • 4.15.1 Introduction
  • 4.15.2 Selenium and its role as an antioxidant
  • 4.15.3 Evidence of beneficial effects of selenium from in-vitro and preclinical studies
  • 4.15.4 Evidence of beneficial effect of selenium from clinical studies
  • 4.15.5 Dark side of selenium: Adverse and toxic effects
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 4.16 Sterols: benificial or detrimental for human helath
  • 4.16.1 Sterols and their role as antioxidants
  • 4.16.2 Bright side of sterols
  • 4.16.3 Dark side of sterols: Adverse effects and toxicity
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 4.17 Tartaric acid
  • 4.17.1 Introduction
  • 4.17.2 Classification of natural antioxidants
  • 4.17.3 Source of tartaric acid
  • 4.17.4 Pharmacological activity of tartaric acid
  • 4.17.5 Toxicity studies of tartaric acid
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 4.18 Turmeric
  • 4.18.1 Introduction
  • 4.18.2 Etymology
  • 4.18.3 Systematics
  • 4.18.4 Distribution
  • 4.18.5 Botanical description
  • 4.18.6 Turmeric preparations
  • 4.18.7 Uses as dye
  • 4.18.8 Ethnobotany
  • 4.18.9 Turmeric metabolites
  • 4.18.10 Nutraceutical and medicinal uses
  • 4.18.11 Uses as antioxidant
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 4.19 Uric acid
  • 4.19.1 Introduction
  • 4.19.2 Uric acid as an antioxidant
  • 4.19.3 Risk factors associated with the high concentration of uric acid
  • 4.19.4 Experimental studies conducted to elucidate the risk of uric acid
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 4.2 Carnosine
  • 4.2.1 Introduction
  • 4.2.2 Possible pro-oxidant activity
  • 4.2.3 Beneficial effects of carnosine on health
  • 4.2.4 Application of carnosine
  • 4.2.5 Studies demonstrating antioxidative properties of carnosine
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 4.20 Vanillin
  • 4.20.1 Introduction
  • 4.20.2 In-vitro antioxidant activity of vanillin
  • 4.20.3 In-vivo antioxidant activity of vanillin
  • 4.20.4 Prooxidant activity of vanillin
  • 4.20.5 Vanillin formulations and their antioxidant activities
  • 4.20.6 Evaluation of vanillin in terms of human health
  • 4.20.7 Acute and repeated dose toxicity
  • 4.20.8 Bioavailability
  • 4.20.9 Clinical trials
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 4.21 Vitamin A
  • 4.21.1 Introduction
  • 4.21.2 Vitamin A: Its functions and chemistry
  • 4.21.3 Antioxidant effect of vitamin A
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 4.22 Vitamin C
  • 4.22.1 Introduction
  • 4.22.2 History
  • 4.22.3 Sources and daily allowance of vitamin C
  • 4.22.4 Chemical structure and biochemistry of vitamin C
  • 4.22.5 Biosynthesis of vitamin C in the plants and animals
  • 4.22.6 Beneficial effects of vitamin C on health
  • 4.22.7 Anticancer activity of ascorbic acid
  • 4.22.8 Antioxidant activity of vitamin C
  • 4.22.9 Detrimental effects of ascorbic acid on health
  • 4.22.10 Pro-oxidant activity of ascorbic acid
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 4.23 Vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols) (natural-occurring antioxidant; bright and dark side)
  • 4.23.1 Introduction
  • 4.23.2 Sources
  • 4.23.3 Chemistry
  • 4.23.4 Absorption and metabolism
  • 4.23.5 Bioavailability
  • 4.23.6 Mechanism of action
  • 4.23.7 Possible pro-oxidant activity
  • 4.23.8 Beneficial effects of vitamin E on health
  • 4.23.9 Side effects/unwanted of vitamin E
  • 4.23.10 In-vitro and in-vivo studies on vitamin E
  • 4.23.11 Clinical trial studies
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 4.24 Vitamin K
  • 4.24.1 Introduction
  • 4.24.2 General informations about vitamin K
  • 4.24.3 Cellular metabolism of vitamin K
  • 4.24.4 Vitamin K dependent proteins and their functions
  • 4.24.5 Reported in vivo, in vitro, and clinical effect of vitamin K in the mammalian system
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 4.25 Zinc
  • 4.25.1 Sources
  • 4.25.2 Chemistry
  • 4.25.3 Bioavailability of zinc
  • 4.25.4 Zinc as an antioxidant
  • 4.25.5 Beneficial and detrimental effects on health
  • 4.25.6 Zinc supplementation in humans
  • 4.25.7 In-vitro studies in human cells
  • 4.25.8 Animal studies and clinical studies
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 4.3 Carnosol
  • 4.3.1 Introduction
  • 4.3.2 Source and chemistry
  • 4.3.3 Bioavailability and toxicity
  • 4.3.4 Antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities
  • 4.3.5 Pharmacological effects and underlying mechanisms
  • 4.3.6 Clinical studies
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • Abbreviations
  • References
