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Animal Feed Contamination - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781845697259, 9780857093615

Animal Feed Contamination

1st Edition

Effects on Livestock and Food Safety

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Editor: J Fink-Gremmels
Hardcover ISBN: 9781845697259
eBook ISBN: 9780857093615
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 11th June 2012
Page Count: 704
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Table of Contents

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Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition


Chapter 1: Introduction to animal feed contamination


1.1 Animal feed production

1.2 Feed safety

1.3 Risk management and communication

1.4 Future trends

Chapter 2: Animal feeds, feeding practices and opportunities for feed contamination: an introduction


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Feeds and feeding practices

2.3 Feeding systems

2.4 Feed contamination opportunities

2.5 Rapid alert to feed and food contamination threats

2.6 Future trends

2.7 Sources of further information and advice

Part I: Contamination by microorganisms and animal by-products

Chapter 3: The ecology and control of bacterial pathogens in animal feed


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Foodborne pathogen contamination in animal feeds and ingredients

3.3 Detection of pathogens in feeds

3.4 Persistence of Salmonella in feed

3.5 Sampling plans to control pathogens in feed

3.6 Reduction and/or elimination of feedborne pathogens

3.7 Conclusions

Chapter 4: Detection and enumeration of microbiological hazards in animal feed1


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Microbiological analysis overview

4.3 Role and application of culture methods for the detection and enumeration of microbiological hazards

4.4 Role and application of molecular methods for the detection and enumeration of microbiological hazards

4.5 Role and application of emerging technologies for the detection and enumeration of microbiological hazards

4.6 Future trends

Chapter 5: Assessment of the microbiological risks in feedingstuffs for food-producing animals


5.1 Introduction

5.2 Hazard identification

5.3 Exposure assessment

5.4 Considerations on sampling and detection methods for Salmonella in feed

5.5 Assessment of the contribution of feed as a source of Salmonella infections in animals and humans

5.6 Considerations on the possible establishment of microbiological criteria for Salmonella in feed

5.7 Acknowledgements

Chapter 6: Detection and identification of animal by-products in animal feed for the control of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Legislative framework and requirements

6.3 Future legislative trends in the EU

6.4 Detection and identification of processed animal proteins

6.5 Detection and quantification of glyceroltriheptanoate (GTH)

6.6 Future analytical methods

6.7 Conclusion

6.8 Sources of further information and advice

Part II: Contamination by persistent organic pollutants and toxic metals

Chapter 7: Hazardous chemicals as animal feed contaminants and methods for their detection


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Hazardous chemicals

7.3 Legislation

7.4 Future trends

7.5 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 8: Animal feed contamination by dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brominated flame retardants


8.1 Introduction

8.2 Dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs)

8.3 Exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs)

8.4 Carry-over of dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in food-producing animals

8.5 Brominated flame retardants

8.7 Appendix: abbreviations

Chapter 9: Animal feed contamination by toxic metals


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Routes of toxic metal contamination of animal feed

9.3 Animal health risk

9.4 Carry-over into food and human health risks

9.5 Brief review of detection methods

9.6 Prevention of toxic metal contamination

9.7 Regulatory controls

9.8 Future trends

Chapter 10: Aquaculture feed contamination by persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals, additives and drug residues


10.1 Introduction

10.2 Persistent organic pollutants

10.3 Heavy metals

10.4 Feed additives

10.5 Drug residues

10.6 Future trends

10.7 Sources of further information and advice

Part III: Natural toxins in animal feed

Chapter 11: Mycotoxin contamination of animal feed


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Routes of mycotoxin contamination: raw feed materials

11.3 Routes of mycotoxin contamination: mixed feeds and concentrates

11.4 Animal health risks

11.5 Carry-over into food

11.6 Detection methods

11.7 Methods for the prevention of mycotoxin

11.8 Regulatory control

11.9 Future trends

Chapter 12: Detection and determination of natural toxins (mycotoxins and plant toxins) in feed


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Detection and determination of mycotoxins

12.3 Detection and determination of plant toxins

Chapter 13: Prevention and control of animal feed contamination by mycotoxins and reduction of their adverse effects in livestock


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Methods for decontaminating feedstuffs: strategies to prevent mycotoxin contamination pre- and post-harvest

13.3 Feed additives to prevent mycotoxin absorption from the gastrointestinal tract

13.4 Effects of nutritional supplementation on mycotoxicoses

13.5 Conclusions and implications

13.6 Future trends

Chapter 14: Dietary exposure of livestock and humans to hepatotoxic natural products


14.1 Introduction

14.2 The liver and hepatotoxicity

14.3 Types of adverse effect on the liver

14.4 Causative agents of hepatotoxicity

14.5 The hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids

14.6 Conclusions and future trends

Part IV: Veterinary medicinal products in feeds

Chapter 15: Feed additives and veterinary drugs as contaminants in animal feed – the problem of cross-contamination during feed production


15.1 Introduction

15.2 Regulatory provisions

15.3 Cross-contamination at feed mills

15.4 On-farm cross-contamination

15.5 Transfer of residues to food

15.6 Recent developments in analytical methods

15.7 Future trends

15.8 Acknowledgements

Chapter 16: Antimicrobials in animal feed: benefits and limitations


16.1 Introduction: limitations

16.2 Benefits of antibiotic usage

16.3 Antimicrobials in feed to prevent diseases

16.4 Development of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria

16.5 Antibiotics and poultry gut health

16.6 Future trends

16.7 Acknowledgments

Chapter 17: Alternatives to antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) in animal feed1


