Analytical Methods for Coal and Coal Products - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123999030, 9781483273174

Analytical Methods for Coal and Coal Products

1st Edition

Volume III

Editors: Clarence Karr
eBook ISBN: 9781483273174
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1979
Page Count: 660
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Analytical Methods for Coal and Coal Products, Volume III, is the third of a three-volume treatise that aims to provide a detailed presentation of what constitutes the first comprehensive reference work devoted exclusively to the subject of analytical methodology for coal and coal products. The three volumes have been divided into a total of twelve parts, each part containing several chapters devoted to a particular subject. The present volume deals with gases, waste products, by-products, environmental problems, and miscellaneous analytical problems, as well as special instrumental techniques for solving various problems. Because different aspects of a particular subject are frequently scattered through various chapters in the volumes, cross-references between chapters have been entered. In addition, the subject indexes have been made as detailed as was practical, and the reader will benefit from examination of pertinent subjects in the indexes of all three volumes. A careful reading of these volumes will show that definitive solutions are not yet available in a number of instances. There is a clear need for continued research on the fundamentals of analysis of coal and coal products, and the development of reliable and accurate analytical instrumentation, including on-stream applications.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Contents of Volumes I and II

Part IX Analysis of Gases

Chapter 38 Coke Oven Gas Analysis

I. Introduction

II. Coke Oven Gas Flow Diagram

III. Determining End of Coking Cycle by Gas Analysis

IV. Ammonia

V. Naphthalene

VI. Aromatics

VII. H2S and HCN


Chapter 39 Characterization of Recovered Volatiles from a High Methane Coal and the Significance of These Findings

I. Introduction

II. Experimental

III. Data Processing

IV. Discussion of Results

V. Summary


Chapter 40 Characterization of Coals Using Laser Pyrolysis—Gas Chromatography

I. Introduction

II. Thermal Treatment and Laser Interactions with Coals

III. Control of Laser Thermal Pyrolysis

IV. Laser Pyrolysis Methodology

V. Laser Pyrolysis of Coal

VI. Plasma Stoichiometric Analysis on Coal Samples

VII. Laser Pyrolysis of Coals in Reactive Atmospheres

VIII. Status of Laser Pyrolysis and Areas for Future Work


Chapter 41 Product Stream Analysis from an Underground Coal Gasification Test

I. Introduction

II. Coal Tar and Water Determination

III. Major Gas Component Analysis

IV. Remote Sampling of Gas Components

V. Manual Monitoring Techniques

VI. Conclusion


Part X Waste Product Streams and Environmental Problems

Chapter 42 Analysis of Mineral Matter in Coal, Coal Gasification Ash, and Coal Liquefaction Residues by Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Diffraction

I. Introduction

II. Scanning Electron Microscopy in the Analysis of Coal Conversion Wastes

III. X-Ray Diffraction in the Analysis of Coal and Coal Conversion Wastes


Chapter 43 Analyses of Coke Oven Effluents for Polynuclear Aromatic Compounds

I. Introduction

II. Techniques of Collection of Air Samples

III. Techniques of Analysis

IV. Measured Levels of Polynuclear Aromatic Compounds


Chapter 44 The Production, Management, and Chemistry of Coal Gasification Wastewaters

I. Introduction

II. Process Water Balances

III. Satisfying Process Water Balances

IV. Strategies for Characterization of Coal Gasification Pilot Plant Wastewater Effluents

V. Quench Water Composition and Chemistry

VI. Summary and Conclusions


Chapter 45 Environmental Characterization of Products and Effluents from Coal Conversion Processes

I. Introduction

II. Sampling Methods

III. Analytical Methods

IV. Applications

V. Conclusions


Part XI Special Instrumental Techniques for Analysis of Coal and Its Products

Chapter 46 Instrumental Activation Analysis of Coal and Coal Ash with Thermal and Epithermal Neutrons

I. Introduction

II. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

III. Activation with Epithermal Neutrons

IV. Experimental Procedures

V. Comparison of Results Obtained by Thermal and Epithermal Activation

VI. Conclusion


Chapter 47 Fast-Neutron Activation Analysis for Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Silicon in Coal, Coal Ash, and Related Products

I. Introduction

II. Instrumentation

III. Methods

IV. Discussion and Conclusions


Chapter 48 Electron Probe Micro-analyzer in Coal Research

I. History

II. Electron Probe Microanalysis

III. Applications

IV. Conclusion


Chapter 49 X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis of Trace Elements in Coal and Solvent Refined Coal

I. Introduction

II. Analytical Procedures

III. Results and Discussion

IV. Conclusion


Chapter 50 Mossbauer Analysis of Iron-Bearing Phases in Coal, Coke, and Ash

I. Introduction 372

II. Mossbauer Spectroscopy

III. Mossbauer Analysis of Iron-Bearing Minerals in Coal

IV. Geological and Environmental Information from Mossbauer Data

V. Quantitative Determination of Pyritic Sulfur in Coal by Mossbauer Spectroscopy

VI. Mossbauer Studies of Coke

VII. Mossbauer Studies of Ash

VIII. Other Applications of Mossbauer Spectroscopy

IX. Conclusions and Possible Future Directions

Appendix: Summary of Iron Distribution between Minerals for Some United States Coal Seams


Chapter 51 Fingerprinting Solid Coals Using Pulse and Multiple Pulse Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

I. Introduction

II. Proton NMR

III. Carbon NMR

IV. The Future


Chapter 52 Differential Thermal Analysis of Coal Minerals

I. Introduction

II. Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA)

III. Characteristic DTA Curves of Minerals Found in Coal

IV. Differential Thermal Analysis of Coal

V. Differential Thermal Analysis of Coal/Mineral Mixtures

VI. Mineral Component Interaction and Peak Superposition

VII. Additional Aspects of Sample Preparation and Pretreatment

VIII. Conclusions


Part XII By-product Utilization and Miscellaneous Problems

Chapter 53 Prediction of Ash Melting Behavior from Coal Ash Composition

I. Introduction

II. Melting and Softening Behavior

III. Acids and Bases

IV. Ionic Potential

V. The Behavior of Iron

VI. Correlation Indicating Base Behavior

VII. Conceptual Structural Consideration

VIII. Summary


Chapter 54 Size Dependence of the Physical and Chemical Properties of Coal Fly Ash

I. Introduction

II. Morphology and Formation of Coal Fly Ash

III. Physical Properties of Coal Fly Ash: Particle Size Dependence

IV. Elemental Composition of Coal Fly Ash: Particle Size Dependence

V. Matrix and Surface Composition of Coal Fly Ash


Chapter 55 Problems of Oxygen Stoichiometry in Analyses of Coal and Related Materials

I. Introduction

II. Oxygen and Analysis of Coal

III. Oxygen in Coal Related Materials


Chapter 56 Sulfur Groups in Coal and Their Determinations

I. Introduction

II. Sample Preparation for Sulfur Analysis

III. Recommendations Relevant to Sample Preparation

IV. Sulfur in Coal Derived Materials (CDM)

V. Analysis of Sulfur in Coal and Solid Coal-Derived Materials

VI. Distribution of the Organic Sulfur Functional Groups

VII. Determination of the Distribution of Organic Sulfur Functional Groups Using Kinetograms




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© Academic Press 1979
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Clarence Karr

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