  • Chapter 4.4 Carotenoids (Xanthophylls and Carotenes)
  • 4.4.1 Carotenoids
  • 4.4.2 Chemical composition
  • 4.4.3 Sources of carotenoids
  • 4.4.4 Carotenoids accumulation and bioavailability
  • 4.4.5 Beneficial and detrimental effects of carotenoids on health
  • 4.4.6 Toxicity of carotenoids
  • 4.4.7 In-vitro evidence, animal studies, and clinical studies of carotenoids
  • Conclusion
  • Abbreviations
  • References
  • Chapter 4.5 Citric acid, antioxidant effects in health
  • 4.5.1 Introduction
  • 4.5.2 Chemistry
  • 4.5.3 Bioavailability
  • 4.5.4 Mechanisms of action
  • 4.5.5 Possible proxidant activity
  • 4.5.6 Safety profile or toxicity studies
  • 4.5.7 Beneficial and detrimental effects on health
  • 4.5.8 Animal studies and clinical studies
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 4.6 Antioxidant activity of coenzyme-Q; bright and dark side
  • 4.6.1 Introduction
  • 4.6.2 Animal studies
  • 4.6.3 Clinical studies
  • 4.6.4 Side effects
  • 4.6.5 Safety profile
  • Conclusion
  • Abbreviations
  • References
  • Chapter 4.7 Curcumin
  • 4.7.1 Introduction
  • 4.7.2 Antioxidant activities of curcumin
  • 4.7.3 Bioavailability of curcumin
  • 4.7.4 The pro-oxidant activity of curcumin
  • 4.7.5 Beneficial and detrimental effects of curcumin in human health
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 4.8 Flavonoids
  • 4.8.1 Introduction
  • 4.8.2 Chemistry
  • 4.8.3 Physical and chemical properties
  • 4.8.4 Bioavailability
  • 4.8.5 Stability
  • 4.8.6 Antioxidant activity of flavonoids
  • 4.8.7 Mechanisms of bioactivities in cell levels
  • 4.8.8 Pharmacology in animal studies
  • 4.8.9 Clinical studies
  • 4.8.10 Future perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 4.9 Lecithin
  • 4.9.1 Introduction
  • 4.9.2 Sources of lecithin
  • 4.9.3 Chemistry of lecithin
  • 4.9.4 Beneficial and detrimental effects on health
  • 4.9.5 The pro-oxidant activity
  • 4.9.6 In-vitro studies
  • 4.9.7 Animal studies
  • 4.9.8 Mechanism of action
  • 4.9.9 Clinical trials
  • 4.9.10 Bioavailability
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Part 5 Antioxidants and diseases: beneficial and detrimental effects
  • Chapter 5.1 Beneficial and detrimental effects of antioxidants in cancer
  • 5.1.1 Introduction
  • 5.1.2 Antioxidants in cancer development and treatment
  • 5.1.3 Antioxidant foods and cancer prevention
  • 5.1.4 Antioxidants; clinical trials in cancer prevention and treatment
  • 5.1.5 Common dietary antioxidants in cancer prevention
  • 5.1.6 Antioxidants for cancer management; cure or threat
  • 5.1.7 Antioxidants in combination therapy in combating cancer
  • Conclusion
  • Abbreviations
  • References
  • Chapter 5.10 Antioxidants and liver diseases
  • 5.10.1 Introduction
  • 5.10.2 Antioxidants in liver diseases
  • 5.10.3 Flavonoids
  • 5.10.4 Phenolic compounds
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 5.2 Antioxidants and cardiovascular diseases
  • 5.2.1 Introduction
  • 5.2.2 Oxidative stress and its role in cardiovascular disease: a brief idea
  • 5.2.3 Antioxidants and cardiovascular diseases
  • 5.2.4 Polyphenols
  • Conclusion
  • Abbreviations
  • References
  • Chapter 5.3 Antioxidants and cataracts/age-related macular degeneration
  • 5.3.1 Introduction
  • 5.3.2 Cataract, a global problem
  • 5.3.3 Pathophysiology of cataract
  • 5.3.4 Role of antioxidants in cataract
  • Conclusion
  • Abbreviations
  • References
  • Chapter 5.4 Antioxidants and cognitive decline in elderly
  • 5.4.1 Introduction
  • 5.4.2 Oxidative stress and brain aging
  • 5.4.3 Effects of antioxidants on cognitive decline
  • Conclusion
  • Abbreviations:
  • References
  • Chapter 5.5 Antioxidant and dentistry
  • 5.5.1 Introduction
  • 5.5.2 Enzymes as antioxidant
  • 5.5.3 Antioxidants and dental caries (antioxidants have a more preventive than a curative effect on following oral problems)
  • 5.5.4 Periodontology
  • 5.5.5 Clinical studies
  • 5.5.6 Oral submucous fibrosis
  • 5.5.7 Repeal of oral leukoplakia with antioxidants
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 5.6 Antioxidants and gastric lesions
  • 5.6.1 Introduction
  • 5.6.2 Antioxidant systems
  • 5.6.3 Gastric lesions
  • 5.6.4 Gastroprotective potential of natural antioxidants: in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies
  • 5.6.5 Clinical studies on phytochemicals and their effect on gastric lesions
  • 5.6.6 Gastroprotective potential from herbs and medicinal plants
  • 5.6.7 Antioxidants in gastric cancer
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 5.7 Antioxidants and immune functions
  • 5.7.1 Introduction
