Antimicrobial Drug Resistance  - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780121381202, 9780323144957

Antimicrobial Drug Resistance

1st Edition

Editors: L Bryan
eBook ISBN: 9780323144957
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 10th July 1984
Page Count: 594
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Description

Antimicrobial Drug Resistance presents information regarding the ability of organisms to resist natural and synthetically derived inhibitors. It presents the view of the authors who made significant contributions to the understanding of resistance. The book focuses on inhibitors classified as antifungal, antiviral, and antimalarial, as well as metal ions. It also covers numerous reactions, which have been genetically and biochemically analyzed in this context. Additionally, some chapters cover resistance plasmids of most of the clinically important bacteria.
The book is designed to aid those involved in microbiological and pharmaceutical research on antimicrobial agents, clinical infectious diseases and medical microbiology, teaching microbiology and pharmacology, pharmaceutical marketing, and infection control.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Foreword

Preface

1. Interaction of ß-Lactam Antibiotics with ß-Lactamases as a Cause for Resistance

I. Introduction

II. The ß-Lactamases

III. The Interaction

IV. Discussion

References

2. ß-Lactams Resistant to Hydrolysis by the ß-Lactamases

I. Introductory Remarks

II. ß -Lactams as Acylating Reagents

III. ß-Lactams Resistant to the ß-Lactamases

IV. Envoi

References

3. Nonenzymatic Resistance to ß-Lactam Antibiotics and Resistance to Other Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitors

I. Introduction

II. Mechanisms of Nonenzymatic Resistance to Inhibitors of Cell Wall Synthesis

III. Permeability

IV. Penicillin-Binding Proteins

V. Tolerance as a Mechanism of Antimicrobial Resistance to Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitors

VI. Resistance to Cell Wall Synthesis Inhibitors

Other than ß-Lactams

References

4. Intrinsic Resistance and Whole Cell Factors Contributing to Antibiotic Resistance

I. Introduction

II. Cellular Structures Contributing to Resistance

III. Antibiotics

IV. Conclusion

References

5. Resistance to Antibacterial Agents Acting on Cell Membranes

I. Introduction

II. Medical Usefulness of Membrane-Active Agents

III. Mode of Action of Membrane-Active Agents

IV. Mechanisms of Resistance

V. Methods for Overcoming Resistance

VI. Conclusions

References

6. Resistance to Antibacterial Agents Acting on Antifolate Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. Definitions

III. Sensitivity Testing of Antifolate Agents

IV. Sulfonamides

V. Trimethoprim

VI. Conclusions

VII. Antifolate Agents Other than Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim

References

7. Resistance to the Tetracyclines

I. Antimicrobial Activity of the Tetracyclines

II. Genetic Determinants of Resistance

III. Transport of the Tetracyclines into Susceptible Bacteria 204

IV. Regulation and Expression of Extrachromosomal Resistance

V. Cryptic, Amplifiable Chromosomal Genes for Tetracycline Resistance

VI. Factors Promoting Emergence of Resistant Strains in the Environment

VII. Future Approaches to the Tetracycline Resistance Problem

VIII. Conclusions

References

8. Aminoglycoside Resistance

I. Introduction

II. Genetics of Resistance

III. Target Resistance

IV. Accumulation-Deficient Aminoglycoside Resistance

V. Enzymatic Modification of Aminoglycosides

VI. The Circumvention of Resistance

References

9. Resistance to Macrolides and Lincomycins

I. Introduction

II. Chemical Structures of Macrolide Antibiotics and Their Antibacterial Activities

III. Epidemiology of Macrolide Antibiotic Resistance

IV. Elevation of Macrolide Antibiotic Resistance by Induction

V. Biochemical Mechanism of Macrolide Antibiotic Resistance

References

10. Resistance to Chloramphenicol and Fusidic Acid

I. Structure-Activity Relationships

II. Mechanism of Action

III. Definition of Resistance

IV. Genetic Basis of Resistance

V. Epidemiology of Resistance

VI. Fusidic Acid

References

11. Resistance to Nitrofurans and Nitroimidazoles

I. Introduction

II. Bacterial Drug Metabolism

III. Nitrofuran Resistance

IV. Nitroimidazole Resistance

References

12. Bacterial Metal Ion Resistances

I. Introduction

II. Resistance to Mercury Compounds

III. Resistance to Arsenic and Antimony

IV. Resistance to Cadmium

V. Other Metal Ion Resistances

VI. Summary

References

13. Resistance to Antiviral Agents

I. Introduction

II. Laboratory Evaluation of Antiviral Resistance

III. Adenine Arabinoside

IV. Acycloguanosine

V. Bromovinyldeoxyuridine

VI. Idoxuridine

VII. Trifluorothymidine

VIII. Trisodium Phosphonoformate

IX. Amantadine and Rimantadine

X. Summary

References

14. Resistance to Systemic Antifungal Agents

I. Introduction

II. Polyene Antibiotics, Particularly Amphotericin B

III. Imidazolyl Derivatives, Particularly Miconazole and Ketoconazole

IV. Flucytosine

V. Griseofulvin

References

15. Resistance to Antimalarial Agents

I. Introduction and History: Antimalarial Use and Resistance

II. Life Cycle and Mode of Drug Action

III. Resistance in Malaria

References

16. Plasmids of Enteric Bacteria

I. History

II. Conjugative and Nonconjugative Plasmids

III. Plasmid Classification

IV. Resistance Genes

V. Epidemiology of Enteric R-Plasmids

VI. Origin of Enteric R-Plasmids

References

17. Resistance Plasmids of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

I. Introduction

II. Plasmid Prevalence

III. Plasmid Classification

IV. Transfer Properties and Pili

V. Plasmid Host Range

VI. Plasmid-Determined Resistance

VII. Transposons

VIII. Conclusions

References

18. Resistance Plasmids of Haemophilus and Neisseria

I. Introduction

II. ß-Lactam Resistance Plasmids

III. Tetracycline-Chloramphenicol Resistance Plasmids

IV. Sulfonamide Resistance Plasmids

V. Aminoglycoside Resistance Plasmids

VI. Origin, Transfer, and Maintenance of Resistance Plasmids

References

19. Antibiotic Resistance Plasmids of Streptococci, Staphylococciy and Bacteroides

I. Introduction

II. Antibiotic Resistance in Streptococci

III. Antibiotic Resistance in Staphylococci

IV. Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteroides

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
594
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1984
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323144957

About the Editor

L Bryan