17.1 Introduction

17.2 Chronology of the ban on antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) in Europe

17.3 Main consequences of the ban on antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) in Europe

17.4 Mode of action of antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) in animal production and possible alternatives

17.5 Traditional therapeutic approaches as an alternative to antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs)

17.6 Novel nutritional strategies and feed additives

17.7 Conclusions

Chapter 18: Chemical risk assessment of animal feed


18.1 Introduction

18.2 Risk assessment of feed additives and contaminants

18.3 Future trends

18.4 Acknowledgements

Part V: Risks from emerging technologies

Chapter 19: Safety of genetically modified (GM) crop ingredients in animal feed


19.1 Introduction

19.2 Regulatory context for genetically modified (GM) crops to be used in feed

19.3 Regulatory safety assessment

19.4 Labelling, traceability and detection of genetically modified (GM) feed ingredients

19.5 Conclusions

19.7 Appendix: list of abbreviations

Chapter 20: Detection of genetically modified (GM) crops for control of animal feed integrity


20.1 Introduction

20.2 Detection of genetically modified (GM) plants

20.3 Protein-based detection of biotech crops

20.4 DNA-based detection of biotech crops

20.5 Conclusion

Chapter 21: Potential contamination issues arising from the use of biofuel and food industry by-products in animal feed


21.1 Introduction

21.2 Potential contamination issues arising from the use of biofuel by-products in animal feed

21.3 Potential contamination issues arising from the use of food industry by-products in animal feed

21.4 The impacts on animal and human health

21.5 Legislation and regulatory control

21.6 Future trends

21.7 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 22: Nanoscale feed ingredients and animal and human health


22.1 Introduction

22.2 Definition of a nanoscale material

22.3 Origin of nanomaterials in animal feed

22.4 Potential health and safety issues

22.5 How to differentiate between nanomaterials and organic chemicals during detection

22.6 Regulatory status

22.7 Future trends

22.8 Sources of further information and advice

Part VI: Feed safety and quality management

Chapter 23: Animal feed sampling for contaminant analysis


23.1 Introduction

23.2 Methods of sample selection

23.3 Designing sampling plans

23.4 Estimation of sampling uncertainty

23.5 Future trends

Chapter 24: Ensuring the safe supply of animal-derived ingredients for animal feed


24.1 Introduction

24.2 The animal livestock industry and the origin of animal by-products (ABP)

24.3 Rendering process evaluation

24.4 The TSE/BSE crisis and its implications

24.5 Processing of animal by-products

24.6 Risk identification and management in animal feeds

24.7 Future trends

24.9 Appendix: glossary of terms

Chapter 25: Management of animal feed safety in the USA


25.1 Introduction

25.2 Specific feed safety programs

25.3 The US Animal Feed Safety System (AFSS)

25.6 Conclusion

Chapter 26: The GMP+ Feed Safety Assurance (FSA) Scheme


26.1 Introduction

26.2 Development of GMP+ feed safety policy since 1992

26.3 Structure and content of the GMP+ Feed Safety Assurance (FSA) Scheme

26.4 Participation in the GMP+ Feed Safety Assurance (FSA) Scheme

26.5 Additional support of companies

26.6 Feed safety culture

26.7 Future trends

26.8 Acknowledgements



The production of animal feed increasingly relies on the global acquisition of feed material, increasing the risk of chemical and microbiological contaminants being transferred into food-producing animals. Animal feed contamination provides a comprehensive overview of recent research into animal feed contaminants and their negative effects on both animal and human health.

Part one focuses on the contamination of feeds and fodder by microorganisms and animal by-products. Analysis of contamination by persistent organic pollutants and toxic metals follows in part two, before the problem of natural toxins is considered in part three. Veterinary medicinal products as contaminants are explored in part four, along with a discussion of the use of antimicrobials in animal feed. Part five goes on to highlight the risk from emerging technologies. Finally, part six explores feed safety and quality management by considering the safe supply and management of animal feed, the process of sampling for contaminant analysis, and the GMP+ feed safety assurance scheme.

With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Animal feed contamination is an indispensable reference work for all those responsible for food safety control in the food and feed industries, as well as a key source for researchers in this area.

Key Features

  • Provides a comprehensive review of research into animal feed contaminants and their negative effects on both animal and human health
  • Examines the contamination of feeds and fodder by microorganisms and animal by-products
  • Analyses contamination by persistant organic pollutants, toxic metals and natural toxins


Practitioners & academics involved in veterinary science & agriculture; Food manufacturers; Food safety specialists.


No. of pages:
© Woodhead Publishing 2012
11th June 2012
Woodhead Publishing
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:


This book is a comprehensive overview of the issues around animal feed., Australian Dairy Foods
With this handbook the editor and contributors fill gaps for all those working in the fields of feed and food safety and students in the fields of veterinary medicine and animal sciences, as well as feed and food sciences., Animal Feed Science and Technology
This book is highly recommended to all those interested in feed and food safety., Animal Feed Science and Technology

Ratings and Reviews

About the Editor

J Fink-Gremmels

Johanna Fink-Gremmels is Professor in the Veterinary Faculty of Utrecht University and works within the Institute of Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS). She is also the current President of the European Association for Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology (EAVPT) and a longstanding member of the CONTAM Panel of the European Food Safety Authority. Her work on animal health risk assessment following exposure to contaminants and natural toxins has gained international recognition, resulting in many academic distinctions.

Affiliations and Expertise

Utrecht University, The Netherlands