  • 5.7.2 Origin and role of ROS
  • 5.7.3 Oxidative stress and endogenous antioxidative systems
  • 5.7.4 Effect of antioxidants on cell-mediated immunity
  • 5.7.5 Effect of antioxidants on humoral immunity
  • 5.7.6 Effect of antioxidants on hypersensitivity and inflammation
  • 5.7.7 Effect of dietary or supplemented antioxidants on age-related tumor immunity
  • 5.7.8 Antioxidants shield immune cells from environmental damage
  • 5.7.9 Effects of exogenous or dietary antioxidants against ROS/RNS generated in an immune response
  • 5.7.10 Role of antioxidants in combating diseases
  • 5.7.11 Role of antioxidants on autoimmunity and oxidative stress
  • 5.7.12 Possibility of exerting harmful or no effects of antioxidants on immune system
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 5.8 Antioxidants and infertility
  • 5.8.1 Introduction
  • 5.8.2 Infertility
  • 5.8.3 Male infertility
  • 5.8.4 Female infertility
  • 5.8.5 Role of oxidative stress in male infertility
  • 5.8.6 Role of oxidative stress in female infertility
  • 5.8.7 Role of antioxidant in infertility
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 5.9 Antioxidants and kidney diseases
  • 5.9.1 Introduction
  • 5.9.2 Kidney diseases
  • 5.9.3 Natural antioxidants and kidney diseases
  • 5.9.4 Drugs or isolated natural antioxidant potential products in kidney diseases
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Part 6 Actual and future perspectives on antioxidants
  • Chapter 6.1 Antioxidants effects in health: The bright and the dark sides
  • 6.1.1 Introduction
  • 6.1.2 Oxidative stress: sources and the pathophysiology
  • 6.1.3 Antioxidants: sources and related mechanisms
  • 6.1.4 The interplay of antioxidants and pro-oxidants
  • 6.1.5 Resilience pathways
  • 6.1.6 The signaling pathways of antioxidants
  • 6.1.7 Antioxidant therapy: novel approaches
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 6.2 Food and food supplement antioxidants: Targets in human antioxidant system and effects on the production of endogenous antioxidants
  • 6.2.1 Briefly about healthy nutrition
  • 6.2.2 Dietary supplements
  • 6.2.3 Functional foods
  • 6.2.4 Why should antioxidant supplementation be considered?
  • 6.2.5 Some dietary antioxidants that affect endogenous antioxidant systems
  • 6.2.6 Antioxidants to fight diseases
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 6.3 Antioxidants effects in health: Concluding remarks and future perspectives
  • 6.3.1 Introduction
  • 6.3.2 Antioxidants versus ROS dichotomy
  • 6.3.3 Effectiveness of antioxidants
  • 6.3.4 Dietary sources of antioxidants
  • 6.3.5 Future perspectives
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 912
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2022
  • Published: June 16, 2022
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128190975
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128190968

About the Editors

Seyed Mohammad Nabavi

Seyed Mohammad Nabavi is biotechnologist and Senior Scientist of Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Science and member of Iran’s national elites foundation. His research focused on the health-promotion effects of natural products. He is author/co-author of 200 publications in international journal, 51 communications at national and international congress and eight chapters in book series. He is referee of several international journals.

Affiliations and Expertise

Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Iran

Ana Silva

Ana Sanches Silva is a researcher at the National Institute of Agrarian and Veterinary Research (INIAV, IP). She obtained a degree in Pharmacy from the University of Coimbra, Portugal, and received her European Ph.D. in Pharmacy from the University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain, with honors. In addition, she was awarded with the prize for best doctorate student. Ana Sanches-Silva has a remarkable track record (over 100 scientific contributions in peer-reviewed journals or book chapters). She has more than 300 communications in national and international conferences. Her research interests are focused on the evaluation of safety and composition of food and food packaging. Moreover, her special interest is the study of food bioactive compounds and dietary supplements, and development of analytical methodologies for the analysis of bioactive compounds in food.

Affiliations and Expertise

National Institute of Agrarian and Veterinary Research (INIAV, I.P.) and Center for Study in Animal Science (CECA), Porto, Portugal

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